Alushta-2012 International Conference-School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion and The Adjoint Workshop
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- TOPIC 9 - PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS 195 9-01 BEHAVIOUR OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON EMISSION FOR OPTICALLY THIN
DEVICE FOR OZONE CONCETRATION MONITORING OCM-3
V.S. Taran, S.P. Gubarev, G.P. Opaleva, M.I. Zolototrubova.
Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology,
Akademicheskaya St., 1, 61108, Kharkov, Ukraine.
The Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology has been actively working to develop the
microprocessor devices for ozone measuring instruments such as:
device based on ozone optical (UV) absorption (measurement of O
to 80 mg/ l);
ozone meter based on corona discharge (measurement of O
to 40 mg/ l);
meter- indicator of ozone MACs.
This paper describes a developed microprocessor device for measuring health-hazardous
concentrations of ozone in the room and alarming in the case of exceeding the maximum
allowable concentration (MAC) or other level of concentration specified by software.
Due to increased production of ozone sterilizers and the expansion of the scope of the
ozone technologies the question of it‟s safety use is actual. A lot of widely used ozone
measuring concentration instruments, such as Ozone-MAC, produced OKBA Angarsk
(Russia) , the analyzer 3-02.P-R (Smolenskpribor, Russia) , Ozone Monitor Model 205
(2B Technologies, USA) [3 ], etc. are quite expensive (up to $ 4,000) and the lack of their
production in Ukraine the task of developing low-cost domestic analogs is put.
Device provides automatic measuring of ozone concentration, indicating the current value
of concentration, setting threshold and turning on of audio alarm, transferring data to a central
computer. Device OCM-3includes a microcontroller, a communicator with a computer
display, indicator, alarm function and controlling unit. The microcontroller is implemented on
the base of an integrated circuit PIC18F2550 produced by Microchip Technology Inc.. In
this device was used solid-state sensor of MQ-131 series produced by HENAN HANWEI
ELECTRONICS CO., LTD..OCM-3 is low-cost, simple device which allows to use it in a
wide sphere of ozone technologies to ensure the safety of personnel. The prototype of the
device is made.
THE SIMULTANEOUS SYNTHESIS OF HYDROGEN-RICH GAS AND
OXIDATION OF FINE METAL PARTICLES IN WATER VAPOUR PLASMA
V. Valincius, V. Grigaitiene, P. Valatkevicius, A. Tamosiunas
Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
The demand for knowledge on the fuel conversion and production of hydrogen as an alternative
energy source has significantly increased in the recent decades. It is well known that thermal water
vapour plasma is an unique ambient and may affect the production of syngas and formation of fine
particles or granules. This process may also occur during plasma spraying and deposition of coatings
for wide range of applications.
The present study offers a possibility for production of hydrogen-rich gas and additional
deposition of small metal oxide dispersed particles by the employment of nonequilibrium water
vapour arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. A newly developed linear, sectional, atmospheric pressure
arc plasma source with a button-type hot cathode and water-cooling step-formed copper or stainless
steel anode has been employed for a realization of fuel conversion process (Fig. 1.). Over-heated water
vapour has been used as a plasma forming gas at the arc current intensity of 180 A.
Fig. 1. Water vapour plasma device for fuel conversion and production of hydrogen-rich gas. 1
- cathode junction, 2 - ignition section, 3 - neutrode, 4 - anode. Go is injection of initial ignition gas
- injection of over-heated water vapour, G
- injection of additional gas mixed with C or
Cu dispersed particles
By using a properly designed plasma jet reactor connected to the plasma generator (PG), heating
gas by energy of electric discharge and keeping the fluid flowtemperature at 3600 K, it is possible to
produce dissociated water vapour plasma, avoid the reverse fusion and extract hydrogen or hydrogen-
rich gas simultaneously with an oxidation of copper or carbon dispersed particles.
The emission spectra of exhaust Ar/water vapour plasma jet at the exit nozzle of the PG was
measured for the determination of elemental composition by means of AOS4-1 spectrometer. It was
found that copper and carbon particles effectively remove the oxygen and improve the output of
hydrogen in the gasification products.
