Big idea: Earth Scientists use mapping technologies to investigate and describe the world


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BIG Idea: Earth Scientists use mapping technologies to investigate and describe the world.

  • BIG Idea: Earth Scientists use mapping technologies to investigate and describe the world.



  • How can I remember which lines are which?





Because lines of latitude never meet, they are also known as…

  • Because lines of latitude never meet, they are also known as…



  • Each degree consists of 60 equal parts called minutes.

  • Each minute is divided into 60 equal parts called seconds.





Because the Prime MERIDIAN is the main line of longitude, they are also known as…

  • Because the Prime MERIDIAN is the main line of longitude, they are also known as…



  • As with latitude, there are minutes and seconds: D.C. is 77°0’33” West



any 2 lines of longitude directly across from each other on opposite sides of the globe, or

  • any 2 lines of longitude directly across from each other on opposite sides of the globe, or

  • the Equator (the only parallel of latitude that forms a great circle)





Both latitude and longitude are needed to locate positions on Earth precisely.

  • Both latitude and longitude are needed to locate positions on Earth precisely.

  • When giving coordinates, latitude is always given first.

  • Do you know the coordinates of Staunton, VA?





Latitude:  38° 8' 57" N 38 degrees, 8 minutes, 57 seconds North

  • Latitude:  38° 8' 57" N 38 degrees, 8 minutes, 57 seconds North

  • Longitude:  79° 4' 18" W 79 degrees, 4 minutes, 18 seconds West



The distance on Earth's surface for each one degree of latitude or longitude = 69 miles (111 kilometers)

  • The distance on Earth's surface for each one degree of latitude or longitude = 69 miles (111 kilometers)

  • The distance between lines of latitude remains constant. Why?

  • What happens to the distance between lines of longitude as you move north or south of the Equator?



Earth is divided into 24 time zones

  • Earth is divided into 24 time zones

  • Why 24?



Earth takes about 24 hours to rotate once on its axis (360°)

  • Earth takes about 24 hours to rotate once on its axis (360°)

  • 360° ÷ 24 hours = 15° per hour

  • Each time zone is 15° wide

  • Each time zone represents a different hour





180° meridian

  • 180° meridian

  • gain or lose a day

  • travel WEST across the IDL ► advance one calendar day (add 24 hours)

  • travel EAST across the IDL ► move back one calendar day (subtract 24 hours)







Maps are flat projections that come in many different forms

  • Maps are flat projections that come in many different forms



Legend: list of symbols and their meanings

  • Legend: list of symbols and their meanings

  • Scale: ratio between distances on a map and actual distances on Earth’s surface

  • 1:25,000 - one unit on the map equals 25,000 units on Earth’s surface



Geomagnetic poles: points on the Earth’s surface just above the poles of the imaginary magnet

  • Geomagnetic poles: points on the Earth’s surface just above the poles of the imaginary magnet



Magnetic Declination: angle between geographical North Pole and where a compass points to (magnetic north pole).

  • Magnetic Declination: angle between geographical North Pole and where a compass points to (magnetic north pole).

  • True North: Geographic North Pole



Map projection: a flat map that represents a 3-dimensional globe

  • Map projection: a flat map that represents a 3-dimensional globe









Mercator projections show correct shapes of landmasses, but the sizes are distorted…

  • Mercator projections show correct shapes of landmasses, but the sizes are distorted…

  • What’s wrong with this picture?









What are some surface features on Earth that you might find on a topographic map?

  • What are some surface features on Earth that you might find on a topographic map?



mountains

    • mountains
    • hills
    • valleys
    • rivers
    • forests
    • bridges
    • depressions












next to

  • next to

  • adjoining

  • abutting

  • bordering



1. Contours never cross or just stop

  • 1. Contours never cross or just stop

  • 2. Contours never split

  • 3. The closer they are to each other, the steeper the land

  • 4. The further they are from each other the flatter the land



5. If a contour line shows a “V”, the point of the V points UP hill

  • 5. If a contour line shows a “V”, the point of the V points UP hill

  • 6. A river will always flow in the opposite direction of the V’s point (DOWN hill)

  • 7. When contours close in a circle, that represents a hill top

































The side-view of a surface feature

  • The side-view of a surface feature




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