Денов туман халқ таълими бўлими 80-мактаб укитувчилари томонидан тайёрланган 2018-2019 ўқув йилида туман


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Денов туман

халқ таълими бўлими 80-мактаб

укитувчилари томонидан тайёрланган

2018-2019 ўқув йилида туман



умумаълим мактаблари 10-

синф ўқувчиларнинг инглиз тили

фани бўйича фан олимпиадаси

натижаларига кўра ўқувчилар

билимларида аниқланган

бўшлиқларни тўлдириш бўйича

IF ЛИ ШАРТ ЕРГАШ ГАП



MAВЗУСИДА


ТАВСИЯЛАР

IF SHART ERGASH GAP

If-agar degan ma'noni bildirib, shart ergash gaplarni hosil qilishda ishlatiladi. Hozirgi zamon uchun If li qism present simpleda bosh gap esa, future I gap future in the pastda bo'ladi. Masalan: If I found £100 in the street, I would keep it. "Wish" so'zi ham shart maylidagi gaplarni hosil qilib, quyidagicha ishlatiladi. Hozirgi zamon uchun: Masalan: yomg'irda qolgan kishini tilida: I wish had an umbrella. Eslab qoling! Ifli va Wishli gaplar hozirgi zamon uchun to be fe'lining were shakli har qanday shaxslar uchun ishlatiladi. Masalan: If I were you, I wouldn't buy that coat. I wish my room were larger.

"Should" ning ehtimollik ma'nosida ishlatilishi. If you should see Tom this evening, can you tell him to phone me? Bunda If (to be) should mabodo degan ma'noni anglatadi.



Shart ergash gaplarda (Real condition) if (agar) bog'lovchisi ishlatilib bo'ladigan ish-
harakatdir. Bosh gapning kesimi kelasi zamonda bo'lsa, ergash gap qismi hozirgi zamonda bo'ladi.
If it rains he will not go to the mountains. Unreal konditionda ro'yobga chiqmaydigan 
maqsadlar, bajarilmagan ish-harakatlar ifodalanadi. 
=>. Agar ish-harakat hozirgi zamonda tegishli bo'lsa, bosh gapning kesimi kelasi o'tgan zamonda bo'ladi (should, would), to be fe'li ishlatilganda, o'tgan zamon ko'plik sonida (were) bo'ladi, bosh gapning kesimi oddiy o'tgan zamonda bo'ladi.
If I were at home I should cook dinner myself. If he went to the cinema he would invite you. 
=>. Shart ergash gapda ish-harakat o'tgan zamonga taaluqli bo'lsa, bosh gapning kesimi kelasi o'tgan tugallangan zamonda, bosh gapning kesimi o'tgan tugallangan zamonda bo'lishi kerak. 
If I had a problem yesterday I should have told you. 
He wouldn't have failed the exam if he had prepared her lessons properly. 
=>. Bazi gaplarning bir qismi o'tgan zamonda, ikkinchi qismi esa hozirgi zamonga taaluqli bo'ladi. 
If you had taken pills yesterday, you would feel better now. 
If you had remained me about it yesterday I-should bring you a vocabulary. 

=>. Gaplarni tarjima qilib, fe'l shakllariga e'tibor bering. 

1. If my friend were here now, he would tell us many interesting stories about his recent trip. 
2. If I knew about it , I would help you . 
3. If he had had time yesterday, I should have gone to the museum with you. 
4. If he had known all these fasts before, we should have told you about them long ago. 
5. If you hadn't lift the concert so early, you would have heard many new soughs and funny stories. 
6. I wish I were free now. 
7. I wish I could help her. 
8. I wish you were more attentive. 
9. I wished I had seen that film will you. 

=>. Gaplarni unread conditionga aylantiring: 

If I see him today, I shall tell him about it 
If I saw him today, I should tell him about it. 