As a conclusion, it can be stated that the employment of results of the present study enables
constructing a specific device which allows a highly efficient production of the synthetic gas
containing an increased amount of hydrogen and its use in the production of second generation fuels.
The injection of carbon or copper dispersed particles is considered for a better removal of dissociated
oxygen and simultaneous synthesis of fine particles for wide range of applications.
INVESTIGATION OF PULSE BARRIER DISCHARGE IN WATER–AIR MEDIUM
V.S. Taran, V.V. Krasnyj, A.S. Lozina, O.G. Chechelnitskij, O.M Shvets
Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and
Technology”, 61108, Kharkov, Ukraine
Today, barrier discharges are effectively used to introduce discharge products into liquid
medium [1-3]. The paper presents the results of utilization of pulse barrier discharge in water-
air medium used for water cleaning and disinfection due to ozone generation and formation of
various radicals. In order to obtain the optimal ozone concentration dependent on water flow
rate and applied voltage the electrical characteristics of the discharge have been investigated.
Spectroscopic investigations have been carried out using 2SL40-2-3648USB type
spectrometer within the range of 200-800 nm in water-air gap of the discharge. The change of
ОН and N
intensity peaks in discharge as a function of applied voltage was obtained.
Oxidation dynamics of indigo liquid solution was determined by microscope-
spectrophotometer. It was found that at ozone concentration of 0.7 mg/l, radicals played the
main role during inactivation of E.coli test cultures.
Milorad M. Kuraica, Bratislav M. Obradović, Dragan Manojlović, Daliborka R. Ostojić,
Jagoš Purić. Ozonized water generator based on coaxial dielectric-barrier-discharge in air//
Vacuum 2004, Vol. 73, pp. 705-708.
С.Г. Боев, В.М. Муратов, Н.П. Поляков, Н.А. Яворовский. Реактор и способ
очистки воды//Патент РФ. 1999, № 2136600, Бюл. №25. – 4 с
V.S. Taran, I.E. Garkusha, V.V. Krasnyj, A.S. Lozina, et. al. Recent developments of
plasma-based technologies for medicine and industry// Nukleonika 2012, vol. 57, pp. 277-
PLASMA CATALYSIS OF CARBON NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIS IN THE
Iu.P. Veremii, K.V. Iukhymenko, V.Ya. Chernyak,
A.I. Leptuga, T.E. Lisitchenko,
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Dept. of Physical Electronics, Volodymyrska
str. 64, 01033 Kyiv, Ukraine
V.Ye. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of NASU, Nauki pr. 41,
03028 Kyiv, Ukraine
Institute of Gas of NASU, Degtjarivska St. 39, Kyiv 03113, Ukraine
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
An alternative approach to synthesis carbon nanoparticles from liquid hydrocarbons using
non-equilibrium heterophase plasma was consider. Plasma-liquid system reactor was prepared
with the DC discharge in a reverse vortex gas flow of tornado type with a "liquid" electrode
(TORNADO-LE). The range of discharge currents varied within 50-250 mA. The pressure in
the discharge chamber during the discharge operation was ~ 1.2 bar; the static pressure
outside the reactor was ~ 1 bar.
We divided in the system the area of the atomization of raw materials and the pyrolytic
reaction chamber in which the inject particles serve to create growth centers.
Removed by the flow of gas dust particles with the gathered nanomaterials were collected
from sample bottle filled of distilled water, and separate out by decantation and evaporation.
Dust particles from the mixture eliminated by processing samples by acid with repeated
washing distilled water, and followed by evaporation.
Emission spectra were measured with system that was made up of optical fiber, spectrum
device with CCD-line and PC. The spectrometer worked in range 200 – 1200 nm with
resolution 0.6 nm. PC was used as a control device for measuring and data processing.
The high-speed photo camera Nikon L100 was used in supervision for the process of
discharge ignition and existence.
Analysis of gas samples was carried out on gas chromatograph 6890N Agilen.
