Air Quality in Beijing, China; Analysis of Tom Cahill, uc davis


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Air Quality in Beijing, China; Analysis of Tom Cahill, UC Davis (Before and during the Olympics )

  • NASA MODIS real color images, NOAA HYSPLIT trajectories, local weather, BBC noon PM10 (until 8/25), Chaoyang 24 hr PM10, July - August, 2008;

  • Google Earth at approximately the same scale

  • The UC Davis DELTA* Group, http://delta.ucdavis.edu

  • tacahill@ucdavis.edu

  • *Detection and Evaluation of Long-range Transport of Aerosols

  • Note: I posted an incomplete weather/PM10 caption to the MODIS photos August 12, covering August 9 - 11. If you downloaded, please replace with the current corrected data.


Coal deposits in China, sites of most of the coal fired power plants





Summary: July, 2008; in about ½ of all days, winds were from south of Beijing with the highest pollution level; average = 202.2 g/m3 (max = 351 g/m3)

  • Trajectories from Mongolia, relatively high wind velocities – avg 23.0 g/m3 4 days

  • Mongolia plus slow SW loop – 69.0 g/m3 1 day

  • Trajectories south of Beijing, relatively low wind velocities – avg 202.2 g/m3 12 days

  • Trajectories south and east of Beijing, relatively low wind velocities – avg 96.7 g/m3 4 days

  • Trajectory SW of Beijing – 105.0 g/m3 1 day

  • Trajectory NE of Beijing – fast wind velocities

  • 32.0 g/m3 1 day





Since my goal is to explain daytime visibility, I choose the BBC noon readings, usually at minimum RH, so as to avoid nighttime fogs and accelerated particle removal. These ended on August 26. The Chaoyang readings at the stadium are 24 hr. Other readings throughout Beijing are similar to Chaoyang, at the stadium, affirming the regional nature of the haze sulfates (see analysis at end). This also predicts that most of the mass is actually PM2.5, and because these particles are inhalable, subject to a more strict with a US EPA 24 hour value at 35 g/m3.

  • Since my goal is to explain daytime visibility, I choose the BBC noon readings, usually at minimum RH, so as to avoid nighttime fogs and accelerated particle removal. These ended on August 26. The Chaoyang readings at the stadium are 24 hr. Other readings throughout Beijing are similar to Chaoyang, at the stadium, affirming the regional nature of the haze sulfates (see analysis at end). This also predicts that most of the mass is actually PM2.5, and because these particles are inhalable, subject to a more strict with a US EPA 24 hour value at 35 g/m3.



August 8, 2008; T avg =29.7 C, RH avg = 72%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 8.3 km/hr, Visibility = 3.6 km, PM10 = 156 g/m3





August 9, 2008; T avg =29.7 C, RH avg = 75%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 8.0 km/hr, Visibility = 4.2 km, PM10 = 110 g/m3





August 10, 2008; T avg =25.9 C, RH avg = 88%, rain = 2.1 cm, Vw = 9.6 km/hr, Visibility = 3.4 km, PM10 = 278 g/m3





August 11, 2008; T avg =23.1 C, RH avg = 88%, rain = 2.7 cm, Vw = 8.0. km/hr, Visibility = 9.6 km, PM10 = 54 g/m3





August 12, 2008; T avg =25.3 C, RH avg = 81%, rain = 1.6 cm, Vw = 6.4. km/hr, Visibility = 11.0 km, PM10 = 41 g/m3





August 13, 2008; T avg =26.4 C, RH avg = 82%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 3.2. km/hr, Visibility = 5.1 km, PM10 = 128 g/m3





August 14, 2008; T avg =24.2 C, RH avg = 87%, rain = 1.7 cm, Vw = 8.0. km/hr, Visibility = 7.5 km, PM10 = 46 g/m3





August 15, 2008; T avg =25.6 C, RH avg = 64%, rain = 0.5 cm, Vw = 8.0. km/hr, Visibility = 17.3 km, PM10 = 12 g/m3





August 16, 2008; T avg =23.7 C, RH avg = 61%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 8.0. km/hr, Visibility = 29.1 km, PM10 = 7 g/m3





August 17, 2008; T avg =21.5 C, RH avg = 84%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 4.8. km/hr, Visibility = 12.3 km, PM10 = 54 g/m3





August 18, 2008; T avg =23.1 C, RH avg = 73%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 8.0, km/hr, Visibility = 22.4 km, PM10 = 18 g/m3





August 19, 2008; T avg =29.7 C, RH avg = 75%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 4.8, km/hr, Visibility = 13.6 km, PM10 = 39 g/m3





August 20, 2008; T avg =25.3 C, RH avg = 75%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 4.8, km/hr, Visibility = 8.8 km, PM10 = 39 g/m3





August 21, 2008; T avg =20.9 C, RH avg = 92%, rain = 0.4 cm, Vw = 8.0, km/hr, Visibility = 5.8 km, PM10 = 56 g/m3





August 22, 2008; T avg =25.3 C, RH avg = 72%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 6.4, km/hr, Visibility = 7.8 km, PM10 = 21 g/m3





August 23, 2008; T avg =26.4 C, RH avg = 69%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 4.8, km/hr, Visibility = 15.4 km, PM10 = 12 g/m3





