Foreign philology faculty the department of foreign language and literature course paper


Type of Authentic Materials for Teaching Writing


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sirpanish podshipniklarini tamirlash, Task 13,14 page 46, 401. Makhliyo Kholmuminova. sci-tech. 1, mojiza kitob 1 bolalar uchun unversal (2), mojiza kitob 1 bolalar uchun unversal (2), ozbek tilida badiiy tasvir vositalari , chiziqli15, chiziqli15, chiziqli15, boshlangich sinflarda matematikada og, 2 5274045889017546310, 391 5 [1](1)I17 (2)(1), Til bo'yicha bilimlarni baxolash 7, 5 sinf adabiyot fanidan dars ishlanma, 5 sinf adabiyot fanidan dars ishlanma
Type of Authentic Materials for Teaching Writing
Research has shown that in this 21st century, the use of technology in the classroom is inevitable. The access of internet is easy and inexpensive. It does not need big PC or computer to surf in the internet as gadget and smart phone are already sufficient. Therefore, teachers with easy internet access and support of electricity, tend to use technology to help reach the learning objectives. However, some printed instructional media are still used in the classroom for the sake of its availability. Based on research, there are many materials that teacher can use for teaching writing. It can be printed materials, such as fictions (Setyowati & Sukmawan, 2018), picture series (Styati, 2016), or web-based materials, such as You Tube videos (Styati, 2016), websites (Sundana, 2018). In terms of how the materials are transmitted, the authentic materials are divided into three broad categories, namely audio, visual, and printed materials (Maroko, 2010). Furthermore, Sundana (2018) also states that the authentic materials can also in the form of newspaper, magazines, and internet articles. As stated by Benavent Penamaria (2011), with such an advancement of technology nowadays, teachers tend to High Challenge (Effective Learning) (Learner frustration) High Support Low Support (Minimal Learning) (Learner Boredom) Low Challenge Lestari Setyowati & Sony Sukmawan, Authentic Materials for Teaching Writing …
Thus, it can be concluded that basically there are two broadcategory of authentic materials for teaching writing, namely the printed materials and the web-based materials. The printed materials may in the form of printed magazines, printed newspaper, printed itinerary, invitation, letters, printed literary works such as collection of short stories, novels, poems, and play, and other printed texts or documents. The second type of authentic materials is the digital one or the web-based materials, such as pictures, You Tube, movie clips, electronic books, novels, short stories, poems, and web-based application, like booksie.com, storybird.com, and many more.
Teaching writing is not easy. Writing teachers often face problems with what kind of materials suitable for the students. This paper is intended to describe 1) the theoretical relationship between Content-Based Instruction and authentic materials that can be used by language teachers to teach writing in the classroom, 2) the previous studies of authentic materials used for teaching writing, 3) the type of authentic materials which can be used for teaching writing, and 4) the advantages and disadvantages of using authentic materials for teaching writing. The method used was qualitative research focused on content analysis. The instrument used was mainly human instrument and documentation. The result of the extensive review of literature shows that 1) one of the main feature of content-based instruction is the use of authentic materials for teaching; 2) most studies in the area of authentic materials for teaching writing shows the effectiveness of authentic materials for teaching procedure texts, descriptive texts and essay writing; 3) the type of authentic materials used for teaching writing is categorized based on how it is transmitted, namely audio, visual, and printed material materials; 4) aside from having its advantages, authentic materials also give challenges for the teacher to use it for classroom teaching, among others are practicality, comprehensibility and appropriateness.