Purified carbon samples were studied by IR spectroscopy. The tables of characteristic
frequencies, the bands of the IR spectrum can be associated with certain functional groups
that make up molecules, such as: CH, CH2, CH3, CO, C-C bond in aromatic rings. These
functional groups have been traced by us in the spectral range from 3600 to 1000 cm
The comparison of the results of Raman spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy carbon
For the first time discharge with reverse gas flow of "TORNADO" type with liquid
electrode was realized and the possibility of carbon nanomaterials removal from plasma by
chemically passive dust particles was shown.
SOURCE OF REACTIVE NITROGEN BASED ON ECR PLASMA
Vodopyanov A., Mansfeld D., Golubev S.
Institute of Applied Physics of Russia Academy of Sciences
Currently, nitrides of metals of Group III of the periodic system of elements (AlN, GaN, InN)
are among the most promising materials for the development of new types of optoelectronic devices
operating in a wide range of wavelengths, as well as powerful electronic devices of the microwave
range. One of the key problems in the synthesis of group III nitrides is the development of an effective
source of reactive nitrogen, which is necessary for incorporation into the crystal lattice.
The paper describes the source of reactive (atomic) nitrogen based on ECR discharge plasma,
sustained by technological gyrotron radiation. The radiation frequency is 24 GHz, the radiation power
is up to 2 kW. Heating at a high frequency radiation (as compared to traditionally used radiation
sources - magnetrons with operating frequency of 2.45 GHz) allows maintaining the plasma in a wide
pressure range from 10
mbar to 10 mbar and the plasma density to reach more than 10
paper presents the results of nitrogen plasma parameters measurements using Langmuir probe. High
density of the plasma in the source provides a large flow of reactive (atomic) nitrogen. The flow of
atomic nitrogen is estimated by the growth rate of indium nitride films. The flux is at least more
than 2 1 0
. We also discuss other ways to measure the nitrogen flow.
TECHNOLOGICAL APPROBATION OF INTEGRAL CLUSTER SET-UP FOR
COMPLEX COMPOUND COMPOSITES SYNTHESIS
, S. Dudin
, A. Zykov
, A. Shyshkov
, V. Farenik
V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kurchatov Ave. 31, Kharkov, Ukraine
Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, 6 Svobody Sq., Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine
In previous study the results of elaboration and investigations of cluster technological
setup for synthesis of complex compound composites were demonstrated. The presented set-
up consists of complimentary DC-magnetron system, RF-inductive plasma source and ion
source. The set-up system allows to independently form the fluxes of metal atoms, chemically
active particles, ions and also to synthesize the thin films of complex compound composites,
including nano composites.
In the present paper the results of technological approbation of the integral cluster set-up
for synthesis of various types of high-quality coatings such as Al
with coating thickness up to 10 mkm are presented. Volt-ampere characteristics of magnetron
discharge in argon and mixtures with oxygen, nitrogen for various gas pressures and for
various target materials have been measured. Dependences of discharge parameters on target
material, pressure and composition of working gas are analyzed.
The research was financially supported by government research program of Ministry of
Education and Science of Ukraine.
THE STUDY OF THE NEAR-WALL LAYER IN THE DENSE PLASMA
The Gas Institute of NASU, 39 Degtyarivs‟ka St., 03113 Kyiv, Ukraine
National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, 37 Pobedy Av., 03056 Kyiv, Ukraine
Generally it is possible to enter concept of a near-wall layer, where deviations from
the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) are localized. Deviations of three types are most
– a distinction between the temperatures of electrons T
and heavy particles T
, defined as
a length L
where electron thermal conductivity and heating of the electrons by the ambipolar
electric field are comparable to electron energy exchange in collisions with heavy particles
is mean free path of charged particles and – accommodation coefficient;
– a violation of ionization equilibrium, defined as the recombination length L
, where the
rate of variation of the charged particle density due to ambipolar diffusion is comparable to
the ionization or recombination rates (the latter rates are of the same order of magnitude if the
considered conditions are not too distant from ionization equilibrium)
is coefficient of diffusion of ions in atoms and – recombination coefficient;
– a violation of quasineutrality, defined by the Debye radius L
, as a scale
is the voltage across the layer.
