Describe two forms of assessment


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Task 1. Describe two forms of assessment:
a) Formative assessments are commonly contrasted with summative assessments, which are used to evaluate student learning progress and achievement at the conclusion of a specific instructional period—usually at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. In other words, formative assessments are for learning, while summative assessments are of learning. Or as assessment expert Paul Black put it, “When the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative assessment. When the customer tastes the soup, that’s summative assessment.” It should be noted, however, that the distinction between formative and summative is often fuzzy in practice, and educators may hold divergent interpretations of and opinions on the subject.
b) Summative assessment, summative evaluation, or assessment of learning refers to the assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a program. This contrasts with formative assessment, which summarizes the participants' development at a particular time. Summative assessment is widely taught in educational programs in the United States.[citation needed Scriven claims that while all assessment techniques can be summative, only some are formative.

The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against a standard or benchmark. Note, 'the end' does not necessarily mean the end of an entire course or module of study.


Task 2. There are six main kinds of language test (a-f) below. Match these to the 6 definitions (1-6) given below. Note your answers on the grid provided.
Kinds of language test Definitions
Tests designed to...
a) aptitude tests 1) establish who is (and who is not) likely to be good at learning foreign languages

b) placement tests 2) establish how much of the language syllabus has been learnt

c) diagnostic tests 3) establish areas of weakness or deficiency, so future teaching can remedy these areas

d) progress tests 4) arrange learners in groups of roughly similar language level

e) attainment tests 5) establish whether students have the necessary level and type of language to undertake a task in the future (eg. a course of study)

f) proficiency tests 6) establish whether learners have mastered the language that has been taught in recent lessons


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Task 3. Here is a list of the ten most common discrete-point techniques (1-10). Match each technique to the appropriate example on the right (a-j).
Technique Example
1) transformation a) I want you to finish the work before you leave.

Rewrite including the word completely.

2) blank completion b) Form the following items into one sentence: boils/one/degrees/water/at/hundred/Celsius

3) blank and cue c) Complete the following sentence:



I (write) to him yesterday.

4) joining elements d) Complete the following sentence:



I’m going home at six o'clock.

5) replacing elements e) Is the meaning of these two sentences the same or different?



(1) She stopped talking to him.

(2) She stopped to talk to him.

6) adding elements f) We may go to Greece. It is more likely that we’ll go to Italy. Rewrite as one sentence.

7) arranging elements g) Put each of the following words into the correct column: bed, bus, car, chair, cow, desk, dog, horse, train animals / furniture / transport

8) matching elements h) Choose the best answer.



Water________ of hydrogen and oxygen.

a. is consisting b. consisting c. consists d. consisted

9) multiple choice i) It would be even sillier to ask no questions at all. Rewrite using foolish.



10) dual choice j) The teacher gave two books to every pupil. Rewrite: The teacher gave all___________________.


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Task 4. Here are some basic terms related to the fundamental principles of language testing (1-20). Match each term to one of the definitions (a-t) below.
Terms Definitions
1) language competence a) The extent to which a test actually seems to test what people think it should test.

2) contextualised language b) The influence that tests have over the teaching and learning processes.

3) criterion-referenced testing c) The extent to which a test includes and tests language relevant to future language-using situations.

4) direct testing d) Test items which can be scored on a right/wrong basis without requiring a judgement by the scorer.

5) discrete-point testing e) The skills of reading and listening, which can be tested objectively.

6) receptive language skills f) The extent to which a test is consistent in its assessment - consistent from person to person, time-to-time, place-to- place.

7) reliability g) Language as it is produced, with all its imperfections caused by memory limitations, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors.

8) language usage h) Testing which assesses language proficiency by requiring learners to apply their language knowledge to carry out real- world language tasks.

9) washback i) Testing by means of a number of items, each testing a single and separate part of the language.

10) objective testing j) Testing which assesses language proficiency by sampling underlying language knowledge rather than the ability to apply that knowledge.

11) language performance k) Testing by means of items which draw on a range of language skills or areas of knowledge in combination.

12) productive language skills l) Underlying knowledge of the language.

13) disembodied language m) Language used in, applied to or appropriate to a particular sociolinguistic or communicative situation.

14) norm-referenced testing n) Language considered in isolation, with little or no consideration given to the sociolinguistic or communicative situation in which it is used.

15) subjective testing o) Testing which compares students with each other and establishes passing grades according to a predetermined score or proportion of students.

16) integrative testing p) Testing which does not compare students with each other and which establishes passing grades according to predetermined language standards.

17) language use q) The skills of speaking and writing, which cannot be tested objectively.

18) validity r) Producing language in order to manifest our knowledge of the language.

19) indirect testing s) Producing language as meaningful communicative behavior.

20) wash forward t) Test items which cannot be scored on a right/wrong

basis and which require a judgement by the scorer.





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