Advent of Democracy: Accion Democratica (A. D.) Romulo Betancourt 1945-1947, 1959-1964 Dependence on oil revenue


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Venezuela- Review

  • Dominated by dictators in early 20th century (Worst example: Marcos Perez Jimenez 1952-1958)

  • Advent of Democracy: Accion Democratica (A.D.) Romulo Betancourt 1945-1947, 1959-1964

  • Dependence on oil revenue

  • Current President: Hugo Chavez- at odds with U.S.


Colombia- Review

  • General Respect for Democratic principles (Liberal/Conservative Parties)

  • Assassination of Leftist Liberal Jorge E. Gaitan in 1948 leads to…

  • “La Violencia” 1948-1966

  • Rojas Pinilla dictatorship 1953-1957

  • 1958 return to democracy

  • Corruptive influence of drug cartels (demand in U.S.)

  • Heavy current U.S. aid to fight drugs



Ecuador- Review

  • 25% Indian

  • Ecuador has lost over ½ of national territory since independence

  • Personalismo: Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra president 5 times: 1934-1935, 1944-1947, 1952-1956, 1960-1961, 1968-1972

  • Democracy: Galo Plaza 1948-1952

  • Military Rule: 1963-1968, 1972-1978

  • 1979 Return to democracy

  • Recent oil prosperity

  • Politics still volatile



Peru- Review

  • 45% Indian

  • Early 20th century dictatorship: Augusto P. Leguia 1908-1912, 1919-1930

  • Left wing thought: Mariategui, Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, A.P.R.A.

  • Left Wing military dictatorship: Juan Velasco Alvardo 1968-1975, continued by General Morales 1975-1980

  • 1980 Return to democracy

  • 1985-1990 Alan Garcia- A.P.R.A. finally in presidency- repudiates foreign loans- economic disaster

  • Alberto Fujimori 1990-2000 uses dictatorial means- Sendero Luminosa defeated

  • Current President: Alejandro Toledo- full blooded Indian



Bolivia- Review

  • Indian majority 55%+

  • Most volatile Latin American country= 200+ regime changes

  • Always trying to make up for loss of access to the sea due to the War of the Pacific

  • Chaco War with Paraguay 1932-1935 (Bolivia loses)

  • “Tin Barons”

  • Left wing reforms: M.N.R.- Victor Paz Estenssoro 1952-1956, 1985-1989

  • Current democracy still chaotic- Indian majority asserting itself on issue of oil pipeline



Chile- Review

  • Chile winner in War of the Pacific (late 19th century)

  • Mineral Wealth

  • Personalismo: Arturo Alessandri Palma, “The Lion of Taracapa” 1920-1924, 1932-1938

  • 1970 Election- Salvador Allende (non-communist Marxist) elected president on his 3rd try with 36.3% of the vote (2 other major candidates)

  • Allende nationalizes U.S. copper and other companies

  • CIA works actively to undermine Allende (Nixon and Kissinger)

  • Augusto Pinochet 1973-1990- brutal military dictatorship

  • 1990 return democracy

  • Chilean economy prosperous



Argentina- Review 1

  • Argentine economy #10 in the world in 1900

  • Encouraged immigration, especially from Italy, Western Europe

  • Hipolito Irigoyen “The Armadillo”- Radical Party- middle class, immigrants, 1916-1922, 1928-1930

  • Juan Peron 1946-1955, Military coup, Peron controls G.O.U., Rises to power with support of labor, “descamisados”

  • Influence of Eva Peron (“Evita”)- “Godmother of the poor”



Argentina- Review 2

  • Juan Peron falls shortly after death of Eva- Argentine economy ruined, military takes over in 1955

  • Peron comes back as President 1973, dies 1974

  • Peron’s 3rd wife Isabel (“Isabelita”) V.P. becomes president in 1974, ousted by military 1976- “Isabelita” is no “Evita”

  • Brutal military rule 1976-1983

  • Army discredited by loss in the Fauklands (Malivinas) War 1982

  • Democracy returns 1983

  • Foreign Debt problems

  • Nester Kircher- current president- leftist ally of “Lula” in Brazil and (in a sense) Hugo Chavez in Venezuela rejects IMF rules, seeks independent (from U.S.) f. policy



Uruguay- Review

  • Early 20th Century defined by ideas of Jose Batlle y Ordonez 1903-1907, 1911-1915- Colorado (Liberal Party)

  • “Swiss System”, Welfare State, Socialism

  • Other major party is Blanco (Conservative) Party

  • Military which had previously stayed out of politics, takes over 1972-1985, excuse is threat of left wing urban guerilla movement- the Tupamaros- but military overstays that crisis

  • Democracy since 1989



Paraguay- Review

  • Latin American country in which Indian most integrated into national life 95% mestizo- bi-lingual population- Spanish/Guarani co-official languages

  • Isolated and dictator dominated in 19th century

  • Loses War of Triple Alliance 1864-1870 (vs. Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay)- Population reduced from 525,000 to 221,000 (only 28,000 men left!)