1. If you help me, I shall finish my work very soon. 
2. If Jim is free, he will go to the stadium tonight. 
3. If I have a meeting today, I shall stay at the institute late. 
4. If the weather is fine next Sunday, they will go to the country. 
5. If we are busy tomorrow, we shall not take part in the picnic. 

=>. Gaplarni real conditionga aylantiring: 

If I saw him I should tell him about it . If I see 1 shall tell him about it. 

1. If you took a taxi, you would get to the station in time. 
2. If I were you, I wouldn't do that. 
3. If it didn't rain , I would go boating. 
4. If Ann felt well, she would come to see us at the week-end. 
5. If I know French, I would help you translate the text. 
6. If I entered the university I should be the happiest man in the world.

=>. Gaplarni davom ettiring. 

1. If he knew that you were ill he ... 
2. I would have told the latest news if I ... 
3. If Mary worked hard at her English she ... 
4. They would be very glad if you ... 
5. If you stayed with us a little longer you ... 
6. If the students of our group were free now, they ... 
7. If I had met Brown before, I ... 
8. If I were in your place, I ... 
9. If I were you, I .. 
10. If they came to see us one of these days, we ... 

=>. Qavs ichidagi fe'llarning mos shaklini bering: 

1. They are talking us as if they (to know) each other very well. 
2. I wish I (to speak) English freely and easily. 
3. It's time (to finish) your work. 
4. I wish he (to be) here now. 
5. I suggest that you (to change) the theme of your report. 

=>. Gaplarni tarjima qiling: 

1. Agar ertaga biz bilan magazinga borsangiz, ko'p kitoblar sotib olasiz.
2. Agar ertaga biz bilan magazinga borganingizda edi, ko'p kitoblar sotib olagan bo'lardingiz.
3. O'tgan hafta imtixonlarni topshirganizda edi, hozir bo'sh bo'lardingiz. 
4. Biletlarga oldindan buyurtma berganingizda, bugun hammamiz teatrga borgan bo'lardik. 
5. U kasal bo'lmaganida, darslarga kelgan bo'lardi. 
6. Kecha yomg'ir yog'maganida siz shamollamagan bo'lardingiz. 
7. Uning hamma kitoblari bo'lganida har kuni kutubxonaga bormagan bo'lardi. 
8. O'tgan hafta xatni jo'natib yuborganingizda u allaqachon olgan bo'lardi. 
9. Biz uni taklif etganimizda u kelgan bo'lardi. 
10. Agar u kech ketmaganida, taksiga o'tirmagan bo'lardi. 
11. Agar siz kecha televizor ko'rganingizda yangiliklardan xabardor bo'lardingiz. 
12. Imtixonlarni o'z vaqtida topshirganida, hozir stipendiya olgan bo'lardi. 

Ingliz tili grammatikasiga oid testlarning ko’pchiligida u yoki bu grammatika mavzu asosida tuzilgan gap beriladi. Bu gapning qaysidir qismi bo’sh qoldirilib, uning o’rnini berilgan javob variantlariga asosan to’ldirish talab etiladi. Masalan, quyidagicha gap berilishi mumkin:

She is feeling sick. She’s eaten too much chocolate. If she ……, she ……. sick now.

Yuqoridagi misolda «IF»li gaplar mavzusiga oid gap berilgan. Nuqtalar o’rnini to’ldirish uchun esa albatta javob variantlari beriladi. Ammo agar Siz yuqoridagi gapda ishlatilayotgan grammatika mavzuni bilsangiz, to’g’rirog’i, ushbu maqolamiz davomida beriladigan formulalarni to’liq yodlab olsangiz, yuqoridagiga o’xshash testlarni yechish Siz uchun umuman qiyinchilik tug’dirmaydi. Ishoning, agar formulalarni yaxshi yodlab, ularning qaysi ma’noda ishlatilishini o’rganib olsangiz gaplarni to’liq tarjima qilishingiz, hattoki grammatikaning qaysi mavzusi haqida gap ketayotganligiga ahamiyat bermasangiz ham testning to’g’ri javobini topishingiz mumkin.



