Geocentric Model aka Ptolemaic Model


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Geocentric Model aka Ptolemaic Model

  • Geocentric Model aka Ptolemaic Model

  • Ancient Greeks

      • Earth is at the center of the Universe.
      • The Earth stood still & never moved.
      • Stars are on a separate sphere orbiting the Earth


7 objects moved differently in the sky known as the “wanderers” or planetai. Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter & Saturn

      • 7 objects moved differently in the sky known as the “wanderers” or planetai. Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter & Saturn
  • Ptolemy

          • Designed an updated model of the geocentric model.
          • The planets orbit in circles around the Earth & also travel in circles on the orbit.




Heliocentric Model

  • Heliocentric Model

  • Nicholas Copernicus

          • Earth revolves around the Sun.
          • Moon revolves around the Earth.
          • Earth rotates on an axis.
          • Planets revolved around the Sun.
          • Planets have circular orbits.


Tycho Brahe & Johannes Kepler

  • Tycho Brahe & Johannes Kepler

          • Brahe charted the motions of celestial bodies before telescopes.
          • Mathematician Kepler used Brahe’s data to form the Laws of Planetary Motion:
          • 1. The path of a planet around the Sun is an ellipse.


2. A planet will travel faster when it is closer to the Sun & cover a greater distance than when it is farther away.

  • 2. A planet will travel faster when it is closer to the Sun & cover a greater distance than when it is farther away.

  • 3. The more distant the planet’s orbit is from the Sun, the longer it takes to make a single revolution.



Nebula Theory: Formation of the Solar System

  • Nebula Theory: Formation of the Solar System

  • 1. More than 4.6 billion years ago, the solar system was a cloud (nebula) fragment of gas, ice, & dust.



2. Gradually, this cloud fragment contracted into a large, tightly packed, spinning disk. The disk’s center was so hot & dense that nuclear fusion reaction occur forming the Sun.

  • 2. Gradually, this cloud fragment contracted into a large, tightly packed, spinning disk. The disk’s center was so hot & dense that nuclear fusion reaction occur forming the Sun.



3. The rest of the material in the disk cools enough to clump into scattered solids.

  • 3. The rest of the material in the disk cools enough to clump into scattered solids.



4. Finally, these clumps collided & combined to become the planets, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, etc.

  • 4. Finally, these clumps collided & combined to become the planets, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, etc.



» The planets all orbit on the same plane called the ecliptic.

  • » The planets all orbit on the same plane called the ecliptic.

  • » The 8 planets occasionally line up in a straight line.



Galileo

  • Galileo

          • Believed that objects fall to the Earth at the same rate despite the object’s weight.
          • Air resistance slows down falling objects.


Sir Isaac Newton

  • Sir Isaac Newton

    • Law of Universal Gravitation
          • » Gravity is a force generated between two objects.
          • » Gravity depends on the mass of each object & the distance between them.




Albert Einstein

  • Albert Einstein

    • Theory of General Relativity
      • » Matter tells space how to curve.
    • » Curved space tells matter how to move.
    • » Everything moves in the straightest possible line in curved space-time.


I do not believe that civilization will be wiped out in a war fought with the atomic bomb. Perhaps two-thirds of the people of the earth will be killed.

  • I do not believe that civilization will be wiped out in a war fought with the atomic bomb. Perhaps two-thirds of the people of the earth will be killed.

  • I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.

  • Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.

  • Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former.

  • ----------Albert Einstein



Distances in the Solar System

  • Distances in the Solar System

    • Astronomical Units
      • Distances in space are millions of miles/kilometers in the solar system.
      • One astronomical units (AU) is the distance between the Earth & the Sun.
      • 1 AU = 93 million miles = 150 million km




Terrestrial Planets

  • Terrestrial Planets

  • Mercury

      • .39 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Roman messenger god (Hermes)
      • Covered in craters & cliffs, similar to the Moon.
      • No true atmosphere; trace amounts of sodium & potassium.
      • As cold as -170oC in the dark & as hot as 425oC in the light.


Venus

  • Venus

      • .72 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Roman goddess of love & beauty (Aphrodite)
      • Thick atmosphere of CO2 which causes a severe greenhouse effect producing temperatures well over 400oC. (Hottest planet)
      • Air pressure is 90 times greater than the Earth’s.
      • Similar to Earth’s size.


Has retrograde rotation (rotates backwards)

      • Has retrograde rotation (rotates backwards)
      • Takes longer to rotate than to revolve around the Sun. (Day is longer than its year.)
      • Covered with inactive volcanoes.
      • 3rd brightest object in Earth’s sky.


Earth

  • Earth

      • 1.0 AU from the Sun
      • Also known as Gaia, Terra, or Home.
      • More than 70% of Earth’s surface is covered in water.
      • Only planet known to have life in existence.
      • Has a natural satellite (Moon/Luna.)


Mars

  • Mars

      • 1.5 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Roman god of war (Ares)
      • Iron oxide (rust) in the soil gives it a reddish color.
      • Polar ice caps made mostly of frozen CO2 (dry ice) & some water.
      • Mars is half the size of the Earth.
      • Global dust storms.
      • Ranges from -125oC at night & 20oC during the day.


Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system is on Mars.

      • Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system is on Mars.
      • Thin Martian atmosphere of Nitrogen & CO2
      • Mars has two small moons (Phobos and Deimos) that came from the asteroid belt.




Jovian Planets

  • Jovian Planets

  • Jupiter

      • 5.2 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Roman king of the gods. (Zeus)
      • Completely made of Hydrogen & Helium gas (gas giant)
      • Largest of the solar planets.
      • Swirling bands of rotating clouds in the upper atmosphere.


Large rotating hurricane called the Great Red Spot. (2 Earth sizes)

      • Large rotating hurricane called the Great Red Spot. (2 Earth sizes)
      • 4 faint rings in orbit.
      • 2.5 times greater in mass than all of the other planets combined.
      • Has at least 63 natural satellites, 4 largest are known as the Galilean Moons.


Ganymede

        • Ganymede
        • » Largest moon in the solar system (bigger than Mercury, but less mass.)
        • » Covered with a crust of rock & ice that is heavily cratered.
        • » Thin atmosphere of Oxygen.


Callisto

        • Callisto
        • » 3rd largest moon in the solar system
        • » Most heavily cratered object in the solar system.
        • » Thin atmosphere of CO2.


Europa

        • Europa
        • » Covered in a shell of ice
        • » A deep ocean beneath the ice shell.
        • » Thin atmosphere of Oxygen.


Io

        • Io
        • » About the size of the Earth’s Moon.
        • » Most volcanically active body in the solar system. Erupts sulfur.
        • » Thin atmosphere of Sulfur dioxide.
        • » No craters. Why?


Saturn

  • Saturn

      • 9.6 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Roman god of agriculture. (Cronos)
      • Made of Hydrogen & Helium (gas giant)
      • Flattened poles from spinning very fast.
      • Less dense than water.




Most elaborate system of rings (rock & ice debris)

      • Most elaborate system of rings (rock & ice debris)
      • 14 or more rings.
      • 56 or more natural satellites.


Titan

        • Titan
        • » 2nd largest moon in the solar system.
        • » Has a thick, dense atmosphere mostly of Nitrogen & some methane.
        • » Surface is “squishy” & has lakes of liquid hydrocarbons.


Uranus

  • Uranus

      • 19.2 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Greek god of the sky.
      • Gas giant made of Hydrogen, Helium & methane.
      • Rotates on its side.
      • System of rings.
      • 27 or more moons.


Neptune

  • Neptune

      • 30.1 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Roman god of the sea (Poseidon)
      • Gas giant made of Hydrogen, Helium, & methane. (the methane makes it blue)
      • Near-supersonic & dynamic storms.
      • Faint ring system.
      • 13 known moons


Triton

        • Triton
        • » Icy, rocky surface.
        • » Coldest body in the solar system (- 37oC)
        • » Icy volcanoes & geysers erupting Nitrogen, dust & methane


Dwarf Planets

  • Dwarf Planets

  • Ceres

      • 2.7 AU from the Sun
      • Largest object in the asteroid belt (950km in diameter.)
      • Classified an asteroid for over 150 years.
      • It is believed to have a rocky core, icy water mantle, & a thin, dusty crust.


Pluto

  • Pluto

      • 39.4 AU from the Sun
      • Named after the Roman god of the underworld (Hades)
      • Second largest dwarf planet in the solar system.
      • Pluto’s companion, Charon , is half the size & doesn’t orbit around Pluto.
      • Pluto & Charon are small enough to fit inside the United States.


Eris

  • Eris

      • 67.7 AU from the Sun
      • Largest known dwarf planet in the solar system with a diameter of 2400km.
      • At least one moon, Dysnomia.


Other Possible Dwarf Planets

  • Other Possible Dwarf Planets

      • Orcus
      • Sedna
      • Charon
      • Possibly 43 others




Comets

  • Comets

    • Large chunks of frozen gases, rock & dust orbiting the Sun. (Dirty snowball)
    • 1. Nucleus – main portion of the comet
    • 2. Coma – thawed gases & dust form a bright cloud surrounding the nucleus.
    • 3. Tail – solar winds push away the gases of the coma forming a blue ion tail & a yellowish-white dust tail.




Famous Comets

    • Famous Comets


Comet Hale-Bopp

    • Comet Hale-Bopp
      • » Comet discovered by amateur astronomers.
      • » Last seen Spring of 1997.


Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

    • Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9
      • » Broke into several pieces and collided with Jupiter in 1994.
      • » They created several dark marks in the atmosphere that eventually disappeared.


Asteroids

  • Asteroids

    • Large chunks of rock material left over from the formation of the solar system.
    • Most asteroids are found in the asteroid belt between Mars & Jupiter.


Meteoroids, Meteors, & Meteorites

  • Meteoroids, Meteors, & Meteorites

    • Meteoroids are pieces of rock & dust left behind by orbiting comets.
    • Small meteoroids that burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere are called meteors or “shooting stars.”
    • Larger meteoroids that don’t burn up in the atmosphere and hit the Earth are called meteorites.



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