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  • RIVERS
  • LAKES
  • GULVES
  • SPRINGS

Europe

  • Greece

Greece

  • Thessaloniki

1. ΤΗΕ RIVERS OF THESSALONIKI

  • THE GALLIKOS RIVER THE AXIOS RIVER THE LUDIAS RIVER THE ALIAKMONAS RIVER Their acronym form the word gala(milk)

The four rivers form a huge delta

  • which
  • is a National Park protected by National and European Community legislation (Natura 2000).
  • extends over 338 square kilometers
  • includes one of the most important wetland systems of Greece, rich in flora and fauna

THE GALLIKOS RIVER

  • It was called Ehedoros in the ancient times
  • (because of the gold that was found there)
  • Nowadays it is called Gallikos after the French soldiers who camped at the banks were drowned after a flash flooding in the First World War .
  • It has a length of 70km.

THE AXIOS RIVER

  • The Axios is the second longer river of Greece
  • It has a length of 320 km.
  • Its width ranges from 50 to 600m and its depth reaches 4m.
  • The river source is near the Serbian-Albanian borders, it enters the Greek territory, crosses Macedonia and flows in the Thermaikos Gulf.
  • Its name means Worthy and comes from the Macedonian root of Axos = forest because its banks are rich in forests .

THE AXIOS RIVER

  • GREECE

THE LOUDIAS RIVER

  • Loudias River, the smallest of the four rivers of the National Park Axios –Loudias-Aliakmonas, is now an artificial channel
  • Loudias or else Mavroneri ( = black water - Kara Asmak in Turkish) is a river in Central Macedonia and used to be navigable till Pella, the birth city of Alexander the Great .
  • It has a length of 60 km

THE ALIAKMON RIVER

  • The longest river of Greece
  • It has a length of 350 km
  • The river source is in the mountain of Grammos
  • It flows into the Thermaikos Gulf near the Axios river,
  • Its name comes from als (salt sea) and the anvil.
  • According to the Greek mythology Aliakmon was one of the river gods, son of Ocean, a huge river that surrounds the Earth.

THE ALIAKMONAS RIVER

  • GREECE

FLORA

  • The banks of the rivers are rich in
  • beeches
  • oaks
  • sycamores
  • poplars
  • pines and firs
  • chestnuts,
  • cedars,
  • ashes,
  • maples,
  • willows
  • These trees are among the 500 species of plants that are recorded.

BIRDS IN THE DELTA

BIRDS

  • The wetlands formed in the region host about
  • 295 bird species, including many rare and endangered, such as the Dalmatian pelican, the spoonbill, the Avocet and Mediterranean Gull.
  • In the delta of Axios there is one of the largest colonies of herons in Greece.
  • There were 215 bird species, of which 1/3 about nests in Grevena.
  • Over 10% of birds in danger of extinction. Among them, the pelican is considered one of the rarest birds in the world.
  • Importantly, 27 rare and endangered species of birds nest in the prefecture of Grevena, such as purple, kind of heron, the black stork and owl which are protected species.
  • Impressive birds utilize the area to accommodate either to spend the winter, such as ducks or relax on the long migratory journeys.

ANIMALS

  • In the delta of the Axios live freely about 60 horses and many buffalos

the otter, jackal, the wild cat, wolf and deer, by the Axios banks, are likely to disappear.

17 species of mammals have been recorded, among them foxes, hares, wild boars.

REPTLES

  • REPTLES
  • 15 species of reptiles and amphibians complement the food chain of wetlands in the region of Aliakmonas.
  • FISH
  • In Aliakmonas 35 species of fish are found. Of these about 30 are native , namely endemic, while the others are imported with human intervention. Many of them are considered rare like mavrotsironi which does not live anywhere else in the world. Some of these kinds of fish have no commercial value. They only support the local food chain.

Thessaloniki

  • Lake Koronia
  • Lake Volvi
  • 2. Lakes near Thessaloniki

Lake Volvi

Lake Volvi

  • Volvi lake has
  • rare ecosystems, hydro-habitats, hydrophilous plants and trees.
  • More than 200 bird species such as storks, egrets, flamingos, herons, etc, (protected by the International Convention Ramsar) spend the winter in these regions.

Lake Koronia

  • Lake Koroneia ( Λίμνη Κορώνεια), 12 kilometres east of Thessaloniki, suffers severe environmental damage due to increased irrigation and intensified industry.

POLLUTION OF THE RIVERS /LAKES

  • Because of
  • chemical and toxic substances
  • heavy metals,
  • microbial load from the sewage
  • the agricultural waste : intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides
  • the Industrial wastewater (from sugar factories, clothing, dairies, canneries etc.)
  • the washing waste

Lake Koronia in the past

And Nowadays

  • THE FINAL RECIPIENT OF THE POLLUTED RIVERS AND OF THE URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE OF THESSALONIKI IS THE THERMAIKOS GULF.
  • THERE ARE TWO GULFS
  • Thermaikos at the west
  • Strymonikos at the east

Thermaikos: Origin of the name

  • It was named after the ancient town of Therma, situated on the northeast coast of the gulf.
  • In ancient Greek thermes was the name of the fever caused by malaria. The area was suffering from the illness.

The Thermaikos Gulf

  • It is a typical deltaic platform.
  • Four rivers (Axios, Loudias, Aliakmon, Gallikos) deposite their material into the Thermaikos Gulf.
  • The drainage basin covers an area of ~72,000 km2.

Bathymetry (depth contours in m) of Thermaikos Gulf

  • The Inner Thermaikos Gulf has a maximum Depth of 50 m.

4. Mineral Springs

  • Mineral springs are naturally occurring springs that produce water containing minerals, or other dissolved substances, that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value.
  • Salts, sulfur compounds, and gases are among the substances that can be dissolved in the spring water during its passage underground.

Types of mineral springs

  • Among the types of mineral springs are:
  • Thermal (hot) springs which contain a high concentration of various minerals.
  • Soda springs containing carbon dioxide gas (soda water).
  • Loutra Langada
  • Loutra Thermis
  • Loutra Apollonias

Lagada Baths are located at a distance of 19 km to the northeast of Thessaloniki on the site of byzantine spa.

  • Lagada Baths are located at a distance of 19 km to the northeast of Thessaloniki on the site of byzantine spa.
  • Known since ancient times on the shore of lake Volvi.

Thermal springs of Thermi

  • Thermi Baths are located 20km to the east of Thessaloniki and they are of special archaeological interest.

Souroti

It contains

  • It contains
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Fluorine
  • Iron
  • Copper
  • Manganese
  • lithium
  • selenium
  • chromium
  • zinc
  • which have a positive effect on the human body
  • .


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