Educational Philosophy The Enduring ”why”


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Educational Philosophy

  • The Enduring ”WHY”

  • or

  • The BIG Understanding


Go To Your Teachable Curriculum Document and Transcribe the Mission and Goal Statements

  • Put into practical language

  • Use this document for goal reference

  • (Toggle to pg 1 lecture notes-Ministry's Educational Philosophy}



Review the Literature

  • Antecedent Foundations of Our Educational Philosophies:

  • Professionalism is based on (1) technical skill, (2) theoretical knowledge on which the skill is anchored, and (3) acceptance by a community of other professionals

  • Transmission-Transaction-Transformation [Educational Philosophy]



We have philosophies that tell us how to transfer knowledge

  • PEDAGOGIES ARE THE EDUCATIONAL TOOLS WE USE

  • FOUNDATIONS ARE THE BASIC,IDENTIFIABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBJECT

  • WE NEED THE RESEARCH TO HELP US CHOOSE



The Science is in the Literature

  • The Literature is the lifeblood of education. Ongoing research as evidenced in texts or periodicals is the process through which the profession refines and renews itself. Research, when properly conducted, makes predictions of performance outcomes, codifies pedagogy and evaluates the effectiveness of this pedagogy. This application of empirical method is the criterion that separates the technician from the professional.



The SCIENCE

  • “We have used the knowledge base about teaching to identify and create models of teaching and learning that increase student capability…we succeed by helping our teachers inquire more powerfully into our common knowledge base, into their own learning, and into the learning of their students.” (Joyce, Weil & Calhoun, 2000)



TRENDING:

  • In the 1920s, 1930s, and the 1940s…schools had adopted the assembly line model as multipurpose, and multileveled classrooms that slowly gave way to discrete, but contiguous grade levels…by standardizing instruction time administrators could ensure that all rooms were being utilized efficiently (Taylor)



Connecting Philosophy to Theory and Practice

  • Philosophy-allows you to understand the “how” and the “why” classroom practice and school decision-making is influenced

  • The primary (historical) balance is between more rigorous course study (content) and attention to the personal and emotional needs of the student.



Our History

  • In the 1920s, 1930s, and the 1940s…schools adopted the assembly line model as multipurpose, and multileveled classrooms slowly gave way to discrete, but contiguous grade levels…by standardizing instruction time administrators could ensure that all rooms were being utilized efficiently



The pre-ordering of tasks, by managers for workers, is “the most prominent single element in modern scientific management (Bobbett), 1918). An element that remains intrinsic to the lesson planning devices taught prospective teachers in their methods courses. It assumes the ends should be fixed prior to the implementation of means. Efficiency then is measured in terms of the number of specific ends achieved and the time needed for achievement.

  • The pre-ordering of tasks, by managers for workers, is “the most prominent single element in modern scientific management (Bobbett), 1918). An element that remains intrinsic to the lesson planning devices taught prospective teachers in their methods courses. It assumes the ends should be fixed prior to the implementation of means. Efficiency then is measured in terms of the number of specific ends achieved and the time needed for achievement.



The Philosophers

  • The language and thought of industrialism has permeated American social thought and school curriculum … the learning model underlying the curriculum posited what Bruner (1973) calls a “deficit hypothesis”. This hypothesis – Calvinist in tone – assumes that humans by nature have deficits



The Philosophers

  • Piaget and Chomsky each stated that the primary emphasis in any competence model is not on deficits of being but on the powers of “Becoming”…. Chomsky (1971) analyzed…the concept of grades is nothing but a device for expressing, indeed measuring, the performance deficit



The Philosophers

  • For Charters (1923), curriculum thought must emanate from a matching of ideals with activities. However, in practice, the industrial activities themselves became the ideals of education…Education and Curriculum was now thoroughly grounded in the goals of industrial society’s activities



The Philosophers

  • John Dewey sees educational ends arising within a process of experiential activity, with learning as a by-product of that activity; Tyler sees educational ends set prior to experience, with learning as a specifically intended, directed, and controlled outcome – one that can be measured. Post-modernism (Doll) curricular thought rejects this concept: that knowledge can exist independent of the knower and further that this knowledge can be discovered and validated. In other words, educational goals cannot be separated from curricular goals and stated autonomously merely to satisfy the public’s “fearful” concerns for uncertainty.



  • Ralph Tyler’s (1950’s) foundations of curriculum planning – (1) chosen purposes, (2) provided experiences, (3) effective organization, (4) evaluation - are modern/industrialist design applications, created to reduce fear of chaotic results by imposing control on the educational process (Doll) .