Formulalarni o’ziga hos qolib shaklida o’rganamiz. Biz bu formulalarda asosiy fe’l sifatida «DO» – bajarmoq, fe’lidan foydalanamiz. Esingizda bo’lsin, formulalardagi «DO» (bajarmoq) fe’li o’rnida testlarda har qanday fe’l bo’lishi mumkin. Asosiysi, Siz formulaning ma’nosini yaxshi o’rganib olishingiz kerak. Formulalar gap va tarjima-izoh shaklida beriladi. Quyida berilgan formulalarni o’zingizga qulay har qanday shaklda o’zgartirib yodlab olishingiz mumkin. Bu muhim va juda foydali formulalar quyidagilar.

  1. IF I DO, I WILL DO – AGAR BAJARSAM, SHUNDA BAJARAMAN. Bu formulaning birinchi qismida, ya’ni IF qatnashga qismida hech qachon WILL (kelasi zamon) ishlatilmaydi. Bu shart ergash gap formulasi. Masalan: If I go to London, I’ll let you know – Agar men Londonga borsam, Sizga habar beraman.

  2. WHEN I DO, I WILL DO – QACHONKI BAJARSAM, SHUNDA BAJARAMAN. Bu formula tepadagi formulaning shakl jihatidan huddi o’zi, ammo bitta farqi – bu payt ergash gap. Masalan: When I go to the shop, I’ll buy a paper – Qachonki men do’konga borsam, shunda gazeta sotib olaman.

  3. IF I DID, I WOULD DO – AGAR BAJARGANIMDA EDI, HOZIR BAJARGAN BO’LARDIM. Noreal gap formulasi. Bu gapda aytilayotgan fikr aslida mavjud bo’lmaydi, yoki bajarilmaydi. Masalan: If I had a car, I would drive it to work – Agar mashinam bo’lganda edi, hozir uni ishga haydab borardim (aslida hozir mashinam yo’q).

  4. IF I HAD DONE, I WOULD HAVE DONE – AGAR BAJARGANIMDA EDI, BAJARA OLGAN BO’LARDIM. Bu gap o’tib ketgan, bajarilmagan ish-harakatlarga nisbatan ishlatiladi. Bunday ish-harakatlarni takrorlash, ortga qaytarish yoki qaytarishning iloji bo’lmaydi. Masalan: If I had met you in London, I would have given you my address – Agar Sizni Londonda uchratganimda edi (o’sha vaqti, o’tgan zamonda), Sizga manzilimni bergan bo’lar edim (o’sha vaqti, o’tgan zamonda) (lekin afsuski Sizni u yerda uchratmadim va hozir Londondan qaytib kelganman. Endi vaqtni orqaga qaytarib Londonga o’sha vaziyatda qaytib borishning imkoni yo’q.).

  5. IF I HAD DONE, I WOULD DO – AGAR BAJARGANIMDA EDI, HOZIR BAJARA OLGAN BO’LAR EDIM. Endi bu formulaning ikki qismi bor: birinchi qismi (had done) o’tgan zamondagi o’tib ketgan, ortga qaytarib bo’lsam ish-harakatni ifodalaydi; gapning ikkinchi qismi esa hozirgi zamonda sodir etiladigan yoki sodir etilishi kutilgan ish-harakatni ifodalaydi. Masalan: If I had learned to swim in my childhood, I would go to the lake with you – Agar bolaligimda suzishni o’rganganimda edi, hozir Siz bilan ko’lga borgan bo’lar edim.

