Alushta-2012 International Conference-School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion and The Adjoint Workshop
Zaginaylov G.I., Shcherbinin V.I., Schuenemann K., M. Thumm M.// IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2006, Vol. 34, No. 3, P. 512-517
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- 4-03 ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS OF HYBRID REACTOR BASED ON MAGNETIC FUSION FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT
- 4-07 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COMPRESSION PLASMA FLOWS, GENERATED BY MAGNETOPLASMA COMPRESSOR
3. Zaginaylov G.I., Shcherbinin V.I., Schuenemann K., M. Thumm M.// IEEE Trans.
Plasma Sci., 2006, Vol. 34, No. 3, P. 512-517.
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBON FILMS DEPOSITED UNDER
, N. Klimov
, V. Stankevich
, N. Svechnikov
, V. Budaev
, and K. Vukolov
NRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov square 1, Moscow 123182, Russian Federation.
SRC TRINITI, Pushkovykh street 12, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190, Russian Federation.
Elements of construction of modern tokamaks manufactured from carbon materials
undergoing to intensive erosion during working and cleaning plasma discharges.
Codeposition of erosion products (carbon, hydrocarbon radicals) and hydrogen leads to
growth of amorphous hydrocarbon films which can influence on many important aspects of
tokamak working. In this work, comparative analysis of surface morphology, electronic
structure and composition of such films have been carried out.
Hydrocarbon films were deposited under ITER-relevant conditions in plasma gun QSPA-T
and tokamak T-10. Pulse duration of QSPA-T is equal to about 0.5 ms which relevant to
transient events of tokamaks such as ELMs and disruptions. In tokamak T-10 the films were
obtained both in regime of stable working pulses with 1 s duration and regime of disruptions.
Deuterium inductive Taylor-type discharge in tokamak T-10 was used to obtain "steady-state"
type of hydrocarbon films.
Electronic structure of ITER-relevant hydrocarbon films obtained in T-10 tokamak and
QSPS-T plasma gun under controlled conditions have been investigated by XPS and AXES
techniques. A new method of film characterization by analysis of XPS valence band spectra
together with estimation of a band gap (Eg) value was developed. The band gap value may be
used for simple evaluation of hydrogen content in the hydrocarbon films. To our opinion, this
is a very sensitive instrument to observe spectral differences as well as in-gap states, which
may refer to defects (dangling bonds) and impurities acting as adsorption centers for
hydrogen isotopes and hydrocarbons. It is important that application of this approach allows
to determine the band gap values not only in the hydrocarbon films but in mixed and metallic
(Be, Mo, W) films also.
Surface morphology and optical properties (thickness and refractive index) of hydrocarbon
films deposited on stainless steel and Mo mirrors as well as on Si probes were investigated by
SEM and ellipsometry. As a result, deposition rates for different type films were estimated.
Analysis of hard hydrocarbon films deposited in two diagnostic sections of T-10 close to and
far from graphite limiters during working pulses has shown that the deposition rate falls
significantly with distance from carbon source. Cleaning of the mirrors by inductive
deuterium discharge was studied during wall conditioning regime. It was found that instead of
erosion, the deposition of soft a-C:H films on the mirrors occurred at temperatures below 120
C in both sections at about the same rate.
Hydrocarbon films were analyzed by a ternary (H, C sp
, C sp
) phase diagram. On this
diagram, the T-10 and QSPA-T films were positioned in quite compact region between
diamond- and polymer-like a-CH films. Difference between XPS and ellipsometric data may
be due to non-uniformity of the films in thickness.
