Contribution à la modélisation et à la conception optimale des turboalternateurs de faible puissance

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Contribution à la modélisation et à la conception optimale des turboalternateurs de faible puissance

  • D. Petrichenko,

  • L2EP, Laboratory of Electrotechnics and Power Electronics

  • Ecole Centrale de Lille

Presentation plan

  • Introduction and problem definition

  • Developed approach

  • Software implementation

  • Applications

  • Conclusion and perspectives


  • The objectives and problem definition


  • Objective: Creation of a rapid tool used in optimal electromagnetic design of turbogenerators of power of 10-100 MW.

  • Collaboration:

  • Jeumont-Framatome ANP

  • Moscow Power Engineering Institute (M.P.E.I.)

  • CNRT (Centre National de la Recherche et Technologie), FUTURELEC-2

Introduction – Jeumont production

  • Jeumont production:

  • 2-4-6-n pole turbogenerators

  • Power up to 1000 MW

Introduction – Turbogenerator particularities

  • Big number of input parameters (up to 250):

    • complex geometry;
    • stator and rotor slots of different configuration;
    • cooling system with ventilation ducts;
    • complex windings.
  • Big number of physical phenomena:

    • saturation phenomena;
    • mutual movement of stator and rotor cores;
    • axial heterogeneity of the cores;
    • magnetic and electric coupling.

Introduction – existing methods

  • Assumptions to classical theory:

    • energy transformation – in air-gap;
    • salient surfaces of magnetic cores are replaced by non-salient;
    • only first harmonic of the magnetic field is considered;
    • field factors of flux density in the linear machine can be applied to saturated machine;
    • main field and leakage fields of a saturated machine are independent;
    • etc…

Introduction – existing methods

Introduction – calculation methods

Developed approach

  • Tooth contour method

  • Permeance network construction

  • Mode calculation

Developed approach

  • Principles

  • Axial heterogeneity

  • Network construction:

    • Air-gap
    • Tooth zones
    • Yoke zones
  • Electromagnetic coupling

  • Network equations

  • Operating modes calculation

Developed approach

Developed approach – turbogenerator particularities

Developed approach – turbogenerator particularities

  • Seven zones of influence of axial heterogeinity:

    • Stator yoke
    • Stator teeth
    • Stator slots
    • Air-gap
    • Rotor slots
    • Rotor teeth
    • Rotor yoke
  • Axial structure of the turbogenerator must be comprised in the permeance network in-plane in order to calculate properly the winding flux linkages.

  • The material properties must be changed to reflect the influence of the axial heterogeneity.

Developed approach – air-gap zone

  • Special Boundary Conditions:

  • The current is distributed regularly in the wires.

  • All other currents in the magnetic system are zero.

  • The permeability of the steel is infinite.

Developed approach – air-gap zone

Developed approach – air-gap zone

Developed approach – air-gap zone

Developed approach – magnetic system

Developed approach – magnetic system

Developed approach – magnetic system

Developed approach – magnetic system

Approach – electromagnetic coupling

  • Magnetic shells approach:

    • The shell is stretched on the sort of winding

Developed approach – electromagnetic coupling

  • MMF sources

  • The values depend on the ampere-turns which cross the layer with the :

    • The first slot source
    • The second slot source
    • The third slot source
    • The source of the yoke
  • Form the matrix W which links together the branches of electric circuit and permeance network!

Developed approach – system of equations

Developed approach – Steady-state fixed rotor algorithm


  • Software implementation: TurboTCM

Implementation – the core. Circuit specification.

Implementation – component responsibilities

Implementation – software structure

Implementation – Matlab solver

Implementation – Graphical User Interface

  • Allows:

  • Set up a project:

    • Rated data;
    • Geometrical descriptions;
    • Winding descriptions;
    • Axial configuration;
    • Simulation parameters;
  • Perform the Model generation:

    • Generate magnetic permeance network;
    • Generate electric circuits;
    • Generate coupling matrices;
  • Perform some calculations:

    • Machines’ characteristics;
    • Operating mode calculation;
  • Save the project and prebuilt model for further use from the command line or scripts (optimization).

Implementation – Various characteristic calculation

Implementation – Each operating mode output


  • Small machine

  • Two pole turbogenerator

  • Four pole turbogenerator

  • Optimization application: screening study

Application – Two pole machine of 3000 VA

Application – Two pole machine of 3000 VA

  • 100 positions

  • Excitation current of 20 A (saturated mode)

  • Time of calculation in OPERA RM: 3h25min

  • Time of calculation in TurboTCM: 18.3 seconds

  • Gain in calculation time: 672.13 times

Application – Two pole machine of 3000 VA

Application – Two pole turbogenerator

  • Several machines were tested:

    • Power of 31-67 MVA
    • Voltage of 11-13.8 kV
    • Frequency of 50-60 Hz
    • Power factors of 0.8-0.9
  • No-load and short circuit cases were compared with experimental results

  • In most cases errors do not exceed 3.5 %

Application – Two pole turbogenerator – no-load case

Application – Two pole turbogenerator – load cases

Application – Two pole turbogenerator – load cases

Application – Four pole turbogenerator

Application – Four pole turbogenerator

  • Material properties were unknown

    • Linear modelisation fit completely
    • In nonlinear case – the error was significant

Application – Different machines – conclusion

  • The tool was validated on several types of machines:

    • Small 2 pole synchronous machine
    • Two-pole turbogenerator
    • Four-pole turbogenerator
  • No-load, short circuit and load characteristics are easily obtained.

  • It’s possible to obtain special values from the results:

    • Electromagnetic torque
    • Parameters Xd and Xq
    • Air-gap flux densities
    • Etc…

Application – Response surface study

  • Objective: Demonstrate the use of TurboTCM together with an optimization supervisor.

  • Variables:

    • hs1 – stator tooth height (±10%)
    • bs1 – stator tooth width (±10%)
    • Di1 – stator boring diameter (±5%)
    • Tp1 – rotor pole width (±10%)
  • Responses:

    • KhB3 – 3rd order harmonic of air-gap flux density
    • KhE3 – 3rd order harmonic of stator EMF
    • KhE1 – the fundamental of the no-load stator EMF
    • If – excitation current in no-load

Application – Response surface study results

Application – Response surface study results

Application – Response surface study. Conclusion.

  • TurboTCM can be easily coupled with Experimental Design Method

  • Different influence factors can be quantified

  • The full factorial design was performed:

    • 81 experiments were lead
    • It takes 25 minutes on a PC Pentium IV 2GHz.
  • Optimization can be performed using our tool

Conclusion and perspectives

  • General conclusion and perspectives


  • The main idea: exploit the particularities of a machine to minimize the number of the network elements.

  • Axial heterogeneity:

    • taken into account on the stage of the network construction;
    • the model is not a 2D model any more!
  • Flexible and adaptive PN construction, treating:

    • complicated geometries;
    • irregular slot structure and distribution.
  • Fixed rotor algorithm – rapid steady-state calculations.

  • Software TurboTCM is modular, scalable and flexible:

    • taking into account different machine configurations;
    • different modes of use;
    • easy coupling with optimization software.
  • The results are validated for several different types of machines.


  • Expand the approach and software to other types of electrical machines.

  • Implementation of additional methods of air-gap permeances calculation.

  • Further development and extension by multiphysical phenomena:

    • Thermal circuit coupling;
    • Vibroacoustic analysis.
  • Taking into account the Eddy-currents and hysteresis effects.

Thank you for attention!

  • Any questions?

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