Type of Authentic Materials for Teaching Writing
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Type of Authentic Materials for Teaching Writing
Research has shown that in this 21st century, the use of technology in the classroom is inevitable. The access of internet is easy and inexpensive. It does not need big PC or computer to surf in the internet as gadget and smart phone are already sufficient. Therefore, teachers with easy internet access and support of electricity, tend to use technology to help reach the learning objectives. However, some printed instructional media are still used in the classroom for the sake of its availability. Based on research, there are many materials that teacher can use for teaching writing. It can be printed materials, such as fictions (Setyowati & Sukmawan, 2018), picture series (Styati, 2016), or web-based materials, such as You Tube videos (Styati, 2016), websites (Sundana, 2018). In terms of how the materials are transmitted, the authentic materials are divided into three broad categories, namely audio, visual, and printed materials (Maroko, 2010). Furthermore, Sundana (2018) also states that the authentic materials can also in the form of newspaper, magazines, and internet articles. As stated by Benavent Penamaria (2011), with such an advancement of technology nowadays, teachers tend to High Challenge (Effective Learning) (Learner frustration) High Support Low Support (Minimal Learning) (Learner Boredom) Low Challenge Lestari Setyowati & Sony Sukmawan, Authentic Materials for Teaching Writing …
Thus, it can be concluded that basically there are two broadcategory of authentic materials for teaching writing, namely the printed materials and the web-based materials. The printed materials may in the form of printed magazines, printed newspaper, printed itinerary, invitation, letters, printed literary works such as collection of short stories, novels, poems, and play, and other printed texts or documents. The second type of authentic materials is the digital one or the web-based materials, such as pictures, You Tube, movie clips, electronic books, novels, short stories, poems, and web-based application, like booksie.com, storybird.com, and many more.
Teaching writing is not easy. Writing teachers often face problems with what kind of materials suitable for the students. This paper is intended to describe 1) the theoretical relationship between Content-Based Instruction and authentic materials that can be used by language teachers to teach writing in the classroom, 2) the previous studies of authentic materials used for teaching writing, 3) the type of authentic materials which can be used for teaching writing, and 4) the advantages and disadvantages of using authentic materials for teaching writing. The method used was qualitative research focused on content analysis. The instrument used was mainly human instrument and documentation. The result of the extensive review of literature shows that 1) one of the main feature of content-based instruction is the use of authentic materials for teaching; 2) most studies in the area of authentic materials for teaching writing shows the effectiveness of authentic materials for teaching procedure texts, descriptive texts and essay writing; 3) the type of authentic materials used for teaching writing is categorized based on how it is transmitted, namely audio, visual, and printed material materials; 4) aside from having its advantages, authentic materials also give challenges for the teacher to use it for classroom teaching, among others are practicality, comprehensibility and appropriateness.
Writing is a complex communicative activity. It helps to
communicate in the written form with the help o f graphical
symbols. Writing is a type o f speech activity as ≪a communicative skill to encode, store and send messages with the help of written symbols≫.102 The product o f this type o f speech activity is a text for reading.
Writing is characterized by the tree-phase structure: 1)
inducement-motivation, 2) analytical-syntactical and 2) operation. Under the first phase the motive appears as an intention to communicate. The author’s message has an intention to inform somebody.
In the second phase an utterance is formed and pronounced: the necessary words for producing the utterance are selected, within a set o f sentences, subjective area o f indicators is distributed, the predicate or a key part o f the idea organization between sentences is defined.
The third phase of writing is decoding of the idea/message with the help of graphical symbols.
In the ELT the writing is the goal and means of teaching and
learning. The goal of teaching writing is to teach production of written texts which students can write in the mother tongue. To produce the written text students should master mechanics of writing. That’s why, in domestic methodology the two types of writing are distinguished: 1) mechanics of writing (handwriting, spelling, punctuation); 2) process of expressing ideas in a graphical form.Writing is meant as acquiring graphical_ and orthographical systems of EL by students for fixation speech and language material to remember it and support acquiring oral speech. Modem
approaches to teaching writing recognize its dual purpose: as a means (a support skill) and as an end (communicative skill). Writing is a productive speech activity which is aimed at developing communicative competence of learners.
Teaching writing may be subdivided into several stages. Different stages of teaching writing have specific purposes.
The main objective of teaching writing for beginners is to develop learners' calligraphy, graphic and orthography skills. Calligraphy deals with teaching correct letter outlining and handwriting eligible for understanding. Graphic skills are required knowing graphic peculiarities of foreign language. Orthography is based on the principles of writing words in a concrete language. Orthography skills are developed not only at the beginning stage but for the whole
period of learning foreign language.
Nowadays for developing calligraphy, graphic and orthography skills special workbooks are used widely. Such workbooks contain models of letters, words, sentences and small texts. Exercises presented in the workbooks are aimed at training learners' calligraphy and graphic skills step by step.
Writing is often seen by learners as being 'boring. This is partly because of lack of 'thinking' and discussion time but is also due to writing being seen as an individual task and not one that is collective. As many EFL classes use lots of pair and group work 'writing' (and long texts of reading) often don't 'fit'. Break the writing up. Talk about the topic, plan, discuss the plan, write the outline and discuss, write the first paragraph & discuss etc. Make it part of the lesson by talking about the topic, reading about it, developing role plays from the situations etc. You can also make much of the writing collaborative. *When you correct a piece of writing, instead of marking mistakes (which are often seen as spelling, punctuation or grammar) in red pen, respond to the content and style with questions and make the learner think about what they have written and give them a need to write again responding to your questions.
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