Philosophy of Education

  • An exploration of the historical development of educational perspectives will assist the teacher candidate in understanding the foundations upon which teaching practice has evolved. You will explore, reflect upon and critically analyze various educational philosophies. You will examine how these approaches to educational philosophy relate, complement, or challenge your own personal perspectives about teaching and learning. You will also reflect upon your evolving theories-in-use and to examine how these theories impact upon your teaching practices, or your praxis. This will help you begin to construct, reconstruct and explain your living personal philosophy of education.



Critical Perspectives

  • Critique - It is a conceit, which underlies our modernist concept of curriculum – we only allow one type of knowing: a rational, definitional knowing. Not appreciating the impact of learned language (Serres,) intuition, feelings and experiences (Descartes) (Newton).



Critical Perspectives

  • Donald Schon(1991) describes curriculum as “technical rationality” if it describes a learning process characterized by a linear, reductionist, “scientific,” and a taxonomic view of knowledge. He is describing the concept of practical knowledge as being no more than an application of theoretical knowledge. In his study of competent practitioners he finds emerging a “reflective practice” that is experientially based and is constantly being refined. (Sounds like rethinking – Wiggins et al) He states that technical rationality is incomplete in that it can only address problem solving and not problem finding and problem-framing. Therefore, reflective practice is an emergent, post-modern epistemology.



Critical Perspectives

  • Critique…science’s simplistic and seductive allure…Stephen Gould (1981) the myopia of the modernists view of science came from the mistaken belief that physics is the “ultimate science,” and that by reducing all to physics and “ quantifiable causes,” one is dealing with the principles underlying reality.



Transmission-knowledge transfer philosophical model

  • Transmission – the function of education is to transmit atomistic facts, skills and values to students using the appropriate pedagogy (expository, didactic, direct instruction techniques, i.e. lectures and recitation).

    • Teaching strategies that are highly structured, repeatable and specific. . Lectures explain in a logical fashion proceeding from simple ideas to ideas.
    • Students are motivated by extrinsic factors; the teacher is in absolute control.
    • Extrinsic motivators- report cards, curiosity empathy with teacher.
    • Characteristics - Students have shared learning characteristics. Learning objectives are very specific – content based – “byte-sized” or right - sized for 40minute periods.” (Fix, 02)


Pedagogical Models

  • Therefore “The Concept Attainment” model (Joyce et al, 1986) of teaching presents organized information over a wide range of areas. (Direct Didactic-DD)



Pedagogical Models

  • The Inductive Thinking” (Ibid.) model persuades or induces students to find and organize data, create names for concepts; and to explore new ways to gather, organize and test the validity of data and test the relationships amongst data. (hypotheses - ID)



Pedagogical Models

  • Guided Inquiry (Heuristics) engages students by through causal reasoning…if A then B….therefore if B then only A etc (logic) (Socratic questioning) teaching the skills required for careful questioning, building concepts and hypotheses.



Pedagogical Models

  • Advanced Organizers – provides a cognitive structure for the synthesis of lecture, readings and mixed media presentations.



Pedagogical Models

  • Memorization or mnemonic techniques



Pedagogical Models

  • Cognitive Developmental Model – instruction is adjusted to the stage of maturity and then efforts are expended to increase the student’s rate of development.



Pedagogical Models

  • Scientific Inquiry – teaching using the scientific method, using the foundations of the particular discipline and only the basic information relative to that discipline.



Pedagogical Models

  • Nondirective – more or less using the teacher as a partner to clarify goals and develop research.



Pedagogical Models

  • Synecticscreativity groups, thinking and acting outside the box, individual and cooperative learning is facilitated.



Pedagogical Models

  • Awareness Training – induces reflection, interpersonal relationships, and self-image, experimentation or limited risks situations.



Philosophers

  • Plato

  • Aristotle

  • Socrates

  • Mortimer Adler

  • E.D. Hirsch

  • Theodore Sizer

  • Augustine

  • Aquinas



Philosophers

  • Abelard

  • William of Ockham

  • Francis Bacon

  • Descartes

  • Newton

  • John Locke

  • Rousseau

  • Maslow



Readings

  • W. Hare & J. Portelli, (2003) “Philosophic issues, Case Studies, and Teacher Education”, in What to Do? Case Studies for Educators. pp1-16.

  • Krishnamurti, J. (1981) “Education and the Significance of Life,” pp.9-16.

  • Osbourne, K. (1999) “A Guide to the Canadian School Debate, “pp.3-27.

  • R. Simon (1992) “Teachers as Cultural Workers,”pp.35-53.

  • Dunn, Sheila G.(2005). “Philosophical Foundations of Education.”pp.155-249.



Philosophers

  • Friederich Froebel

  • John Dewey

  • Michel Foucault

  • Thoreau

  • Piaget

  • Emerson

  • Sartre

  • Lev Vygostky



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