Basic legal citation


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Document Outline

  • Table of Contents
  • PREFACE
    • A Few Tips on Using Introduction to Basic Legal Citation
    • Help with Citation Issues Beyond the Scope of this Work
    • Comments, Corrections, Extensions
    • Additional Resources
  • § 1-000. BASIC LEGAL CITATION: WHAT AND WHY?
    • § 1-100. Introduction
    • § 1-200. Purposes of Legal Citation
    • § 1-300. Types of Citation Principles
    • § 1-400. Levels of Mastery
    • § 1-500. Citation in Transition: From Proprietary Print Citations to Vendor- and Medium-Neutral Schemes
    • § 1-600. Who Sets Citation Norms
  • § 2-000. HOW TO CITE ... 
    • § 2-100. How to Cite Electronic Sources
      • § 2-110. Electronic Sources – Core Elements
      • § 2-115. Electronic Sources – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-120. Electronic Sources – Variants and Special Cases
    • § 2-200. How to Cite Judicial Opinions
      • § 2-210. Case Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-215. Case Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-220. Case Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-225. Case Citations – More Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-230. Medium-Neutral Case Citations
      • § 2-240. Case Citations – Conditional Items
      • § 2-250. Citing Unpublished Cases
    • § 2-300. How to Cite Constitutions, Statutes, and Similar Materials
      • § 2-310. Constitution Citations
      • § 2-320. Statute Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-330. Statute Citations – Conditional items
      • § 2-335. Statute Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-340. Statute Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-350. Local Ordinance Citations
      • § 2-360. Treaty Citations
    • § 2-400. How to Cite Regulations, Other Agency and Executive Material
      • § 2-410. Regulation Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-415. Regulation Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-420. Regulation Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-450. Agency Adjudication Citations
      • § 2-455. Agency Adjudication Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-470. Agency Report Citations
      • § 2-480. Citations to Executive Orders and Proclamations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-485. Citations to Executive Orders and Proclamations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-490. Citations to Attorney General and Other Advisory Opinions – Most Common Form
      • § 2-495. Citations to Attorney General and Other Advisory Opinions – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
    • § 2-500. How to Cite Arbitration Decisions
    • § 2-600. How to Cite Court Rules
    • § 2-700. How to Cite Books
      • § 2-710. Book Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-715. Book Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
      • § 2-720. Book Citations – Variants and Special Cases
    • § 2-800. How to Cite Articles and Other Law Journal Writing
      • § 2-810. Journal Article Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 2-820. Journal Article Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 2-825. Journal Article Citations – Points of Difference in Citation Practice
    • § 2-900. How to Cite Documents from Earlier Stages of the Same Case
  • § 3-000. EXAMPLES – CITATIONS OF ... 
    • § 3-100. Electronic Sources
      • § 3-110. Electronic Citations – Core Elements
    • § 3-200. Judicial Opinions
      • § 3-210. Case Citations – Most Common Form
      • Federal Case Citations:
      • Supreme Court
      • Courts of Appeals
      • Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
      • District Courts
      • Bankruptcy Courts and Bankruptcy Panels
      • Court of Federal Claims
      • Tax Court
      • Military Service Courts of Criminal Appeals
      • State Case Citations:
      • Alabama
      • Alaska
      • Arizona
      • Arkansas
      • California
      • Colorado
      • Connecticut
