Asia-Tokyo-Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto


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Asia-Tokyo-Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto

  • Asia-Tokyo-Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto

  • Mega Cities: UN says by 2025 at least 15 cities will be over 20 million

    • Many of the world’s most populous cities are found in the poorest nations-Mexico City, Shanghai, Calcutta, Mumbai & Cairo
    • Close are Bangkok, Indonesia; Lima-Callao, Peru; Saigon-Cholon, Vietnam. Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Shanghai will have over 30 million by 2025
    • Opponents of automobile dependency believe that drivers of automobiles are always going to demand bigger, more streamlined roads. This reduces a city’s ability to plan other types of transportation effectively

Pull factors often more imaginary that real-esp. in less developed areas.

  • Pull factors often more imaginary that real-esp. in less developed areas.

  • 1990s Africa had the fastest growing cities in the world-followed by South Asia, East Asia, South and Middle America. Cities of North America, Southern South America, Australia grew more slowly. Western Europe’s cities grew very little if at all.

  • New York was the world’s largest city for many years-now overtaken by Tokyo, soon Mexico City

  • Cities must ensure that they contain affordable places to live and work to promote the spread of the arts and creative jobs



Zoning laws are lacking in many poor countries

  • Zoning laws are lacking in many poor countries

  • Squatters occupy any open space on the outskirts of the city

  • Sharp contrast between fancy hotels of downtown and slums on outskirts

  • Cairo for example-paved streets give way to dusty alleys, tenements, traffic, garbage & 12.5 m. people bursting at the seams

  • Many American cities developed unevenly between the Industrial Revolution and the late 1900s because developers and investors rejected city plans that allowed businesses and housing to be close together. The separation of housing and commercial zones created dead spaces in many American cities





Many cities in developing nations are growing at a rapid rate with many new arrivals each day.

  • Many cities in developing nations are growing at a rapid rate with many new arrivals each day.

  • Unofficial suburbs such as a favela of Rio de Janeiro are poor and often lack basic services. (Disamenity sector)

  • Clinging to a hillside, this neighborhood often suffers fatal landslides during heavy rains.

  • the concentric zone model provided a way for urban residents to move up economically and socially by allowing them to migrate progressively away from the central business district. The central business district, at the center of the city, was seen as the most undesirable neighborhood for urban residents



Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman Multiple Nuclei Sector Model 1945 showed that CBD is not the sole force in creating land-use patterns. Concentric Rings & Pie-shaped models have drawbacks as CBDs were losing dominance. Subsidiary and competing CBDs developed (Edge Cities). Suburbanization accelerated the change with shopping malls and mass transit. A city fits the multiple-nuclei model if it has no central business district and contains a variety of different industries in different areas

  • Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman Multiple Nuclei Sector Model 1945 showed that CBD is not the sole force in creating land-use patterns. Concentric Rings & Pie-shaped models have drawbacks as CBDs were losing dominance. Subsidiary and competing CBDs developed (Edge Cities). Suburbanization accelerated the change with shopping malls and mass transit. A city fits the multiple-nuclei model if it has no central business district and contains a variety of different industries in different areas



After World War II, many European nations built subsidized public housing blocks within the city in efficient, yet unattractive modern apartment blocks to house returning refugees and those who had lost their homes to bombing and looting

  • After World War II, many European nations built subsidized public housing blocks within the city in efficient, yet unattractive modern apartment blocks to house returning refugees and those who had lost their homes to bombing and looting

  • Every city or town has an economic base.

  • Basic sector-workers who produce goods for export or local consumption

  • Non Basic sector or Service sector-workers who maintain the city, work in offices and provide services for others

  • The number of Non basic sector workers is always greater than Basic sector workers-as cities increase in size the ratio increases

  • Most large cities have a ratio of 1 to 2

  • Multiplier Effect-if a business adds 50 manufacturing jobs-another 100 non-basic workers will be added to the work force



A dominant service or industry was found in many cities during the Industrial Revolution.

  • A dominant service or industry was found in many cities during the Industrial Revolution.

  • Chauncy Harris wrote “A Functional Classification of Cities in the United States” in 1943-in it he described the concentration of manufacturing cities in the Northeast with functional specialization and the wide diversity of western cities with no dominant function

  • e.g. Detroit-automobiles, Pittsburgh-steel; Las Vegas and Atlantic City gambling; Leadville, Colorado-mining; Vero Beach, Florida-resorts. Trend today is toward diversity-especially in the Rustbelt.

  • Until recently, many transportation plants for urban areas failed to create space for environmentally friendly corridors for transportation such as pedestrian walkways and bicycle paths



Central Places-hierarchy is based on population, function & services.

  • Central Places-hierarchy is based on population, function & services.

  • Economic reach-how functions & services attract customers from areas beyond the urban limits.

  • Centrality-the central position & ability to attract customers to a village, town or city.

  • Range of Sale-the distance people are willing to travel to buy goods or services

  • As an urban neighborhoods socioeconomic status decreases, its residents are more likely to be denied the opportunity to enter into mortgages and receive home loans





Christaller tried to determine the degree of centrality of various places.

  • Christaller tried to determine the degree of centrality of various places.

