At the beginning the Roman Forum was a valley, situated between the Palatine Hill and the Capitoline hill where a lot of tributaries of the Tiber flowed


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At the beginning the Roman Forum was a valley, situated between the Palatine Hill and the Capitoline hill where a lot of tributaries of the Tiber flowed. On this hills there where a lot of small agricultural and pastoral villages that used the valley as a cimitery. Under king Tarquinio Prisco it was created the Cloaca Maxima that drained all the valley and the Roman Forum was built.

  • At the beginning the Roman Forum was a valley, situated between the Palatine Hill and the Capitoline hill where a lot of tributaries of the Tiber flowed. On this hills there where a lot of small agricultural and pastoral villages that used the valley as a cimitery. Under king Tarquinio Prisco it was created the Cloaca Maxima that drained all the valley and the Roman Forum was built.



The Forum at the end of empire: some pagan temples could survive because they were transformed into churches, such as the temple of Romulus, who was replaced by the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda and the bronze door is the original of the Diocletian period. Many other relics from Roman antiquity were re-used in medieval churches and in this way they have been preserved. In the Middle Ages there was a different fate for other monuments that were destroyed because the Forum was used as pasture for domestic animals and as arable land, in fact its name would have become "Campo Vaccino", a place where cows grazed and the territory left free from this activity was used by important families to build their mansions.

  • The Forum at the end of empire: some pagan temples could survive because they were transformed into churches, such as the temple of Romulus, who was replaced by the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda and the bronze door is the original of the Diocletian period. Many other relics from Roman antiquity were re-used in medieval churches and in this way they have been preserved. In the Middle Ages there was a different fate for other monuments that were destroyed because the Forum was used as pasture for domestic animals and as arable land, in fact its name would have become "Campo Vaccino", a place where cows grazed and the territory left free from this activity was used by important families to build their mansions.



An example of re-use of the Forum in Medieval structures, is the porch of the Middle Ages (1200), where we can see the different soil layers indicating different ages of re-use. At the time of Charlemagne (IX century), the valley of the Forum and Rome were marred by a very strong earthquake and a flooding of the Tiber, which covered many ruins. Until the end of XIX century all the ruins were not visible, so almost no one knew anything about the Roman Forum. It was only in the late XIX century that interest revived in a more scholarly approach to Roman antiquity, but it was only after the Unification of Italy that major excavations were conducted in the Forum. The leading archaeologists were Pietro Rosa, Giuseppe Fiorelli, Rodolfo Lanciani and Giacomo Boni, scholars to whom Roman archaeology is deeply indebted. Giacomo Boni, in particular, decided to undertake an extensive excavation terminating it in a few years (1898-1903). He discovered many previously unknown things, including a burial ground containing Archaic tombs of the IX century BC, before the founding of the city.

  • An example of re-use of the Forum in Medieval structures, is the porch of the Middle Ages (1200), where we can see the different soil layers indicating different ages of re-use. At the time of Charlemagne (IX century), the valley of the Forum and Rome were marred by a very strong earthquake and a flooding of the Tiber, which covered many ruins. Until the end of XIX century all the ruins were not visible, so almost no one knew anything about the Roman Forum. It was only in the late XIX century that interest revived in a more scholarly approach to Roman antiquity, but it was only after the Unification of Italy that major excavations were conducted in the Forum. The leading archaeologists were Pietro Rosa, Giuseppe Fiorelli, Rodolfo Lanciani and Giacomo Boni, scholars to whom Roman archaeology is deeply indebted. Giacomo Boni, in particular, decided to undertake an extensive excavation terminating it in a few years (1898-1903). He discovered many previously unknown things, including a burial ground containing Archaic tombs of the IX century BC, before the founding of the city.



The Roman Forum was used for political meetings, for commercial purposes and also for religious functions. In the Forum there are several churches that during the years have been reconstructed, one of those is the Basilica Emilia. The Basilica Emilia was the square of the Roman Forum and had a commercial function but also possessed the characteristic of being covered. The Basilica Emilia derives from Greek structures has a rectangular plane full of columns that support the roof. The interior spaces of the columns are called naves, which later became the naves of churches, in fact the Christian basilicas take over the structures of the classical Roman basilica. The Basilica Emilia is the oldest of the Forum. In the Forum there is also the Basilica Julia, which was built by Julius Caesar; originally, there were other more ancient basilicas, but they were destroyed and replaced by these latter ones. We also find the remains of the Temple of Deified Julius, which was built by Augustus in 44 BC following the death of Caesar, who was killed in the Curia which, at that time, was not in the Roman Forum because the old structure was under renovation.