  • Beats Bolivia in Chaco War 1932-1935

  • Gen. Alfredo Sroessner dictatorship 1954-1989

  • Democracy since 1989



Brazil to 1930- Review

  • Over ½ land mass of South America

  • Portuguese Speaking

  • Empire 1822-1889

  • First Republic 1889-1930

  • Struggle for control between military and civilians

  • Ruy Barbosa founds Civilista party but army rigs elections will not let Barbosa win

  • 1910 Brazil produces 90% of world’s rubber by 1921 10%- British plantation rubber wins out

  • Coffee increasingly important 75% of world supply by 1900

  • Low price for coffee hurts Brazil during the Depression

  • 1924 Communist Party emerges under Luis Carlos Prestes- “the Prestes Column”

  • Dictatorship of Getulio Vargas 1930-1945

  • Present Brazilian president “Lula” one of three current “leftist” presidents (along with Kirchner in Argentina and Chavez in Venezuela)



Argentina- 6

  • Dr. Arturo Frondizi 1963-1966

  • Gen. Juan Carlos Ongania 1966-1969

  • Gen. Alejandro Lanusse 1969-1973

  • “The Great National Accord”

  • Lopez Rega



Argentina

  • “Noventa” 1890

  • La Union Civica de la Juventud

  • Leandro N. Alem

  • Estancieros

  • Union Civica Radical

  • Juarez Celman

  • Carlos Pellegrini 1890-1892



Argentina- 2

  • Juan B. Justo

  • Lisandro de la Torre

  • Radical Party

  • Democratic Progressive Party

  • Luis Maria Drago “The Drago Doctrine”

  • Manuel Quintana 1904-1906



Argentina- 3

  • Marcelo T. Alverar 1922-1928

  • “Personalistas”

  • “Anti- personalistas”

  • Jose F. Uriburu 1930-1932

  • Ezequiel Paz

  • Augustin P. Justo 1932-1938



Argentina- 4

  • “Hispanidad”

  • Accion Argentina

  • La Junta de la Victoria

  • Bishop Miguel de Andrea

  • Rio Conference 1942

  • Juan Peron 1944-1955, 1973-1974



Argentina- 5

  • Cordell Hull

  • Edelmiro Farrell 1944-1946

  • G.O.U. (Grupo de Oficiales Unidos)

  • Maria Eva Duarte (“Evita” Peron)

  • Descamisados

  • Nestor Kirchner



Uruguay

  • Jose Batlle y Ordonez 1903-1907, 1911-1915

  • Colorado (Liberal) Party

  • Blanco (Conservative) Party

  • “Colegiado”

  • Gabriel Terra 1930-1938



Paraguay

  • War of the Triple Alliance 1864-1870

  • Chaco War 1932-1935

  • Alfredo Stroessner 1954-1989

  • Carlos Rodriguez 1989



Brazil

  • Empire 1822-1889

  • First Republic 1889-1930

  • Deodoro da Foseca 1889-1893

  • Floriano Peixoto 1893-1894

  • Ruy Barbosa

  • Prudente Jose de Moraes Barros 1894-1898



Brazil-2

  • Arthur da Silva Bernardes 1922-1926

  • Luis Carlos Prestes

  • (Prestes Column)

  • Washington Luiz Pereira da Souza 1926-1930

  • Getulio Vargas 1930-1945, 1950-1954

  • Labor Party



Brazil

  • Social Democratic Party

  • Eurico Dutra

  • “Queremos Getulio”

  • Adolpf Berle

  • Benjamin Vargas “O Beijo”

  • 2nd Republic 1945-1964



Brazil

  • Janio Quadros 1961 “a new broom”

  • Joao “Jango” Goulart 1961-1964

  • Military Rule 1964-1985

  • Present President: Ignacio Lula da Silva “Lula”



Ecuador

  • Gabriel Garcia Moreno “The Theocratic State” 1860-1895

  • Eloy Alfaro 1895-1901, 1906-1911

  • Carlos Arroyo del Rio 1940-1944

  • Galapagos Islands

  • Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra 1934-1935, 1944-1947, 1952-1956, 1960-1961, 1968-1972 “Personalismo”



Peru

  • Augusto P. Leguia 1908-1912, 1919-1930

  • Manuel Gonzalez Prada (lived 1848-1918)

  • Jose Mariategui, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality

  • Victor Raul Haya de la Torre



Peru- 2

  • Manuel Odria 1948-1956

  • Fernando Belaunde Terry 1963-1968, 1980-1985

  • Juan Velasco Alvarado 1968-1968-1975

  • Francisco Morales Bermudez 1968-1975



Bolivia

  • Chaco War 1932-1935

  • “Tin Barons” (Patino, Hochschild, Aramayo)