      • Delaware
      • District of Columbia
      • Florida
      • Georgia
      • Hawaii
      • Idaho
      • Illinois
      • Indiana
      • Iowa
      • Kansas
      • Kentucky
      • Louisiana
      • Maine
      • Maryland
      • Massachusetts
      • Michigan
      • Minnesota
      • Mississippi
      • Missouri
      • Montana
      • Nebraska
      • Nevada
      • New Hampshire
      • New Jersey
      • New Mexico
      • New York
      • North Carolina
      • North Dakota
      • Ohio
      • Oklahoma
      • Oregon
      • Pennsylvania
      • Rhode Island
      • South Carolina
      • South Dakota
      • Tennessee
      • Texas
      • Utah
      • Vermont
      • Virginia
      • Washington
      • West Virginia
      • Wisconsin
      • Wyoming
      • § 3-220. Case Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 3-230. Medium-Neutral Case Citations
      • § 3-240. Case Citations – Conditional Items
    • § 3-300. Constitutions and Statutes
      • § 3-310. Constitutions
      • Federal Statute Citations
      • State Statute Citations
      • Alabama
      • Alaska
      • Arizona
      • Arkansas
      • California
      • Colorado
      • Connecticut
      • Delaware
      • District of Columbia
      • Florida
      • Georgia
      • Hawaii
      • Idaho
      • Illinois
      • Indiana
      • Iowa
      • Kansas
      • Kentucky
      • Louisiana
      • Maine
      • Maryland
      • Massachusetts
      • Michigan
      • Minnesota
      • Mississippi
      • Missouri
      • Montana
      • Nebraska
      • Nevada
      • New Hampshire
      • New Jersey
      • New Mexico
      • New York
      • North Carolina
      • North Dakota
      • Ohio
      • Oklahoma
      • Oregon
      • Pennsylvania
      • Rhode Island
      • South Carolina
      • South Dakota
      • Tennessee
      • Texas
      • Utah
      • Vermont
      • Virginia
      • Washington
      • West Virginia
      • Wisconsin
      • Wyoming
      • § 3-340. Statute Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 3-350. Local Ordinance Citations
      • § 3-360. Treaty Citations
    • § 3-400. Regulations, Other Agency and Executive Material
      • § 3-410. Regulation Citations – Most Common Form
      • Alabama
      • Alaska
      • Arizona
      • Arkansas
      • California
      • Colorado
      • Connecticut
      • Delaware
      • District of Columbia
      • Florida
      • Georgia
      • Hawaii
      • Idaho
      • Illinois
      • Indiana
      • Iowa
      • Kansas
      • Kentucky
      • Louisiana
      • Maine
      • Maryland
      • Massachusetts
      • Michigan
      • Minnesota
      • Mississippi
      • Missouri
      • Montana
      • Nebraska
      • Nevada
      • New Hampshire
      • New Jersey
      • New Mexico
      • New York
      • North Carolina
      • North Dakota
      • Ohio
      • Oklahoma
      • Oregon
      • Pennsylvania
      • Rhode Island
      • South Carolina
      • South Dakota
      • Tennessee
      • Texas
      • Utah
      • Vermont
      • Virginia
      • Washington
      • West Virginia
      • Wisconsin
      • § 3-420. Regulation Citations – Variants and Special Cases
      • § 3-480. Executive Orders and Proclamations
      • § 3-490. Attorney General and Other Advisory Opinions
    • § 3-500. Arbitration Decisions
    • § 3-600. Court Rules
    • § 3-700. Books
      • § 3-710. Book Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 3-720. Book Citations – Variants and Special Cases
    • § 3-800. Articles and Other Law Journal Writing
      • § 3-810. Journal Article Citations – Most Common Form
      • § 3-820. Journal Articles – Variants and Special Cases
  • § 4-000. ABBREVIATIONS AND OMISSIONS USED IN CITATIONS
    • § 4-100. Words Abbreviated in Case Names
    • § 4-200. Abbreviations for Words Used in Providing Case Histories
    • § 4-300. Words Omitted in Case Names
    • § 4-400. Reporters and Courts
      • § 4-410. Reporter and Court Abbreviations – Federal Courts
      • § 4-420. Reporter and Court Abbreviations – The States and D.C.