August 24, 2008; T avg =26.4 C, RH avg = 62%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 9.6, km/hr, Visibility = 12.8 km, PM10 = 99 g/m3





August 25, 2008; T avg =24.8 C, RH avg = 74%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 6.3, km/hr, Visibility = 8.6 km, PM10 = 70 g/m3





August 26, 2008; T avg =23.9 C, RH avg = 79%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 8.0, km/hr, Visibility = 6.6 km, PM10 = 93 g/m3





August 27, 2008; T avg =23.1 C, RH avg = 79%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 4.8, km/hr, Visibility = 6.1 km, PM10 = 55 g/m3 PRC





August 28, 2008; T avg =24.8 C, RH avg = 79%, rain = 0.0 cm, Vw = 4.8, km/hr, Visibility = 4.5 km, PM10 = na g/m3 PRC





August 29, 2008; T avg =23.7 C, RH avg = 88%, rain = 0.9 cm, Vw = 6.4, km/hr, Visibility = 3.5 km, PM10 = 122 g/m3 PRC





Commentary on Beijing’s claims (below)



My commentary on Beijing claims…TA Cahill

  • In the period July 1 to July 20, when China instituted strict controls, the noontime PM10 from BBC averaged 124.2 g/m3 , with the 50% of the trajectories from the south averaging 202.2 g/m3 .

  • In the period from July 20 through August 7, with strict controls in place, noontime PM10 from BBC averaged 129.3 g/m3 with about 2/3 of the trajectories from the south of Beijing.

  • During the Olympics,

    • from August 8 through August 10, winds were from the south and PM10 averaged 181.3 g/m3 (120.0 official 24 hr at stadium)
    • From August 11 through August 19, all trajectories have come from the north and east of Beijing, average 44.3 g/m3 .
    • Thus during the Olympics, only ¼ of the trajectories came from the polluted sectors and the PM10 averages 78.6 g/m3 .
    • In August 2007, from August 8 through August 19, for example, 45% of all trajectories came from the south.
  • Thus, the low levels of pollution August 12 through 19 are a function of anomalously good weather, with frequent rains and winds from the ocean and northeast China. Maybe 8-08-08 was indeed lucky!



Tentative analysis of the Pollution Tom Cahill, DELTA Group, UC Davis

  • While Dr. Cliff of the UC Davis DELTA Group has an 8 stage DRUM sampler in Beijing, we will have no current compositional data on the aerosols for a few weeks. When we do, we will compare these with summer samples we took in ACE- Asia for NSF in Beijing, 2001.

  • However, with coal fired power plants as the major SO2 source, and observing the color of the haze (grey), and the RH, we can draw an analogy to the eastern US in summer 1992 -1995 when US sulfate pollution was at its peak before the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 dictated improvement.

  • In that period, the daytime aerosols were mostly highly hydrated sulfuric acid for particles in the most optically efficient range, 0.3 to 0.7 m, reverting to ammonium sulfate each night.

    • See references next slide, plus …
    • T.A. Cahill, P, Wakabayashi, T. James. Chemical State of Sulfate at Shenandoah National Park During Summer 1991 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 109/110 (1996) 542-547.
    • Cahill, Thomas A., K.D. Perry, Dutcher, D.D, R.A. Eldred, D.E. Day. 1997 Size/compositional profiles of aerosols at Great Smoky Mountains National Park during SEAVS. Proceedings of a Specialty Conference sponsored by Air & Waste Management Association and the American Geophysical Union. Visual Air Quality: Aerosol and Global Radiation Balance, Vol. II, pp. 1049-1056.


References

    • References
    • BBC’s PM 10 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7506925.stm
    • IMPROVE
    • Malm, W.C., Sisler, J.F., Huffman, D., Eldred, R.A. and Cahill, T.A.. Spatial and seasonal trends in particle concentration and optical extinction in the United States. 1994 Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 99, No. D1, 1347-1370, January 20, 1994
    • Eldred, Robert A. and Thomas A. Cahill. Trends in elemental concentrations of fine particles at remote sites in the United States. 1994 Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 1009-1019.
    • Note: 1992 was about the peak of the US regional sulfate haze prior to improvements from the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1991.
    • NSF ACE-Asia
    • Seinfeld, J.H., Carmichael, G.R., Arimoto, R, Conant, W. C., Brechtel, F. J., Bates, T. S., Cahill, T. A., Clarke, A.D., Flatau, B.J., Huebert, B.J., Kim, J., Markowicx, K.M., Masonis, S.J., Quinn, P.K., Russell, L.M., Russell, P.B., Shimizu, A., Shinozuka, Y., Song, C.H., Tang, Y., Uno, I., Vogelmann, A.M., Weber, R.J., Woo, J-H., Zhang, Y. ACE-Asia: Regional Climatic and Atmospheric Chemical Effects of Asian Dust and Pollution, Bulletin American Meteorological Society 85 (3): 367+ MARCH 2004
  • HYSPLIT Citation

  • Draxler, R.R. and Rolph, G.D., 2003. HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD.;

  • Rolph, G.D., 2003. Real-time Environmental Applications and Display sYstem (READY) Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD. Acknowledgment

  • The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and/or READY website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.html) used in this publication




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