Countermeasure


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Countermeasure

  • Countermeasure


However database and directory administrators can take countermeasures against online attacks, for example by limiting the number of attempts that a password can be tried, by introducing time delays between successive attempts, increasing the answer's complexity (e.g

  • However database and directory administrators can take countermeasures against online attacks, for example by limiting the number of attempts that a password can be tried, by introducing time delays between successive attempts, increasing the answer's complexity (e.g



A common strategy to optimize defragmentation and to reduce the impact of fragmentation is to partition the hard disk(s) in a way that separates partitions of the file system that experience many more reads than writes from the more volatile zones where files are created and deleted frequently

  • A common strategy to optimize defragmentation and to reduce the impact of fragmentation is to partition the hard disk(s) in a way that separates partitions of the file system that experience many more reads than writes from the more volatile zones where files are created and deleted frequently



Various techniques have been used to detect or prevent buffer overflows, with various tradeoffs. The most reliable way to avoid or prevent buffer overflows is to use automatic protection at the language level. This sort of protection, however, cannot be applied to legacy code, and often technical, business, or cultural constraints call for a vulnerable language. The following sections describe the choices and implementations available.

  • Various techniques have been used to detect or prevent buffer overflows, with various tradeoffs. The most reliable way to avoid or prevent buffer overflows is to use automatic protection at the language level. This sort of protection, however, cannot be applied to legacy code, and often technical, business, or cultural constraints call for a vulnerable language. The following sections describe the choices and implementations available.



The security mechanisms in place to counter the threats described above are presented in this section

  • The security mechanisms in place to counter the threats described above are presented in this section



According to the patterns & practices Improving Web Application Security book, the following terms are relevant to application security:

  • According to the patterns & practices Improving Web Application Security book, the following terms are relevant to application security:



Asset. A resource of value such as the data in a database or on the file system, or a system resource.

  • Asset. A resource of value such as the data in a database or on the file system, or a system resource.



Vulnerability. A weakness that makes a threat possible.

  • Vulnerability. A weakness that makes a threat possible.



Countermeasure. A safeguard that addresses a threat and mitigates risk.

  • Countermeasure. A safeguard that addresses a threat and mitigates risk.



The effectiveness of countermeasures varies, because keyloggers use a variety of techniques to capture data and the countermeasure needs to be effective against the particular data capture technique. For example, an on-screen keyboard will be effective against hardware keyloggers, transparency will defeat some—but not all—screenloggers and an anti-spyware application that can only disable hook-based keyloggers will be ineffective against kernel-based keyloggers.

  • The effectiveness of countermeasures varies, because keyloggers use a variety of techniques to capture data and the countermeasure needs to be effective against the particular data capture technique. For example, an on-screen keyboard will be effective against hardware keyloggers, transparency will defeat some—but not all—screenloggers and an anti-spyware application that can only disable hook-based keyloggers will be ineffective against kernel-based keyloggers.



Also, keylogger program authors may be able to update the code to adapt to countermeasures that may have proven to be effective against them.

  • Also, keylogger program authors may be able to update the code to adapt to countermeasures that may have proven to be effective against them.



The geographic dispersal of botnets means that each recruit must be individually identified/corralled/repaired and limits the benefits of filtering

  • The geographic dispersal of botnets means that each recruit must be individually identified/corralled/repaired and limits the benefits of filtering



The botnet server structure mentioned above has inherent vulnerabilities and problems. For example, finding one server with one botnet channel can often reveal the other servers, as well as their bots. A botnet server structure that lacks redundancy is vulnerable to at least the temporary disconnection of that server. However, recent IRC server software includes features to mask other connected servers and bots, eliminating that approach.

  • The botnet server structure mentioned above has inherent vulnerabilities and problems. For example, finding one server with one botnet channel can often reveal the other servers, as well as their bots. A botnet server structure that lacks redundancy is vulnerable to at least the temporary disconnection of that server. However, recent IRC server software includes features to mask other connected servers and bots, eliminating that approach.




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