    • § 4-500. State Abbreviations
    • § 4-600. Months
    • § 4-700. Frequently Cited Journals
    • § 4-800. Spacing between Abbreviated Words and Periods in Abbreviations
      • § 4-810. Spacing between Abbreviated Words
      • § 4-820. Periods in Abbreviations
    • § 4-900. Documents from Earlier Stages of a Case
  • § 5-000. UNDERLINING AND ITALICS
    • § 5-100. In Citations
    • § 5-200. In Text
    • § 5-300. Citation Items Not Italicized
  • § 6-000. PLACING CITATIONS IN CONTEXT
    • § 6-100. Quoting
    • § 6-200. Citations and Related Text
    • § 6-300. Signals
      • (a) Signals that indicate support.
      • (b) Signals that suggest a useful comparison.
      • (c) Signals that indicate contradiction.
      • (d) Signals that indicate background material.
      • (e) Combining a signal with "e.g."
    • § 6-400. Order
    • § 6-500. Short Form Citations
      • § 6-520. Short Form Citations - Cases
      • § 6-530. Short Form Citations - Constitutions and Statutes
      • § 6-540. Short Form Citations - Regulations
      • § 6-550. Short Form Citations - Books
    • § 6-560. Short Form Citations - Journal Articles
    • § 6-600. Context Examples
  • § 7-000. CROSS REFERENCE TABLES
    • § 7-100. Introduction
    • § 7-200. Significant Changes in The Bluebook:
      • 19th edition
      • 18th edition
      • 17th edition
    • § 7-300. Cross Reference Table: The Bluebook
    • § 7-400. Cross Reference Table: ALWD Citation Manual
    • § 7-500. Table of State-Specific Citation Norms and Practices
    • Alabama
      • Examples from White-Spunner Constr., Inc. v. Constr. Completion Co., LLC, 103 So. 3d 781 (Ala. 2012)
      • Ala. R. App. P. 28
    • Alaska
      • Examples from State v. Dupier, 118 P.3d 1039 (Alaska 2005)
      • Alaska R. App. P. 212(c)
    • Arizona
      • Examples from Ry-Tan Constr., Inc. v. Wash. Elem. Sch. Dist. No. 6, 210 Ariz. 419, 111 P.3d 1019 (2005)
      • Ariz. R. Civ. App. P. 13(a)
    • Arkansas
      • Examples from Hinojosa v. State, 2009 Ark. 301
      • Ark. Sup. Ct. & Ct. App. R. 4-2(a), 5-2(b)
    • California
      • Examples from Zuckerman v. Bd. of Chiropractic Exam'rs, 29 Cal. 4th 32, 53 P.3d 119, 124 Cal. Rptr. 2d 701 (2002)
      • Cal. Ct. R. 1.200
      • Cal. Ct. R. 3.1113
    • Colorado
      • Examples from Colo. Oil & Gas Conservation Comm'n v. Grand Valley Citizens' Alliance, 2012 CO 52, 279 P.3d 646
      • Colo. C.J. Directive 12-01
    • Connecticut
      • Examples from Ruffin v. Dep't of Pub. Works, 50 Conn. Supp. 98, 914 A.2d 617 (2006)
      • Conn. R. App. P § 67-11
    • Delaware
      • Examples from Del. Bd. of Nursing v. Gillespie, 41 A.3d 423 (Del. 2012)
      • Del. Sup. Ct. R. 14(g)
    • D.C.
