Cultural heritage tourism or just heritage tourism or diaspora tourism


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DefinitionsEdit


In 1936, the League of Nations defined aforeign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.[19]

In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity."[20][21] In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people todestinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes."[22] In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.[23]

In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:[24]


  • Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country

  • Inbound tourism,[25] involving non-residents traveling in the given country

  • Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country

The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourismand tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is often used as a sign of distinction. The sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations.[26]

Total volume of cross-border tourist travelEdit


International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, and 952 million in 2010.[7] In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from thelate-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007.[4] The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts.[5]

World's top tourism destinationsEdit


Main article: World Tourism rankings

The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2018.[27]



Rank

Country

UNWTO
Region[28]

International
tourist
arrivals
(2018)
 [27]

1

 France

Europe

89 million

2

 Spain

Europe

83 million

3

 United States

North America

80 million

4

 China

Asia

63 million

5

 Italy

Europe

62 million

6

 Turkey

Europe

46 million

7

 Mexico

North America

41 million

8

 Germany

Europe

39 million

9

 Thailand

Asia

38 million

10

 United Kingdom

Europe

36 million

International tourism receipts


The World Tourism Organization reports that international tourism receipts were US$1.7 trillion in 2018, an increase in real terms of 4% over 2017.[29] The top ten tourism earners in 2018 were:

Rank

Country/Area

UNWTO
Region
[28]

International
tourism
receipts
(2018)
[27]

1

 United States

North America

$214 billion

2

 Spain

Europe

$74 billion

3

 France

Europe

$67 billion

4

 Thailand

Asia

$63 billion

5

 United Kingdom

Europe

$52 billion

6

 Italy

Europe

$49 billion

7

 Australia

Asia-Pacific

$45 billion

8

 Germany

Europe

$43 billion

9

 Japan

Asia

$41 billion

10

 China

Asia

$40 billion

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