The ordinary hierarchy of characteristic lengths for near-wall layer is
In this case the layer properties may be studied analytically.
In this work were studied the role of near-surface processes in the decay of the pulse
electric arc plasma in argon and helium. The electron density consisted of 2 10
and the hierarchy of characteristic lengths for near-wall layer becomes
As is shown the electric probes are a very useful diagnostic instrument in this case.
Certainly, the probes cannot be applied to local measurements of plasma parameters in the
near-wall sheath, as it thickness does not exceed, as a rule, 0.1 mm. However a similar sheath
surrounds a probe itself; that is why the conclusions on its properties can be reached on the
base of a probe characteristic determination. In this case a probe is already the instrument for
integral measurements of the plasma parameters averaged over a mentioned sheath thickness.
In the near-wall plasma, the parameter = L
is determining factor in attenuation
of diffusion flow of charge particles from plasma on a wall. In this case the density of ion
saturation current for a cylindrical probe j
of radius R
may be presented as
e. g. it differs by a multiplier
from a case of Langmuir probe.
It follows one of the remarkable properties of the probe in analyzing regime: the value
of ion saturation current for a cylindrical probe is independent on its radius R
allows identifying directly a probe operating regime, using double probes of different
diameters and comparing their ion saturation currents. It was determined that the diffusion
flow of the charge particles to the wall is lowered by a factor of 50 due to near-surface layer.
It was also shown that the standard assumption of equality of temperatures of the heavy
, in the near-surface plasma and wall T
, is not fulfilling in the near-probe region.
BEHAVIOUR OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON EMISSION FOR OPTICALLY THIN
PLASMAS DURING VARIOUS RF PLASMA PRODUCTION SCENARIOS
AT URAGAN-3M TORSATRON
R.O. Pavlichenko, A.E. Kulaga, N.V. Zamanov, V. Ye. Moiseenko, A.V. Lozin, Yu.K. Mironov,
V.S. Romanov, V.V. Chechkin, L.I. Grigor‟eva
Institute of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Radial profile of second harmonic X-mode (X2) electron cyclotron emission (ECE) was
observed for optically thin plasma produced by Alfven resonance heating in Uragan-3M (U-3M)
torsatron. The radiation was detected from the low field side. For the ECE frequency range 31-37
GHz the reconstruction of electron temperature profile was done for several consecutive shots with
the assumption that plasma parameters do not vary from shot to shot. Radial electron temperature
profile was derived from ”radiation temperature” profile using approximation formula for the
plasma optical thickness. The applied conversion procedure ignores multiple reflections from the
walls (due to ”open magnetic system” of the U-3M device) of the vacuum chamber: according to
estimation it gives sufficiently small errors. For special plasma production conditions (additional
gas-puffing) an ECE ”cut-off” phenomenon (rapid signal drop) due to the overdense plasma is
Thus, it is possible to estimate the value of the local ”threshold” electron density. In the
absence of Thomson scattering system, the temperature data were cross-checked with other electron
temperature related diagnostics (dual foils SXR, optics, etc.). For low density plasma
and for the magnetic field which was set to 0.72 T strong ”afterglow
radiation” has been observed after switching off the RF heating pulse.
A new six channel superheterodyne radiometer operating within frequency range 57-74 GHz
which is optimized for the X2 radiation (central magnetic field 0.95-1.15 T) is under installation for
the plasma experiments. As an initial phase, the experiments for observing optically thin X3
radiation from low field side (central field of 0.68-0.72 T) were performed at the 60 GHz frequency.
For the case where the main magnetic field was downshifted to 0.7-0.68T the rather
significant narrowing of the hot plasma radius was observed. This could be attributed to the
enhanced heating scenario where RF heating power profile is more shifted to the plasma center.
DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF CHERENKOV-TYPE DETECTORS
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