Differences and similarities of cases in english and karakalpak language
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DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES OF CASES IN ENGLISH AND KARAKALPAK LANGUAGE.
Abstract; This scientific research exposes the similarities and differences of English and Karakalpak language with some indications and exposes.
Keywords; case, grammar rules, nominative, objective, possessive, noun, pronoun.
Learning grammar rules of foreign language becomes more transparent and easier when it is taught by comparing to our native language. By bringing this way of training in education, we can get productive results in certain language teaching. As Jakub Marian said “ How hard it is to learn a particular foreign language for you, depends on many different factors, such as natural talent, available learning resources, and your learning plan, but I believe that the single most important factor is how closely related the language is, to the language you already know” . Accordingly, learning a nonnative language by differentiating it with domestic language would be the best way to make it unchallenging to master a new language.
Grammatical function of a noun or pronoun is called Case. In Karakalpak language the cases are used in order to link the words in a sentence. In modern english there are only three cases while in Karakalpak language there are six. The cases in English language are subjective ( he ) , objective ( him ) , and possessive ( his ) . ( There is no dative case in modern English ) Accordingly, cases in Karakalpak language are ataw, iyelik, baris, tabis, shig'is, orin. As we know, English is easier language to learn than many other languages since it was get rid of most ot its cases and another fact what makes easier is that because nouns and some indefinite pronouns ( somebody, anybody, everyone and so on ) only have a distinctive case form for the possessive. The three cases that are mentioned above ( subjective case, objective case and possessive case ) are almost the same as the ones in Karakalpak language ( ataw, iyelik, tabis ) .
When a noun or a pronoun is used as the subject it is said to be the Nominative case. In English language it is easier to find the Nominative case in sentences as it can be found before the verb ( put the question word " who " or " what " before the verb ) . For example ; In the sentence The boy ate the cake. The boy is the subject. Who ate the cake? Hence, it is said to be in the Nominative case. The rules are almost the same as those ones in Karakalpak language. The case in Karakalpak language which is called “ Ataw “ is the same as The Nominative. In addition to this, in Karakalpak language every case has their own completions except from Ataw. For example, Men qaladan keldim. In this sentence Men is The Nominative case. The difference of this case in karakalpak language is that The Nominative case does not always come before the Verb as it does in English language. In other cases the rules are the same ( eg; they answer the same questions as in English language ) .
When a Noun or a Pronoun is used as the Object of a Verb it is called the Objective case. To find The Objective case in the sentence, put the question words, “ Whom “ or “ What “ before the Verb and the Subject. For example/ in the sentence The boy kicked the ball. The subject is boy and the answer to the question what did the boy kick is the ball. Hence, in the above sentence the Noun ball is Objective and it is said to be in Objective case. Exception ; The noun which comes after a preposition in a sentence is also said to be in The Objective case. This case is the same the case which is called “Tabis” in Karakalpak language. Its contrast from Objective case in English is that it is formed by linking at the end of a word its particular completions such as “ -ni, -ni’, -di, -di’, -ti, -ti’; ” For example; Miynetti jaqsi ko’remen. In this sentence, The Objective case is Miynetti as it combines itself a special completion “ ti”.
In modern English language, only pronouns change their forms and any of the nouns does not change their forms in any case. Here is given a table of Nominative and Objective pronouns with its Karakalpak forms;
As it can be visible that in both; English and Karakalpak languages Nominative Pronouns change their forms in order to form Objective Pronouns. It can be one of the similarities of two languages.
Traditionally, The Possessive case only really exists in English language in the Personal pronouns; my, mine; your, yours; his, his; her, hers; your, yours; and their, theirs. These are actually inflected possessive forms. Apostrophe, as it is stated in historical materials, is shortened form of “ his “ . “ Shakespeare his wife was born on… “ as in “ Shakespeare’s wife … “ And nw, in Modern English, we use the second one. For example; This is John’s chair. Here the form of the Noun John is changed to John’s to show the ownership or possession. Hence, John is said to be in The Possessive case. In plural it can be different. The apostrophe is put after the “s” ( This is boys’ books. ) Exception; Not all the plural words end in “ -s,-es “ . They are called “ Irregular nouns “ . In this case, the apostrophe is put before the “s” . For example; He gave the children’s toys back. The possessive in a sentence answers the question “ Whose ” as it does in Karakalpak language. This case is totally similar with the case “ Iyelik “ in Karakalpak language with its meaning but not with the rules that they are formed. This case is formed by adding particular completions at the end of a word such as “ -nin’, -ni’n’, -din’, -di’n’, -tin’, -ti’n’; “ . For example; Mashinani’n’ esigin ashti. In this sentence, The Possessive case is Mashinanin’ as it is ended with a completion ni’n’.
In Karaklapak language, as I mentioned above, there are six cases. Three of them are analyzed by giving examples. The rest are; “ Baris, Shig’is, Orin “ . They all are formed by adding particular completions at the end of a sentence.
4. “ Baris “ –“ -g’a, -ge, -qa, -ke; “
( eg; Mektepke baratirmiz - We are going to school. Awilg’a jan’adan jumisshi ku’shler sharlandi. New workers were called to our village.)
“ mektepke” “ awilg’a “ ).
5. “ Shig’is “ – “ –dan, -den, -tan, -ten, -nan, -nen; “
( e.g; Tawdan jiljig’an qar ha’m gozzalliq, ha’m qorqinish belgilerin sa’wlelendirer edi – Snow falling from the mountain reflected the signs of both beauty and horror. Jen’is tuwrali da’slepki xabarlar front maydaninan kelgen kezdegi anamnin’ quwanishinda shek joq edi – There was no end to my mother’s joy when the first news of the victory came from the front square.
“ tawdan “ , “ front maydaninan “ ).
6. “ Orin “ – “ –da, -de, -ta, -te; “
( e.g; U’yimizde Aqtirnaq payda bolg’ali, kewlimiz toq, o’ytkeni ol birde-bir biytanis kisini jolatpaydi. We have been happy since Aqtirnaq came to our home, because it did not let any stranger approach us. Bul jerlerde o’mirlik qalip ketiwdi qa’lemeymesligin tu’sindiriwge tiristi – He tried to explain that he does not wanted to remain here forever.
“u’yimizde “ , “ bul jerlerde “ ).
At the same time, In English language, those cases are constructed with the help of some prepositions.
Even though, the similarity of the languages in meaning remains.
( Some of the following prepositions which are given in the table may differ depending on context )
There are a vast amount of prepositions that are used in English language and here given only suitable ones that are really similar with the meaning.
After analyzing some information above, we realized that two languages have their own rules related to linking the words in a sentence with the help of cases in Karakalpak and English language. In my opinion, every learner of any language should be informed about the benefits of studying new information by specifying the similarities and differences between foreign and native language.
In conclusion, I would like to add that, the students who are at the very first stages and trying to learn English as their second language, and who want to sound like native speaker are should read as many boks as they can in order to find the varieties of this and native language. It would be one of the best ways to train foreign and domestic languages synchronically in order to understand what are being taught.
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Berdimuratov.G. Allanazarov.Q. Patullaeva.G. Qaraqalpaq tili. Tashkent.2015.
The Farlex International. Complete English Grammar rules.2014.
Bracton’s notebook; A collection of cases (English and Latin edition)
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