Basis of articulation, also known as articulatory setting


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Basis of articulation

In phonetics, the basis of articulation, also

known as articulatory setting,

[1][2]


 is the

default position or standard settings of a

speaker's organs of articulation when

ready to speak. Different languages each

have their own basis of articulation, which

means that native speakers will share a

certain position of tongue, lips, jaw,

possibly even uvula or larynx, when



preparing to speak. These standard

settings enable them to produce the

sounds and prosody of their native

language more efficiently.

[3]

 Honikman



suggests thinking of it in terms of having a

"gear" for English, another for French, and

so on depending on which language is

being learned; in the classroom, when

working on pronunciation, the first thing

the learner must do is to think themselves

into the right gear before starting on

pronunciation exercises.

[4]

 Jenner (2001)



gives a detailed account of how this idea

arose and how Honikman has been



credited with its invention despite a

considerable history of prior study.

[5]

Different accents within a given language



may have their own characteristic basis of

articulation, resulting in one accent being

perceived as, e.g., more 'nasal', 'velarized'

or 'guttural' than another. According to

Cruttenden, "The articulatory setting of a

language or dialect may differ from GB

[General British]. So some languages like

Spanish may have a tendency to hold the

tongue more forward in the mouth, while

others like Russian may have a tendency



to hold it further back in the mouth.

Nasalization may be characteristic of

many speakers of American English, while

denasal voice ... is frequently said to occur

in Liverpool".

[6]


 A more detailed exposition

can be read in Gili Gaya (1956).

[7]

 Non-


native speakers typically find the basis of

articulation one of the greatest challenges

in acquiring a foreign language's

pronunciation. Speaking with the basis of

articulation of their own native language

results in a foreign accent, even if the

individual sounds of the target language

are produced correctly.

[8]


The term Basis of articulation is used in a

slightly different sense to refer to a

hypothesized articulatory "baseline" which

is neutral in respect of individual vowels

and consonants. This is done in the

phonetic framework section of Chomsky

and Halle (1968) for the purposes of

explaining various distinctive features in

terms of their deviation from the neutral

position.

[9]

 More recently, Odden has



written "...some features are characterized

in terms of the 'neutral position' which is a

configuration that the vocal tract is

assumed to have immediately prior to



speaking. The neutral position,

approximately that of the vowel [ɛ], defines

relative movement of the tongue”

[10]


 It is

not clear if this should be taken to refer

only to English.

Articulatory phonetics

Index of phonetics articles

Manner of articulation

Place of articulation

See also


References

1. Mompean, J. A. (2003). Pedagogical

tools for teaching articulatory setting.

In M. J. Solé & D. Recasens (eds.),

Proceedings of the 15th International

Congress of Phonetic Sciences.

1603–1606. Adelaide: Causal

Productions.

2. Mompean. "Voice and Linguistic



Background" . Retrieved 3 April 2016.

3. Celce-Murcia, D. Brinton and J.



Goodwin (1996) Teaching

Pronunciation, Cambridge University

Press pp 27-8

4. Honikman, B. (1964) 'Articulatory

Settings' in In Honour of Daniel Jones,

eds. D. Abercrombie et al, Longman,

pp 73-84.

5. Jenner, B. (2001) 'Articulatory



setting:genealogies of an idea',

Historiographia Linguistica 28:121-141

6. Cruttenden, A. (2014) Gimson's



Pronunciation of English, Routledge, p.

302.

7. Gili Gaya, Samuel (1956). "Base de



articulación". Elementos de fonética

general (in Spanish) (5th ed.). Madrid:

Editorial Gredos. English translation

by Emilio Márquez.

8. Messum, Piers (2010). "Understanding



and teaching the English articulatory

setting". Speak Out! (IATEFL

Pronunciation Special Interest Group

Newsletter) (43): 20–24.

9. Chomsky, N. and Halle, M. (1968) The



Sound Pattern of English

10. Odden, D. (2005) Introducing



Phonology, Cambridge University

Press, p. 136.

Further reading



Vockeradt, Werner. Die Deutsche und die

Englische Artikulationsbasis. Doctoral

Dissertation, Greifswald 1925.

Eisen, Barbara. Phonetische Aspekte

zwischensprachlicher Interferenz:

Untersuchungen zur Artikulationsbasis an

Häsitationspartikeln nicht-nativer

Sprecher des Deutschen. Frankfurt/M.

etc.: Verlag Peter Lang 2001.

Gick, B., I Wilson, K. Koch, C. Cook

(2004) 'Language-specific articulatory

settings: evidence from inter-utterance

rest position', Phonetica, 61:220-233



Kerr, J. (2000) 'Articulatory setting and

voice production: issues in accent

modification', Prospect (Macquarie

University, Sydney) 15(2):4-15

Laver, J. (1978) 'The concept of

articulatory settings: an historical

survey', Historiographia Linguistica,5,1-

14

Laver, J. (1980) The Phonetic Description



of Voice Quality, Cambridge University

Press.


Wilson, I (2006) Articulatory Settings of

French and English Monolingual and

  Last edited 2 years ago by Me, Myself, and I are Here  

Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0  unless

otherwise noted.

Bilingual Speakers, PhD dissertation,

University of British Columbia.

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