      • Examples from Dorsey v. District of Columbia, 917 A.2d 639 (D.C. 2007)
      • D.C. Ct. App. R 28(g)
      • D.C. Super. Ct. Civ. P.R. 12-I(e)
    • Florida
      • Examples from North Lauderdale v. SMM Properties, Inc., 825 So. 2d 343 (Fla. 2002)
      • Fla. R. App. P. 9.800
    • Georgia
      • Examples from Hollingsworth Concrete Prods., Inc., 274 Ga. 210, 553 S.E.2d 270 (2001)
      • Ga. Sup. Ct. R. 22
      • Ga. Ct. App. R. 24(c)
    • Hawaii
      • Examples from State v. Kotis, 91 Haw. 319, 984 P.2d 78 (1999)
      • Hawaii R. App. P. 28
    • Idaho
      • Examples from Am. Falls Reservoir Dist. No. 2 v. Idaho Dep't of Water Res., 143 Idaho 862, 154 P.3d 433 (2007)
      • Idaho S. Ct. Internal R 15
    • Illinois
      • Examples from Hines v. Dep't of Pub. Aid, 221 Ill. 2d 222, 850 N.E.2d 148 (2006)
      • Ill. Sup. Ct. R. 6
    • Indiana
      • Examples from Caesars Riverboat Casino, LLC v. Kephart, 934 N.E.2d 1120 (Ind. 2010)
      • Ind. R. App. P. 22
    • Iowa
      • Examples from Al-Khattat v. Eng'g & Land Surveying Examining Bd., 644 N.W.2d 18 (Iowa 2002)
      • Iowa R. App. P. 6.904
    • Kansas
      • Examples from Schmidt v. Kan. State Bd. of Technical Professions, 271 Kan. 206, 21 P.3d 542 (2001)
      • Kan. Ct. R. 6.08
    • Kentucky
      • Examples from Adams v. NHC Healthcare, 199 S.W.3d 163 (Ky. 2006)
      • Ky. Civ. R. 76.12(4)(g)
    • Louisiana
      • Examples from State v. Alfonso, 99-1546 (La. 12/07/99), 753 So. 2d 156
      • La. Sup. Ct. Gen. Admin. R. § 8
      • La. Unif R. Ct. App. 2-12.4
    • Maine
      • Examples from Powers Trust v. Bd. of Envtl. Prot., 2011 ME 40, 15 A.3d 1273
      • Me. Admin. Order, No. SJC-216 (Aug. 20, 1996).
    • Maryland
      • Examples from State Comm'n on Human Relations v. Talbot County Det. Ctr., 370 Md. 115, 803 A.2d 527 (2002)
      • Md. R. 1-104, 8-504
    • Massachusetts
      • Examples from City Council of Agawam v. Energy Facilities Siting Bd., 437 Mass. 821, 776 N.E.2d 1002 (2002)
      • Mass. R. App. P. 16(g)
    • Michigan
      • Examples from Great Wolf Lodge of Traverse City, LLC v. PSC, 489 Mich. 27, 799 N.W.2d 155 (2011)
      • Mich. Admin. Order 2006-3
    • Minnesota
      • Examples from Breza v. City of Minnetrista, 725 N.W.2d 106 (Minn. 2006)
    • Mississippi
      • Examples from Alford v. Miss. Div. of Medicaid, 30 So. 3d 1212 (Miss. 2010)
      • Miss. R. App. P. 28(f)
    • Missouri
      • Examples from State ex rel. Sunshine Enters. of Mo., Inc. v. Bd. of Adjustment, 64 S.W.3d 310 (Mo. 2002)
    • Montana
      • Examples from Briese v. Mont. Pub. Emples. Ret. Bd., 2012 MT 192, 366 Mont. 148, 285 P.3d 550
      • Mont. Sup. Ct. Internal Op. Rules, § VII
      • Mont. Sup.Ct. Order of Jan. 22, 2009
    • Nebraska
      • Examples from Bethesda Found. v. Neb. Dep't of Soc. Serv., 243 Neb. 130, 498 N.W.2d 86 (1993)
      • Neb. Ct. R. App. Pract. 2-109
    • Nevada
      • Examples from Nev. Tax Comm'n v. Nev. Cement Co., 36 P.3d 418 (Nev. 2001)
      • Nev. Sup. Ct. R. 123
    • New Hampshire
      • Examples from State v. Caswell, 146 N.H. 243, 769 A.2d 387 (2001)