BASIC PLASMA PHYSICS
MAGNETIZED PLASMA IN STRONG ELECTRIC FIELD:
FROM PARAMETRIC TURBULENCE TO ENHANCED CONFINEMENT
V.N.Karazin Kharkov National University, 61108 Kharkov, Ukraine
Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea
National Science Center "Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology", 61108
The processes of the interaction of plasma with strong pumping electric field (as in RF plasma
heating) or with stationary or slowly varying electric field (as in the regimes of the enhanced
confinement) are the most abundant sources of new physical effects and their theoretical
descriptions. This report is devoted to the unified kinetic approach to the theory of parametric
turbulence and to the theory of plasma turbulence in strong shear flow across the confined
magnetic field. The key point in that theory is the usage of the spatial and velocity variables
which are co-moving with plasma particles in magnetic and strong electric field. This
methodology appears effective for the development the theory of the parametric instabilities
and for the investigation of the temporal evolution of instabilities in shear flows. The
application of the transformation to the turbulent electric field gives the renormalized theories
of the parametric turbulence and the theory of strong turbulence of plasma shear flows. That
theory accounted for the process of the turbulent scattering of plasma particles as a
mechanism of the saturation or suppression of the plasma turbulence and reduction of the
HIGH-FREQUENCY GENERATION DURING THE ELECTRON FLOW
DECELERATION AND REFLECTION BY THE ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL
I.K.Tarasov, A.V.Pashchenko, M.I. Tarasov, D.A. Sitnikov, S.S. Romanov, I.M. Shapoval
Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center
“Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, Kharkov, Ukraine
Today the generation of RF electromagnetic waves during the electron flow
deceleration in an external electrostatic field is a well-known effect. Moreover, a number of
RF-generating schemes were developed according to this mechanism. In the most of such
schemes the electron flow is reflected by the external electric field. As it was estimated later
this mechanism is not the only possible. In particular it was shown that the RF-generation
may also be observed in the absence of the reflected beam particles.
In this work we present the results of experimental study of the RF-oscillations
generation at the classic flat triode configuration for both presence and absence of the
reflected particles flow. The amplitude and frequency dynamics is studied. The main
characteristic parameters behavior for both cases was analyzed and compared.
1. A.V. Pashchenko, B.N. Rutkevich Plasma Physics, 1977, v.З, p.774.
2. I.I. Magda, V.Е. Novikov, А.V. Pashchenko, S.S. Romanov, I.M. Shapoval. To the theory
of beam feedback in the generators with virtual cathode. VANT, v.б, #4б,2003, pp.167-170
3. J. Pierce. J. Appl.Phys.,1944, v.15,p.721.
ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS OF HYBRID REACTOR BASED ON MAGNETIC
FUSION FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT
E. A. Azizov, G. G. Gladush
FSUE SRC RF Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Russia, Troitsk, Moscow
. In the last decade in the fusion community the impression that the fastest way to
implement of thermonuclear fusion is using it to solve the problems of nuclear power. One of
the most important problems is the efficient disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The use of hybrid
reactors transmutator for recycling spent nuclear fuel is not only economic but social and
political nature associated recently with the wariness of society to the development of nuclear
energy. In view of this development and creation of fusion neutron source (FNS) for the
disposal of long-lived nuclides in the first place, actinides, are perhaps the most relevant.
Fusion neutrons can be generated in an appropriately designed tokamaks and open
magnetic traps. To date, this is the most technologically advanced areas, although the
stellarator, accelerator and laser projects also are actively developing. Attention to the fusion-
fission hybrid reactor was originally (1977) due to fuel supply issue of the growing park of
thermal reactors. This is a problem in our time as the development of need fast reactors not
substantially progressed to date. The idea and design of the some modern tokamak hybrids in
general, similar to modern designs, including ITER(FDS-EM,China;SABR,USA). Because of
the sizes of such tokamak are close to the ITER tokamak, its cost will exceed the cost of
ITER, which makes this pro-draft acceptable only within the framework of broad
The project of FNS-based gas-dynamic trap with superconducting coils in details are
developing in Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS. It involves the power to bring the neutron
flux up to 4MW (at P
= 114 MW) and subcritical reactor to 1 GW.
The most developed project transmutator reactor on the basis of a compact toroid is a
project of JUST-T tokamak with A = 2(TRINITI). The choice of a moderate size aspect ratio
A is due to the ability to use the first stage of warm EMS. Numerical calculations showed that
the use of a such tokamak reactor can transmute minor actinides from 10 - 15 VVER-1000
reactors. In spherical tokamaks with A ~ 1.5 high parameters are achieved with moderate
resources and of financial costs. Therefore, starting from the end of the last century, many
countries have begun this development (in China, the USA and England). In small spherical
tokamak FNS-ST (R = 0.48 m, r = 0,28 m, Kurchatov Institute) with a magnetic field of 2 T is
quite high fluxes of fast neutrons> 7 10
can be achieved even with copper coils,
cooled by water. Molten salt blanket for this FNS consists of four independent modules, the
surrounding vacuum chamber. A comparison of the efficiency of generation of neutrons in
various projects is carried out.
RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN PLASMAS WITH SELF-GENERATED
MAGNETIC FIELD AND HEAT CONDUCTION
, Tomasz Plewa
, Andrey V. Zhiglo
Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
Institute for Theoretical Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology,
Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is a generic hydrodynamic phenomenon occurring when a
denser fluid is supported by a lighter one in gravitational field, or when it is accelerated by the
lighter fluid. Developed RTI often governs the global dynamics of the system, like in core-
collapse supernovae (CCSN: blast wave accelerating stratified stellar material), young
supernovae remnants (supernova ejecta decelerated by the shocked interstellar medium),
targets in inertial confinement fusion experiments (material compressed and accelerated by
impulse heating by laser or particle beams).
In the simplest canonical setting (ideal hydrodynamics) RTI growth rate in linear regime is
higher for shorter perturbation wavelengths, hence the morphology of developed RTI shows
complex fractal-like structure. After RTI enters nonlinear regime mushroom-like caps start
developing on the rising bubbles of lighter fluid, which later go on producing smaller-scale
structures on the interface between the two fluids. This is pronouncedly different from what is
observed experimentally in laser-evaporated target experiments  designed to mimic
conditions at the blast wave in CCSN. In those experiments columns of lighter plasma
penetrate deeper into the denser one than classical RTI simulations predict, with the growth of
secondary features suppressed.
We study numerically the effects of magnetic fields self-generated via Biermann Battery
effect on RTI dynamics. In setups close to studied in  we get magnetic fields of order 1-10
MG, at which magnetic pressure gets comparable to the thermodynamic pressure of the
plasma. Comparable magnetic fields generated were observed experimentally. A lot of effects
start playing significant role in magnetic field evolution and the plasma dynamics at fields this
strong, such as Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion, transport phenomena becoming anisotropic,
dependent on the magnetic field. Heat conduction becomes very effective at high
temperatures (~a few 10
K) reached, influencing RTI dynamics. We incorporated these
effects into FLASH code , performed numerical tests in 2D and 3D problems, studied the
effects of the mentioned phenomena on RTI. In setups modeling experiments  proper
inclusion of magnetic effects leads to nonlinear RTI evolution resembling experimental
results, with smaller scale features suppressed and less mixing taking place.
 C.C. Kuranz, et al., Astroph. J.. 2009, v.696, p.749-759
 A.C. Calder, et al., Astroph. J. Suppl. 2002, v. 143, p. 201-229
KINETIC SIMULATION OF LOW PRESSURE RF DISCHARGE IN NONUNIFORM
AXISYMMETRIC MAGNETIC FIELD
National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”,
1, Akademichna Street, 61108, Kharkiv, Ukraine
An implicit 2D3V PIC/MCC code has been developed for the kinetic simulation of low
pressure RF discharges. The code uses coupled particle-in-cell method (PIC) for calculation
collisionless dynamic of the plasma particles and Monte-Carlo method (MCC) for taking in
account the particle collisions. This method allows to compute self-consistent distributions of
the fields, plasma density and energy of the particles from first principles. The disadvantage
of PlC/MCC is that it consumes more computational resources compared to other numerical
methods. For the computation time reduction a number of physical and numerical methods of
speeding up the code were introduced, such as the implicit schemes of the particles motion
and fields computation, the electron sub-cycling, different weights of electrons and ions,
using of the initial diffusion density profile, preliminary simulation stage with the reduced ion
mass and null-collisional Monte-Carlo method. An addition the parallel scheme of the particle
motion and the fields calculation is used. These speeding up techniques allow to reduce the
numerical simulation time on the order of value.
As an application the developed code is applied to the plasma dynamic investigation in
capacitively coupled plasma RF discharge enhanced by the external magnetic field which is
used in the neutral loop discharges (NLD). For the pressure of the order of a few millitorr and
the various magnetic field configurations the spatial distribution of the averaged over RF
period electron energy and electron density are found. Likewise it is obtained the electron
distribution function near the X-point, at the separatrix and far from the neutral loop. In
dependance on the pressure and the magnetic field geometry the electron temperature can
increase several times in the neutral loop region.
The results of the carried out investigations are compared with the published
experimental data and with the data obtained earlier by the numerical modeling of the
inductive discharge with the neutral loop (ICP-NLD).
THE DYNAMICS OF 3D DIOCOTRONIC WAVE DURING THE “HOT“
ELECTRON FLOW PROPAGATION IN THE DRIFT SPACE
I.K. Tarasov, M.I. Tarasov, D.A. Sitnikov
Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center
“Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, Kharkov, Ukraine
In the second half of XX century special attention was paid to the problem of plasma
trapping and confinement in the different magnetic and electrical field configurations. In
particular a huge amount of publications were dedicated to the charged particles confinement
in the cylindrical Penning trap. Such systems allowed to observe and to study some
interesting effects in the plasma column dynamics.
