Another Polish Uprising 1863-1864: Another Polish Uprising


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1863-1864: Another Polish Uprising

  • 1863-1864: Another Polish Uprising

    • Suppressed and Polish-Lithuanian territories excluded from reforms
  • 1863: Finnish Diet restored and the Finnish language raised to national language

  • 1867: Ems Ukaz banned publications in Ukrainian, Lithuanian, and Belarussian.

  • Petersburg zemstvo became very assertive and critical.

  • Alexander saw this as too much independence from nobility



Oct. 1870: Prince Gorchakov: no more Black Sea neutrality

  • Oct. 1870: Prince Gorchakov: no more Black Sea neutrality

  • 1873: Russia annexed Khiva

  • 1875-1876: Balkan Christians rose up

  • April 1877: Russia declared war on Ottomans

  • January 1878: Ottomans defeated

  • March 1878: Treaty of San Stefano

  • June-July 1878: Congress of Berlin forced Russia to give up “Greater Bulgaria”



1860s-1870s: narodniki:

  • 1860s-1870s: narodniki:

  • Nostalgic about peasants and the commune.

  • Saw 1861 as replacing nobles with capitalists, destroying “true Russia” and that peasants got a bad deal.

  • 1873-75: Back to the People’s movement (Khozhdenie v narod)

  • Clashed with peasants’ indifference and suspicion

  • 1876: Land and Liberty (Zemlya I volya)

  • Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will)



First assassination attempt:

  • First assassination attempt:

  • Dmitry V. Karakozov (1840-1866)

  • Born in minor noble family

  • Studied at Kazan University, 1861-1864

  • Moscow University, 1864-1866

  • Early 1866 joined Ishutin society (cousin Nikolai Ishutin)

  • Tactic: “individualist terror”

  • Issued proclamation: “To Brothers-Workers”

  • 4 April 1866: attempted

  • Osip I. Komissarov (enobled)

  • Karakazov (convicted and hung)



Father was a government official

  • Father was a government official

  • Excellent student: won scholarship to study in St. Petersburg

  • 1865: enrolled in Law Faculty at St. Petersburg University

  • Quit because of lack of money

  • Became a teacher in the provinces

  • Deeply religious ascetic, then disillusioned

  • 1876 joined "Land and Freedom”.

  • 1877-1878: “went to the people” - the peasants of the Volga region.

  • 20 April 1879: fired five shots, missed Alexander

  • Arrested, tried, and hanged (28 May 1879)



Social revolution impossible without political revolution.

  • Social revolution impossible without political revolution.

  • Program:

    • Constituent Assembly
    • universal suffrage
    • permanent people’s representation
    • freedom of speech, press, and assembly
    • communal self-government
    • people’s volunteer army
    • transfer of land to the people
    • gradual placement of the factories under the control of the workers
    • granting oppressed peoples of the Russian Empire the right to self-determination


Assassination attempts:

  • Assassination attempts:

    • December 1879: Narodnaya volya (People’s Will) blew up some dynamite under Tsar’s railroad, but missed his train.
    • February 1880: Stephan Khalturin set off a charge under the dining room of the Winter Palace.
    • late for dinner, the tsar was unharmed; although 11 other people were killed and 30 wounded.
    • Seven attempts in total
    • Last successful


Narodnaya volya’s persistent

  • Narodnaya volya’s persistent

    • Cheeseshop tunnel
    • Andrey Zheliabov
    • Sophiya Perovskaya
    • Rysakov
    • Grinevitskii
    • Nikolay Kibalchich (bomb-maker)
  • All major participants sentenced to death.






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