Writing is a complex communicative activity. It helps to


communicate in the written form with the help o f graphical
symbols. Writing is a type o f speech activity as ≪a communicative skill to encode, store and send messages with the help of written symbols≫.102 The product o f this type o f speech activity is a text for reading.
Writing is characterized by the tree-phase structure: 1)
inducement-motivation, 2) analytical-syntactical and 2) operation. Under the first phase the motive appears as an intention to communicate. The author’s message has an intention to inform somebody.
In the second phase an utterance is formed and pronounced: the necessary words for producing the utterance are selected, within a set o f sentences, subjective area o f indicators is distributed, the predicate or a key part o f the idea organization between sentences is defined.
The third phase of writing is decoding of the idea/message with the help of graphical symbols.
In the ELT the writing is the goal and means of teaching and
learning. The goal of teaching writing is to teach production of written texts which students can write in the mother tongue. To produce the written text students should master mechanics of writing. That’s why, in domestic methodology the two types of writing are distinguished: 1) mechanics of writing (handwriting, spelling, punctuation); 2) process of expressing ideas in a graphical form.Writing is meant as acquiring graphical_ and orthographical systems of EL by students for fixation speech and language material to remember it and support acquiring oral speech. Modem
approaches to teaching writing recognize its dual purpose: as a means (a support skill) and as an end (communicative skill). Writing is a productive speech activity which is aimed at developing communicative competence of learners.
Teaching writing may be subdivided into several stages. Different stages of teaching writing have specific purposes.
The main objective of teaching writing for beginners is to develop learners' calligraphy, graphic and orthography skills. Calligraphy deals with teaching correct letter outlining and handwriting eligible for understanding. Graphic skills are required knowing graphic peculiarities of foreign language. Orthography is based on the principles of writing words in a concrete language. Orthography skills are developed not only at the beginning stage but for the whole
period of learning foreign language.
Nowadays for developing calligraphy, graphic and orthography skills special workbooks are used widely. Such workbooks contain models of letters, words, sentences and small texts. Exercises presented in the workbooks are aimed at training learners' calligraphy and graphic skills step by step.

Writing is often seen by learners as being 'boring. This is partly because of lack of 'thinking' and discussion time but is also due to writing being seen as an individual task and not one that is collective. As many EFL classes use lots of pair and group work 'writing' (and long texts of reading) often don't 'fit'. Break the writing up. Talk about the topic, plan, discuss the plan, write the outline and discuss, write the first paragraph & discuss etc. Make it part of the lesson by talking about the topic, reading about it, developing role plays from the situations etc. You can also make much of the writing collaborative. *When you correct a piece of writing, instead of marking mistakes (which are often seen as spelling, punctuation or grammar) in red pen, respond to the content and style with questions and make the learner think about what they have written and give them a need to write again responding to your questions.



* The best way to start a creative writing lesson is to start writing essays. There are many advantages of writing essays such as learning the usage of new words and phrases or the composition and flow of words and sentences. * Letter writing is also one of the most important elements of creative writing. The art of letter writing is considered to be important due to the fact that it is one of the most common modes of communication, between corporate personnel and within and between organizations. One should know letter writing irrespective of the position that one occupies in an organization. It is also absolutely essential to know the various types of formal and informal letter writing.



* Paraphrasing is a very important skill that should be mastered by all. The basic advantage of mastering this skill is that a huge amount of information can be transformed into a smaller amount of content through paraphrasing. This proves to be very effective and also of substantial help to anyone right from learners to working professionals.



* Writing technique for brainstorming. Start by writing the topic (or question) on the board. Teacher should arrange learners to sit in a circle (if possible) and tell that each learner has 4 seconds to give an answer. Teacher starts at the left of the circle and if the learner gives a response writes it on the board and moves on to the next learner. If a learner doesn't say something within 4 seconds teacher asks the learner to move the chair slightly back and moves on. Teacher goes round the whole class and then starts again and repeats the process. On the third round any learner who didn't say anything (in any round) is 'out'.





























CONCLUSION


The use of authentic materials has its own place in the language classroom. Despite of the weaknesses of the authentic materials when they are used in the classroom, the advantages outweigh its weaknesses. It is true that using authentic materials in the classroom, specifically for teaching writing, provides challenges for the teacher to find, select, prepare, and design activities that matches with the teaching objectives. Yes, it is not easy. Yet, it should not discourage teachers to try. When the students gradually acquire better language competence, teachers are encouraged to use authentic materials whenever possible in the language classroom with always to bear in mind the appropriateness level problem. The use of authentic materials would help the students to acquire the language better and sharpen their critical thinking ability.
Some suggestions are addressed to the future researchers. Further research needs to be conducted to find out the effectiveness of authentic materials for teaching writing in university level. When the information between the effectiveness of authentic materials versus textbook materials are sufficient, more information needs to be gathered in relation to what type of authentic materials offer better writing achievement to the learner. Further research also needs to be conducted to find out whether the effect of using authentic materials in the language class shows differences across gender and language competence. All in all, It is important for language teacher to gather information as much as possible to investigate the use authentic materials for learning a language, both in first and second/foreign language context. After all, the long term goal of any learning is to help the students to function well in the society and real life context so that they are beneficial to others.






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