Focal Plane Array Testing and Applications for Astronomy Donald Figer Space Telescope Science Institute


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Focal Plane Array Testing and Applications for Astronomy

  • Donald Figer Space Telescope Science Institute


Outline

  • The role of detectors in discovery.

  • The state of the art in detectors.

    • Keck/LGS/AO
    • HST
    • SOFIA
  • Detectors and future Astronomy projects.

    • LSST
    • SNAP
    • JWST




The Role of Detectors



Detector Functions

  • Photometry

  • Astrometry

  • Spectoscopy

  • Morphology

  • Time Variability



Detector Types

  • Eye

  • Film

  • Photomultiplier tube

  • CCD

  • Photodiode array

  • Radio Antennae



Detector Wavelength Sensitivity



CCD Architecture



Hybrid Architecture



Hybrid Architecture



Keck



Keck



Keck



Keck/AO/LGS



HST: Hubble Space Telescope

  • General-purpose orbiting astronomical telescope



HST



HST



HST



HST



HST



SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy



LSST: Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

  • What is the distribution of dark matter in the Universe?

  • What is dark matter?



LSST



SNAP: Supernova Acceleration Probe

  • What is dark energy?



SNAP Optical Configuration



SNAP Focal Plane Concept



JWST: James Webb Space Telescope

  • What is the shape of the Universe?

  • How do galaxies evolve?

  • How do stars and planetary systems form and interact?

  • How did the Universe build up it present elemental/chemical composition?

  • What is dark matter?



JWST

  • 6.5m diameter primary mirror

  • launch in 2013

  • orbit at L2

  • four scientific instruments

  • JWST deployment movie



IDTL: Independent Detector Testing Laboratory

  • Located at Space Telescope Science Institute and Johns Hopkins University

  • Founded 1999

  • Mission: Serve the astronomical community by developing and testing detectors for space and ground based astronomy programs



Past and Present Personnel



IDTL Test System



IDTL Test System



IDTL Sample Results: Persistence (1200 seconds)



IDTL Sample Results: Read Noise



IDTL Sample Results: Dark Current





IDTL Sample Results



IDTL Comparartive Detector Characterization



Properties of Silicon: Absorption Length



Properties of Silicon: QE



Properties of Silicon: Long Wave QE



Silicon 1 m QE vs. Thickness & Temperature



Properties of HgCdTe



Properties of InGaAs: QE



State of the Art: Thin CCD



State of the Art: LBNL Thick CCD QE



State of the Art: Si PIN



State of the Art: Si PIN RQE (100 m thick)



State of the Art: Si PIN Hybrid Arrays



State of the Art: Si PIN Dark Current



State of the Art: Si PIN Read Noise



State of the Art: HgCdTe

  • Mature technology, although short-wave QE is recent development.

  • Several vendors.

  • Flight heritage

    • NICMOS, 256x256, 2.5um cutoff.
    • Hubble Wide Field Camera 3, H1RG, 2.3um cutoff. (Launch?)
    • Deep Impact MRI spectrometer, H1RG, 5um cutoff.
    • JWST NIRCam, NIRSpec, FGS, 2.5um and 5.0um cutoff. (Launch?)


State of the Art: HgCdTe Dark Current



State of the Art: HgCdTe Read Noise



State of the Art: InGaAs



State of the Art: SUI InGaAs QE



State of the Art: Photon Counting CCD

  • Emerging technology.

  • Two (more?) vendors.

  • Low Light Level CCDs (L3CCDs), a.k.a. EMCCDs.

  • Realized noise is 1.4 times value for non-photon counting mode.

  • High read rate required in photon counting mode implies high power ~10 W per CCD for clocks and outputs.




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