Unfortunately Penning traps weren‟t so useful in studying the effects developed during
the charged particles flow propagation along the magnetic field axis. For these investigations
we have used a cylindrical setup without the axial confining field. The width of the flow
particles distribution by longitudinal velocities is close by its magnitude to the average
The experimental results have shown the diocotronic instability development. The
diocotronic waves had pronounced azimuthal and longitudinal components. It was also
detected that the instability development is localized in the potential dip which is created by
the flow particles spatial charge.
 R.W. Gould, Electron Tube and Microwave Laboratory // California Institute of
Technology, Technical Report № 3 (1955).
 Kabantsev, A. A.; Driscoll, C. F., Ion induced instability of diocotron modes in electron
plasmas; modelling curvature-driven flute modes // Trans. of Fusion Science and
Technology, v. 51, p. 96 – 99, (2007)
 I.K. Tarasov, M.I. Tarasov, Study of Collisionless Damping of Diocotron Oscillations in
Electron Plasma, Ukrainian Journal of Physics 2008, vol.53, N 4 , p.339-344
 M.I. Tarasov, I.K. Tarasov, D.A. Sitnikov, The Stability of Magnetized Non-Neutral
Plasma Flow With The Radial Shear of Drift Velocity, International Conference and
School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion and 4-th Alushta International
Workshop on the Role of Electric Fields in Plasma Confinement in Stellarators and
Tokamaks Alushta (Crimea), Ukraine, September 13-18, 2010, Book of Abstracts p. 93
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COMPRESSION PLASMA FLOWS, GENERATED
BY MAGNETOPLASMA COMPRESSOR
V.M. Astashynski, S.I. Ananin
B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,
68 Nezalezhnastsi Ave., 220072, Minsk, Belarus
, D.G. Solyakov
Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108, Kharkov, Ukraine
The compression plasma flows generated by quasi-stationary high-current plasma
accelerators provide a great potential in applications connected with modification of surfaces
of solids for the purpose of obtaining of required properties.
The present paper is devoted to numerical simulation of different gases plasma flow
parameters, generated by magnetoplasma compressors (MPC) such as developed at the
B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus and at the
Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine. The calculations were
carried out for the geometry of discharge device described in [1, Fig. 1]. To numerically
simulate the compression plasma flow parameters in such gas-discharge MPC, an approach
developed at the B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics was used. It is based on the method of
large (“coarse") particles with the magnetic field taken into account and radiative energy
transfer introduced in terms of a two-stream multi-group approximation for a 2-D region
[2, 3]. This approach makes it possible to describe the structure and dynamics of partially
ionized compression plasma flows in high-current plasma accelerators and to carry out the
optimization of plasma acceleration in such installations.
The simulation was carried out for two different modes of the accelerator work: for the
residual gas mode, in which the discharge was taking place in discharge chamber prefilled
with the working gas, and for the mode, in which the working gas is injected in MPC during
the discharge. In these calculations, the total current time dependencies recorded in
experiments were used for border conditions.
As a result of numerical simulation, the spatial distributions of plasma parameters
(pressure, electron concentration, temperature and velocity of the plasma flow) and current
distributions for various conditions of gas supply and for the various dependencies of the total
current versus time were received. It was shown that in some regimes the plasma flow
acceleration come along in non-optimal way. For example, if the initial total current rise is too
big, the current vortex is formed on the entrance of the plasma accelerator. This current vortex
prevents plasma axial acceleration. As a result, most of the energy stored in capacitor banks
may be spared in some cases not on the acceleration of the plasma flow along the system axis
but on ohmic heating of plasma which is leaving the system between anode bars.
In summary, our model can be used for optimization of plasma flows acceleration in
This work was carried out with financial support from the Belarusian Republican
Foundation for Basic Research (project F11K-115) and by the State Fund for Fundamental
Researches (Ukraine) under Grant F41.2/030.
1. Chebotarev V.V., Garkusha I.E., Ladygina V.S. et al. // Problems of Atomic Science and
Technology. 2007. #1. Series: Plasma Physics (13). P. 104-106.
2. Ananin S.I. // Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics. 1991. Volume 32, # 4. P.
Ananin S.I., Astashynski V.M., Emel‟janenko A.S. // Proc. of the VI Intern. Conf.
“Interaction of radiation with solids”, Minsk, September 28-30, 2005, 158-160.
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