  6. I WISH I HAD DONE – QANI EDI BAJARGANIMDA EDI. Bu formula yuqoridagi 3-formula ma’nosini berib, formulaning faqat birinchi qismini ifodalaydi, ya’ni o’tib ketgan ish harakatni afsus bilan eslashni nazarda tutadi. Masalan: I’m exhausted. I wish I had stayed at home – Men juda charchaganman. Qani edi uyda qolgan bo’lganimda edi (lekin aslida hozir uyda emasman va menda tanlov bo’lgan vaqtida afsuski uyda qolishni tanlamagan edim).

  7. I WISH IT WOULD DO – QANI EDI U BAJARSA EDI. Bunda so’zlovchi yuqoridagi formulalarda farqli ravishda o’zining emas, balki boshqa biror kishining, kimningdir biror ishni bajarishini xohlaydi. Masalan: The music next door is very loud I wish they would turn it down – Keyingi xonadagi musiqa juda baland. Qani edi ular uni pastroq qilsa edi.

  8. IF I WERE YOU I WOULD DO – AGAR MEN SIZNING O’RNINGIZDA BO’LGANIMDA EDI MEN BAJARGAN BO’LARDIM. Bunda so’zlovchi kimningdir o’rnida bo’lganida, yoki shunday holatda bo’lganida nima ish-harakatni bajargan bo’lishi haqida gapiradi. Masalan: If I were you, I would go home – Agar Sizning o’rningizda bo’lganimda, men uyga ketgan bo’lardim.

  9. SEE SOMEBODY DO – KIMNINGDIR NIMADIR QILGANINI KO’RISH.Bunda kimdir boshqa biror kishining biror ishni qilganini ko’radi. Bu formulada bajarilgan ish-harakatni boshidan oxirigacha ko’rganlik nazarda tutiladi. Masalan: I saw her get into the car – Men uning mashinaga o’tirganligini ko’rdim (ishni boshidan oxirigacha, ya’ni, u mashinaga yaqin kelgandan boshlab uning mashinaga to’liq o’tirib eshikni yopganigacha ko’rdim).

  10. SEE SOMEBODY DOING – KIMNINGDIR NIMADIR QILAYOTGANLIGINI KO’RISH. Yuqoridagi formula mazmunini o’zi, faqat bunda bajarilgan ish harakatni boshidan oxirigacha emas, balki o’rtasida, ish-harakat bajarilayotgan vaqtda ko’rish nazarda tutiladi. Masalan: I saw her waiting for the bus – Men uning avtobus kutayotganini ko’rdim (qachon kutib boshlaganini ko’rmadim, qachongacha kutib avtobusga o’tirib ketganini ko’rmadim, ammo uning avtobusni kutayotganini ko’rdim, ish-harakatning o’rtasida, davom etib turgan vaqtida ko’rdim).

  11. HAVE SOMETHING DONE – BIROR ISHNI QILDIRISH. Bu formuladagi gaplarda biror ishni o’zi bajarmasdan kimgadir bajartirish nazarda tutiladi. Masalan: I had my shoes cleaned – Men tuflimni tozalattirdim (o’zim tozalamadim, kimnidir yollab, unga tozalatdim).

  12. THE MORE… THE BETTER… – QANCHALIK … BO’LSA, SHUNCHALIK … BO’LADI. Qo’sh-qiyos. Bunda aniq artikl bilan ikkita qiyosiy darajadagi fe’l ishlatiladi. Masalan: The more you read, the better you understand the matter – Qanchalik ko’p o’qisang, masalani shunchalik yaxshiroq tushunasan.

  13. GET/HAVE SOMEBODY TO DO SOMETHING – KIMNIDIR BIROR ISHNI QILISHGA MAJBUR QILISH. Bu yuqoridagi 11-formulamiz ma’nosini beradi, faqat bu formulada ish-harakatni kimga qildirganligi alohida ta’kidlanib, muhim hisoblanadi. Formuladan ko’rinib turibdiki, GET yoki HAVE yordamchi fe’llari bir hil ishlatilishi mumkin. Masalan: I got Tom to clean my shoes – Men Tomni tuflimni tozalashga majbur qildim.

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