Chapter 7: Atmospheric Circulations Scales of atmospheric motions


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Chapter 7: Atmospheric Circulations

  • Scales of atmospheric motions

  • Eddies - big and small

  • Local wind systems

  • Global winds

  • Global wind patterns and the oceans


Scales of Atmospheric Motions

  • scales of motion

  • microscale

  • mesoscale

  • synoptic scale

  • planetary scale





Eddies - Big and Small

  • eddy

  • rotor

  • wind shear

  • turbulence





Local Wind Systems

  • isobars and density

  • differences

  • thermal circulations



Sea and Land Breezes

  • sea breeze

  • land breeze

  • sea breeze front

  • Florida sea breezes





Seasonally Changing Winds - the Monsoon

  • Monsoon wind system

  • India and eastern Asian monsoon

  • other monsoons





Mountain and Valley Breezes

  • valley breeze

  • mountain breeze



Katabatic Winds

  • Strong drainage winds: steep slope



Chinook (Foehn) Winds

  • Chinook winds—warm and dry

  • compressional heating

  • chinook wall cloud





Santa Ana Winds

  • Santa Ana wind

  • compressional heating

  • wildfires



Desert Winds

  • dust and sand storms

  • dust devils – from surface

  • usually with a diameter of a few

  • meters and a height of <100 m



General Circulation of the Atmosphere

  • cause: unequal heating of the earth’s surface

  • effect: atmospheric heat transport



Single-cell Model

  • basic assumptions: no rotation

  • Hadley cell

  • why is the single-cell model wrong?



Three-cell Model

  • model for a rotating earth

  • Hadley cell

  • doldrums

  • subtropical highs

  • trade winds

  • intertropical

  • convergence zone

  • westerlies

  • polar front

  • polar easterlies





Average Surface Winds and Pressure: The Real World

  • semipermanent highs and lows

  • Bermuda high & Pacific high

  • Icelandic low & Aleutian low

  • Siberian high







The General Circulation and Precipitation Patterns

  • ITCZ, midlatitude

  • storms, polar front



Westerly Winds and the Jet Stream

  • jet streams

  • subtropical jet stream

  • polar front jet stream





Winds and Upwelling

  • Upwelling is strongest when wind is parallel to the coastline



El Niño and the Southern Oscillation

  • El Niño events

  • Southern Oscillation

  • La Niña

  • teleconnections







Other Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions

  • North Atlantic Oscillation

  • Arctic Oscillation: pressure difference between Arctic and regions to its south

  • Pacific Decadal Oscillation






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