  • David Toro 1936-1937

  • German Busch 1937-1938

  • Enrique Penaranda 1940-1943

  • Catavi Massacre 1942

  • M.N.R. (Movimiento Revolucionaria Nacional)



Bolivia- 2

  • Hugo Banzer 1971-1978

  • Luis Garcia Meza 1980-1982

  • Klaus Barbie



Chile

  • Juan Luis Sanfuentes 1915-1920

  • Arturo Alessandri Palma “The Lion of Tarapaca” 1920-1924, 1925, 1932-1938

  • Carlos Ibanez 1925-1931

  • Marmaduke Grove



Chile- 2

  • F.R.A.P. (Frente de Accion Popular), U.P. (Unidad Popular)

  • Salvador Allende 1970-1973

  • Eduardo Frei 1964-1970

  • Radomiro Tomic

  • 1970 Election:

  • Allende 36.3%

  • Allesandri 34.9%

  • Tomic 27.8%



SOUTH AMERICA

  • VENEZUELA:

  • Cipriano Castro 1899-1908

  • Juan Vicente Gomez 1908-1935

  • Eleazar Lopez Contreras 1935-1940

  • Isaias Medina Angarita 1940-1945

  • Accion Democratica (AD.)



Venezuela 2

  • Rafael Caldera 1969-1974, 1994-2000

  • Carlos Andres Perez 1974-1979, 1989-1994

  • Luis Herrera Campins

  • 1979-1984

  • Jaime Lusinchi 1984-1989



Colombia

  • Rafael Reyes 1904-1909

  • Enrique Olaya Herrera 1930-1934

  • Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo 1934-1938, 1942-1945

  • Alberto Lleras Camargo 1945-1946

  • Mariano Ospina Perez 1946-1950



Colombia 2

  • Belisario Betancur 1982-1986

  • Union Patriotica 1986

  • Virgilio Barco 1986-1990

  • Cesar Gaviria Trujillo 1990-1994

  • Ernesto Samper Pizano 1994-1998

  • Andres Pastrana Arango 1998-2002



Central America

  • Guatemala:

  • Manuel Estrada Cabrera 1898-1920

  • United Fruit Company

  • Jorge Ubico 1931-1944

  • Juan Jose Arevalo 1945-1950

  • Jacobo Arbenz 1950-1954

  • Agrarian Law of 1952



Honduras:

  • Tiburcio Carias Andino 1932-1948

  • Manuel Galvez 1948-1954

  • Dr. Ramon Villeda Morales 1957-1963

  • Osvaldo Lopez Arellan 1964-1968

  • The “Soccer War” 1969



El Salvador

  • The “14 Families”

  • Personalismo

  • Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez 1932-1944

  • Augustin Farabundo Marti

  • F.M.L.N.

  • P.R.U.D. 1948

  • Christian Democratic Party



Nicaragua

  • Jose Santos Zelayas 1893-1909

  • Thomas G. Dawson

  • Adolfo Diaz

  • “Dollar Imperialism”

  • Bryan-Chamorro Treaty 1916

  • Juan B. Sacasa

  • Augusto Cesar Sandino



Nicaragua- 2

  • Rene Gutierrez Schick 1963

  • “Sandinistas”

  • La Prensa Pedro Jaoquin Chamorro

  • “Contras”

  • Oliver North

  • Daniel Ortega 1985-1990



Costa Rica

  • Frederico A. Tinoco 1917

  • Rafeal Angel Calderon Guardia

  • Otilio Ulate

  • Jose “Pepe” Figueras 1953-1958

  • P.L.N. 1952

  • O.A.S (Organization of American States)



Panama

  • Theodore Roosevelt

  • Hay-Pouncefote Treaty

  • Hay-Herran Treaty

  • Phillipe Baneau-Varilla

  • Hay-Baneau Varilla Treaty

  • Arnulfo Arias 1940-1968



The Caribbean

  • Haiti:

  • Creole

  • Vodun (Voodoo)

  • William Jennings Bryan

  • Roger L. Farnham

  • Jean Villaban Guillaume Sam

  • Dr. Rosolvo Bobo

  • Phillipe Sudre Dartiguenave



Haiti

  • Union Patriotique

  • Stenio Vicent 1930-1941

  • Negritude

  • Mulatto

  • Elie Lescot 1941-1946

  • Dumarsias Estime 1946-1950

  • Col. Paul Magliore 1950-1956



Dominican Republic

  • Personalismo

  • “Roosevelt Corollary”

  • Fabio Fiallo

  • Sumner Wells

  • Horacio Vasquez 1924-1930

  • Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina 1930-1961



Cuba

  • Platt Amendment 1902

  • Tomas Estrada Palma 1902-1906

  • Charles Magoon 1906-1909

  • Jose Miguel Gomez 1909

  • Gerardo Machado 1925-1933

  • Porristas

  • A.B.C

  • Sumner Wells

  • Carlos Manuel de Cespedes






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