  • He created a model to show how central places in the urban hierarchy are spatially distributed.

  • He assumed:

    • No physical barriers
    • Soil and surface of equal quality
    • Even distribution of population
    • Uniform transportation system
    • Studies have shown that a rise in the number of high-wage jobs in the suburbs often corresponds with a rise in the number of low-wage jobs in the central city


Christaller’s urban model showed that each central place had a complementary hinterland.

  • Christaller’s urban model showed that each central place had a complementary hinterland.

  • The hexagonal model solves the overlap problem that circles would have.

  • Nesting arrangement-region within a region-each larger complementary region is centered on a higher order urban place





Downtown-the core of the city with high-rise skyscrapers, heavy traffic, production, education, services etc.

  • Downtown-the core of the city with high-rise skyscrapers, heavy traffic, production, education, services etc.

  • The CBD is the urban area of commercial & industrial zones within a ring of residential areas.

  • Suburb-an outlying residential area of the urban region that is most pronounced in the US

  • Many of the megacities of tomorrow are actually multiple cities that are growing toward one another with the promise that they will become one densely populated urban area





The price paid to rent or purchase urban land is a reflection of its utility or usefulness.

  • The price paid to rent or purchase urban land is a reflection of its utility or usefulness.

  • Utility is a product of accessibility to customers & workers or for residents to jobs and amenities.

  • In many developing nations, rural migrants travel to the country’s large cities on a seasonal basis to find employment



Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess)

  • Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess)

  • Sector model (Homer Hoyt)

  • Multiple Nuclei Model

    • (Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)


Ernest Burgess-1925 Concentric Zone Model based on studies of Chicago.

  • Ernest Burgess-1925 Concentric Zone Model based on studies of Chicago.

  • CBD-financial, retail, theater, museums etc.

  • Transition to residential with deterioration-some light industry

  • Blue collar labor housing

  • Middle class residential

  • Suburban ring



Copenhagen, Denmark, is a primate city because it has the highest population of any metropolitan area in the country. It is also the cultural center of the nation

  • Copenhagen, Denmark, is a primate city because it has the highest population of any metropolitan area in the country. It is also the cultural center of the nation





Functional Zonation

  • Functional Zonation

  • The division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions).





Homer Hoyt-1939 Sector Model based on studies of 142 US cities.

  • Homer Hoyt-1939 Sector Model based on studies of 142 US cities.

  • Pie-shaped wedges created by Hoyt compensated for the drawbacks of the Ring Model

  • Low Rent areas & High Rent areas could extend to the outer edge

  • Transportation and industrial zones accounted for the sectors

  • Since the 1980s, decentralization has increased as developers have chosen to build suburbs and edge cities that are increasingly farther away from the central city







With urban sprawl and expanding suburbs-inner city shrinks

  • With urban sprawl and expanding suburbs-inner city shrinks

  • CBD is often reduced to serving just the inner metro area

  • As basic sector jobs leave-large cities have shifted to service industries

  • Loss of tax base as businesses, industries and services leave

  • Urban decay results

  • Christaller’s central place theory, which provides a reason why a certain number of human settlements exist in an urban system, assumes that perfect competition exists because all consumers have the same income and shop in the same way



Redlining – financial institutions refusing to lend money in certain neighborhoods.

  • Redlining – financial institutions refusing to lend money in certain neighborhoods.

  • Blockbusting – realtors purposefully sell a home at a low price to an African American and then solicit white residents to sell their homes at low prices, to generate “white flight.”



New York City a good example:

  • New York City a good example:

    • 3 million people plus uncounted illegals crowd into 75 to 100 year old apartment buildings
    • Many buildings are worn out, rat & roach infested with high crime rates, vandalism and cases of spouse & child abuse
  • Yet despite the problems there is a sense of community that may be lost if the neighborhood is torn down



Deglomeration-as globalization and improved communication and transportation have developed-many businesses leave the high costs of downtown since it is no longer an advantage to cluster with other similar businesses-the results are rustbelt cities with urban decay, loss of tax revenue and abandoned property

  • Deglomeration-as globalization and improved communication and transportation have developed-many businesses leave the high costs of downtown since it is no longer an advantage to cluster with other similar businesses-the results are rustbelt cities with urban decay, loss of tax revenue and abandoned property



Gentrification – individuals buy up and rehabilitate houses, raising the housing value in the neighborhood and changing the neighborhood.

  • Gentrification – individuals buy up and rehabilitate houses, raising the housing value in the neighborhood and changing the neighborhood.

  • Commercialization – city governments transform a central city to attract residents and tourists. The newly commercialized downtowns often are a stark contrast to the rest of the central city.



The larger the city-the fewer there are-

  • The larger the city-the fewer there are-

  • Model indicates that the population of a city or town in inversely proportional (the fraction) to its rank in the hierarchy

  • The rank-size rule governs the distribution of cities in a country or region. It states that a country or region has a city that is the largest, in terms of population, and other cities decrease in population compared to the largest city.

  • If largest city is 12 million then 2nd largest is 6 m. (1/2) 3rd largest is 4 m. (2/3) 4th largest is 3 m. or (3/4) 10th largest is 1.2 million



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