      • N.H. Sup. Ct. R. 16
    • New Jersey
      • Examples from Toll Bros., Inc. v. Township of W. Windsor, 173 N.J. 502, 803 A.2d 53 (2002)
      • N.J. Ct. R. 2:6-2
    • New Mexico
      • Examples from State v. Johnson, 2009-NMSC-049, 147 N.M. 177, 218 P.3d 863 (2009)
      • N. M. Sup. Ct. R. 23-112
    • New York
      • Examples from Aliessa v. Novello, 96 N.Y.2d 418, 754 N.E.2d 1085, 730 N.Y.S.2d 1 (2001)
      • N.Y. Ct. App. R. Pract. § 500.1(g)
    • North Carolina
      • Examples from Craig v. County of Chatham, 356 N.C. 40, 565 S.E.2d 172 (2002)
      • N.C. R. App. P., App. B
    • North Dakota
      • Examples from Zarrett v. Zarrett, 1998 ND 49, 574 N.W.2d 855
      • N.D. R. Ct. 11.6
    • Ohio
      • Examples from State ex rel. Kolcinko v. Ohio Police & Fire Pension Fund, 2012 Ohio 46, 131 Ohio St. 3d 111, 961 N.E.2d 178
      • Ohio Sup. Ct. R. for the Reporting of Decisions (2012)
    • Oklahoma
      • Examples from Rogers v. Quiktrip Corp., 2010 OK 3, 230 P.3d 853
      • Okla. Sup. Ct. R. 1.11, 1.200
      • Okla. Crim. App. R. 3.5(C)
    • Oregon
      • Examples from Coats v. State, 334 Or. 587, 54 P.3d 610 (2002)
      • Or. R. App. P. 5.20, 5.35
    • Pennsylvania
      • Examples from Commonwealth v. Beam, 567 Pa. 492, 788 A.2d 357 (2002)
      • Pa. R. App. P. 2119(b)
    • Rhode Island
      • Examples from Cullen v. Town Council of Lincoln, 893 A.2d 239 (R.I. 2006)
      • R.I. Sup. Ct. R. 16(j)
    • South Carolina
      • Examples from Johnson v. Collins Entm't Co., 349 S.C. 613, 564 S.E.2d 653 (2002)
      • S.C. App. Pract. R. 268
    • South Dakota
      • Examples from State v. Britton, 2009 SD 75, 772 N.W.2d 899
      • S.D. R. Civ. App. P. § 15-26A-69.1
    • Tennessee
      • Examples from Furlough v. Spherion Atl. Workforce, LLC, 397 S.W.3d 114 (Tenn. 2013)
      • Tenn. R. App. P. 27(h)
    • Texas
      • Examples from Gilbert v. El Paso County Hosp. Dist., 38 S.W.3d 85 (Tex. 2001)
      • Note
    • Utah
      • Examples from Menzies v. Galetka, 2006 UT 81, 150 P.3d 480
      • Utah Sup. Ct. Standing Order 4
    • Vermont
      • Examples from City of Montpelier v. Barnett, 2012 VT 32, 49 A.3d 120
      • Vt. R. App. P. 28.2
    • Virginia
      • Examples from Davenport v. Little-Bowser, 269 Va. 546, 611 S.E.2d 366 (2005)
      • Va. Sup. Ct. R 5:27(a), 5:28(a)
    • Washington
      • Examples from Dot Foods, Inc. v. Dep't of Revenue, 166 Wash. 2d 912, 215 P.3d 185 (2009)
      • Wash. Gen. R. 14
    • West Virginia
      • Examples from Sedgmer v. McElroy Coal Co., 220 W.Va. 66, 640 S.E.2d 129 (2006)
      • W. Va. Tr. Ct. R. 6.02
      • Note
    • Wisconsin
      • Examples from State v. T.J. Int'l, Inc., 2001 WI 76, 244 Wis. 2d 481, 628 N.W.2d 774
      • Wis. App. P. R. 809.19(e)
      • Wis. Sup. Ct. R. chapt. 80
    • Wyoming
      • Examples from Lane-Walter v. State ex rel. Wyo. Workers' Safety & Comp. Div., 2011 WY 52, 250 P.3d 513
      • Wyo. Sup. Ct., Order Adopting a Uniform or Neutral-Format Citation (Oct. 2, 2000)

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