Conclusion bibliography lesson plan introduction the actuality of the course paper

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The Noun. Grammatical categories of Number, Case

1.1 Functional-semantic field of number in Modern English
1.2 Functional semantic field of case in Modern English
1.3 Functional-semantic field of gender in Modern English

The actuality of the course paper: the words of each language are divided into several classes of words or parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. The words of a given class show two or more forms in slightly different grammatical conditions. These forms are not interchangeable and each can only be used in a given grammatical situation. This change of form is required by the existence of a grammatical category belonging to this class of words. Thus, a grammatical category is “a linguistic category resulting in the modification of the forms of a certain class of words in a language” [53, 32]. For example, English nouns have the grammatical category of number. Thus, "dog" in the singular and "dogs" in the plural exist, but are not interchangeable in a sentence. A noun can only be used in the singular or plural form, since there can be no other form. English adjectives vary by degree; verbs for time; case pronouns, etc.
Traditional grammarians divide English words into eight classes or parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, preposition, conjunction, adverb, etc.
A grammatical category is an analytic class in the grammar of a language whose members have the same syntactic distribution and are repeated as structural units throughout the language, and which have a common property, which may be semantic or syntactic. In traditional structural grammar, grammatical categories represent semantic distinctions; this is reflected in the morphological or syntactic paradigm. But in generative grammar, which considers meaning apart from grammar, they are categories that determine the distribution of syntactic elements. For structuralists such as Roman Jakobson, grammatical categories were lexemes based on binary oppositions of “a single sign of meaning, equally present in all contexts of use” [51, 37]. Another way to define a grammatical category is one that expresses meanings from one conceptual area, contrasts with other such categories, and is expressed through formally similar expressions. Another definition distinguishes grammatical categories from lexical categories such that the elements in a grammatical category have a common grammatical meaning, that is, they are part of the grammatical structure of the language.
The topic of this article was "Grammatical categories of number, case and gender in modern English". Field Approach.
The relevance of this work is due to several important points. The concept of the "semantic field", like the concept of the "semantic frame", opened up new areas of semantic research, first in Germany in the 1930s and then in the United States in the 1970s. Both concepts "revolutionized" semantics and provided semanticists with new tools to study semantic change and semantic structure. While there have been several historical accounts of the development of field semantics, no detailed study exists linking and comparing the development of field and frame semantics. In this article, we reconstruct the contexts in which the concepts of “field” and “frame” first appeared and highlight the similarities as well as differences between the semantic theories built on them. One of the main differences between the old and modern traditions is that the latter no longer study how lexical fields divide up a relatively amorphous conceptual mass, as most older traditions did, but rather how lexical fields are conceptually and pragmatically "framed" or based on our bodily, social and cultural experiences and practices. At the same time, they establish forgotten connections with certain communicative and functional ideas about semantic fields that have developed in the past.

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