Asca national Model for Counseling Glenna “Missy” Bradford Tolleson

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ASCA National Model for Counseling

  • Glenna “Missy” Bradford Tolleson

  • Submitted as Requirement SC543/91SU2006

All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even in our lifetime on this planet! But let us begin. -John F. Kennedy

What is ASCA National Model?

  • A framework for school counseling programs.

  • A cooperative effort between school, home, and community to benefit students.

  • An attempt to answer NCLB requirements.


  • People have often wondered what is it that school counselors do?

  • The ASCA National Model is an attempt to prompt people to ask the question “How are students different because of the school counseling program?”

  • Provide a logical, systematic approach to school counseling.

  • A guide for states to develop their own models.

The ASCA National Model Will:

  • Establish the school counseling program as an integral component of the academic mission of the school.

  • Ensure every student has equitable access to the program.

  • Identify and deliver the knowledge and skills all students should acquire.

  • Ensure the school counseling program is comprehensive in design and is delivered systematically to all students.

Historical Problems Affecting School Counseling

  • Lack of legitimization.

  • Lack of consistent identify.

  • Limited or no involvement in reform movements.

  • Variation in roles from state to state and site to site.

  • Non-school counselor responsibilities.

Historical Problems

  • Previous failed attempts due to no unity.

  • Lack of basic philosophy.

  • Insufficient student access and inadequate guidance for some students.

  • Lack of counselor accountability.

  • Failure to utilize other resources.

The Solution

Four Target Areas

  • Foundations

  • Accountability

  • Delivery System

  • Management Systems


  • The foundation determines how EVERY student will benefit from school counseling.

  • Beliefs and Philosophy

  • Mission

  • ASCA National Standards in three domains.

The Three Domains

  • Academic Achievement

  • Career Planning

  • Personal/Social Development


  • The activities, interactions, and methods to deliver the counseling program.

  • Guidance curriculum is developed through structured developmental lessons through systemic interaction with K-12 students.

  • Individual student planning – Designed to assist students in establishing individual goals and developing future plans.

Delivery (Con’t)

  • Responsive Services – Traditional role of the school counselor, usually initiated by life events requiring counseling, consultation, referral, peer helping, or information.

  • Systems Support – Administration and management of the organized program.

Management System

  • Organizational process to ensure the program is to ensure the program is organized, concrete, and clearly outlined.

  • Agreements

  • Advisory Council

  • Use of data

Management System

  • Action Plans outlining how results will be achieved to include:

      • Competencies addressed
      • Description of the activity
      • Data driving the decision to address the competency
      • Timeline for activity
      • Responsibility of delivery
      • Means of evaluating student performance
      • Expected results for students

Management System (Con’t)

  • Use of time

    • ASCA National Model recommends counselors spend 80% of time in direct contact with students.
  • Use of calendars

    • Ensures planning as well as keeping everyone involved informed.


  • Measures the effectiveness of the programs in measurable terms with the following:

    • Results report to share with stake holders to ensure programs accountability.
    • School Counselor Performance Standards serve as a basis for counselor evaluation as well as self-evaluation.
    • Program Audit – To evaluate and guide program goals.

Non-Counselor Duties

    • The program refutes the counselor performing duties that really shouldn’t belong to the counselor.
    • Counselors often are forced to perform non-counselor duties including:
      • Master schedule duties
      • Testing coordinators
      • Disciplinarians
      • Classroom coverage
      • Clerical duties

Survey for Model Readiness

  • Take a survey to see if you are ready for the ASCA National Model using the following website:



  • American School Counselor Association (2003). ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs (2nd). Alexandria, VA: Author.

  • Bowers, J., Hatch, T. & Giddis-Schwallie (2001). The brain storm. ASCA School Counselor, 17-19

  • Brown, D. & Trusty, J. (2005). The ASCA National Model, accountability, and establishing causal links between school counselors' activities and student outcomes: a reply to sink. Professional School Counseling. Retrieved from[/articles/mi_mOKOC/is_1_9/ai_n15777277, 2006.


  • University of Massachusetts (2000). Online survey: Center for School Counseling Outcome Research. Retrieved June 30. 2006 from _survey.htm.

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