  • The Roman Forum was used for political meetings, for commercial purposes and also for religious functions. In the Forum there are several churches that during the years have been reconstructed, one of those is the Basilica Emilia. The Basilica Emilia was the square of the Roman Forum and had a commercial function but also possessed the characteristic of being covered. The Basilica Emilia derives from Greek structures has a rectangular plane full of columns that support the roof. The interior spaces of the columns are called naves, which later became the naves of churches, in fact the Christian basilicas take over the structures of the classical Roman basilica. The Basilica Emilia is the oldest of the Forum. In the Forum there is also the Basilica Julia, which was built by Julius Caesar; originally, there were other more ancient basilicas, but they were destroyed and replaced by these latter ones. We also find the remains of the Temple of Deified Julius, which was built by Augustus in 44 BC following the death of Caesar, who was killed in the Curia which, at that time, was not in the Roman Forum because the old structure was under renovation.





The Regia was a structure in Ancient Rome in the Roman Forum that originally functioned as the residence or one of the main headquarters of the kings of Rome and later as the office of the Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Roman religion. It occupied a triangular patch of terrain between the Temple of Vesta, the Temple of the Deified Julius and the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. Only the foundations of Republican/Imperial Regia remain. Like the Curia, it was destroyed and rebuilt several times, as far back as the Roman monarchy. Studies have found multiple layers of similar buildings with more regular features, prompting the theory that this "Republican Regia" was to have a different use.

  • The Regia was a structure in Ancient Rome in the Roman Forum that originally functioned as the residence or one of the main headquarters of the kings of Rome and later as the office of the Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Roman religion. It occupied a triangular patch of terrain between the Temple of Vesta, the Temple of the Deified Julius and the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. Only the foundations of Republican/Imperial Regia remain. Like the Curia, it was destroyed and rebuilt several times, as far back as the Roman monarchy. Studies have found multiple layers of similar buildings with more regular features, prompting the theory that this "Republican Regia" was to have a different use.



The Lapis Niger (Latin, "Black Stone") is an ancient shrine in the Roman Forum. Together with the associated Vulcanal (a sanctuary to Vulcan) it constitutes the only surviving remnant of the old Comitium, an early assembly area that preceded the Forum and is thought to derive from an archaic cult site of the VII or VIII century BC. The black marble paving (I century BC) and modern concrete enclosure (early XX century) of the Lapis Niger overlie an ancient tomb or altar and a stone block with one of the earliest known Latin inscriptions (ca. 570–550 BC). The superstructure monument and shrine may have been built by Julius Caesar during his reorganization of the Forum and Comitium space.

  • The Lapis Niger (Latin, "Black Stone") is an ancient shrine in the Roman Forum. Together with the associated Vulcanal (a sanctuary to Vulcan) it constitutes the only surviving remnant of the old Comitium, an early assembly area that preceded the Forum and is thought to derive from an archaic cult site of the VII or VIII century BC. The black marble paving (I century BC) and modern concrete enclosure (early XX century) of the Lapis Niger overlie an ancient tomb or altar and a stone block with one of the earliest known Latin inscriptions (ca. 570–550 BC). The superstructure monument and shrine may have been built by Julius Caesar during his reorganization of the Forum and Comitium space.







FRESCOES

  • FRESCOES

  • In the upper floor there are some frescoes, dating to different periods; one of these is made of different layers. Its original painting represents St. Peter and St. Paul, while the second layer represents Jesus who crowns them. On the same wall there is another fresco (1250) representing the Vergin Mary that hugs the believers with her red cloak; they don’t look at her. Instead they look at the Saints in the other picture. On the upper right corner we can see a church, as we understand thanks to its bell tower.

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  • A Medieval legend tells that St. Peter, going down to the Tullianum, fell hitting the wall, thus leaving the imprint of is head in the stone (the imprint, from 1720, is protected by a grille). According to a legend, St. Peter and St. Paul, imprisoned in the dungeon with other followers of Christ, made a spring of water miraculously appear and were able to convert and baptize the guards of the prison, Processus and Martianus, who became martyrs themselves. The name “mamertine” may be a reference to “Mamers” the ancient name of Mars, or to the name of the Roman King Ancus Martius.


























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