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  • Tomorrow: Early History & Religions quiz!

    • Early History GR
      • Know developments of each early civilization, importance of Silk Road & developments, role of Genghis Khan
    • Three Monotheistic Religions
      • Know basic practices, beliefs, chronological order of religions
      • Know the Five Pillars of Islam! (just traits, not by exact name)
    • Israel/Palestine
      • Zionism in 1897, Creation of Israel in 1948, basic knowledge (why Israel is fought over, what each group claims about land, Camp David I & II significance)



Background

  • Background

    • Israel was called “Palestine” before 1948.
    • Both Jews and Arabs have religious roots to Palestine/Israel; each group claims it as their homeland.
    • Jews kicked out of Palestine many years ago; in the meantime, Muslims settled there
  • The beginning

    • Jews wanted to come back to their homeland because they were being persecuted against
      • Zionist idea: coming back would make them safe
    • Arabs unhappy!
    • Jews begin to immigrate in anyway


WW1 & WW2

  • WW1 & WW2

    • WW1 established Britain as the country to control Palestine
    • WW2 allowed British and American sentiment to the Jews
      • Why?
      •  more Jewish immigration into Palestine!
  • United Nations create boundary proposal in 1947; Palestinians (Muslims) reject it

  • Establishment of Israel

    • Britain establishes the Jewish state of Israel in May, 1948
    •  WAR! 


Constant warfare over time

  • Constant warfare over time

  • Resolutions & Agreement

    • Camp David Agreement: Jimmy Carter (1978)
      • Between Egypt & Israel
      • Sinai would be released to Egypt; agreed to negotiate about having an autonomous government in the West Bank & Gaza Strip
    • Camp David Summit: Bill Clinton (2000)
      • Tried for negotiations…but still divided today, especially when violence resumed in 2002




1953: Iran’s Prime Minister overthrown w/help from CIA, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi restored to throne

  • 1953: Iran’s Prime Minister overthrown w/help from CIA, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi restored to throne

    • Iran was seen as a possible target for the spread of Communism
    • Shah was supportive of the west, PM Mossedegh alienated western countries as he gained power
    • Conservative/ fundamentalist Muslims were angered


Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, restored into power with the help of the USA

  • Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, restored into power with the help of the USA

  • What he did:

  • Seen as a “puppet” for the West (USA, in particular)

  • Also disliked by conservatives, who didn’t believe women should have ANY power

  • Lived a LAVISH lifestyle



1978: People who opposed the Shah began protests in the capital city of Tehran

  • 1978: People who opposed the Shah began protests in the capital city of Tehran

    • Conservatives, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, unhappy with women’s freedoms
    • Middle class: wanted more freedom
  • January 1979

    • Shah and family flee Iran
    • Khomeini establishes a theocracy ruled by Islamic religious leaders


Country now led by Khomeini and an army of “spiritual enforcers” (Revolutionary Guards)

  • Country now led by Khomeini and an army of “spiritual enforcers” (Revolutionary Guards)

  • Women lost rights

    • Couldn’t vote
    • Required to wear full head coverings and full-body cloaks
  • Viewed United States as “the Great Satan” and an “enemy of Islam”



Iranians angry with USA after the US allowed the former Shah to come to the country for cancer treatment

  • Iranians angry with USA after the US allowed the former Shah to come to the country for cancer treatment

  • November 4, 1979

    • Iranian college students swarm US Embassy in Tehran, capture 66 Americans
  • 14-month standoff: USA vs. Iran

    • Botched rescue operation by USA to 8 American deaths
    • Yellow ribbons worn for support of captured Americans
    • Hostages released after 444 days—the moment Ronald Reagan took the oath of office (January 20, 1981)




Saddam Hussein becomes president in 1979; Islamic Revolution posed a threat to his rule

  • Saddam Hussein becomes president in 1979; Islamic Revolution posed a threat to his rule

    • Felt religious uprising in Iran would influence ethnic Kurds (Shia) to rise up against Sunni Baathist regime
    •  exile thousands of Shia to Iran
  • Iran’s military also very weak invasion of oil-rich Arab province in Iran thinking they would support him (they didn’t)

  • Official justification for declaring war: dispute over access through Shatt-al-Arab

  • Iran: use of “human wave” assaults—hundreds of thousands of volunteers willing to die for the cause to defeat Iraq

  • Ended with UN-sponsored ceasefire in August, 1988





While Iran-Iraq War was going on, the US was dealing with a hostage crisis in Lebanon

  • While Iran-Iraq War was going on, the US was dealing with a hostage crisis in Lebanon

    • Iran-backed terrorists (Hezbollah) held 7 hostages
    • Israel, in the meantime, was selling arms & ammunition to Iran because Iraq posed a threat to them
  • Deal: America’s consent for transfer of American-made missiles for Iran in exchange for releasing the hostages

    • Profits then sent to Central American guerilla groups
  • Event went public and seen as negotiating with terrorists—scandal in Reagan’s presidency



Shah died in 1980

  • Shah died in 1980

  • Ayatollah Khomeini died in 1989, but tensions remained between US government & Iranian government

    • Current issue: nuclear weapons
  • Civilians in Iran see USA more favorably (they like our freedom)

  • Current SUPREME leader: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei

    • Lifetime appointment
  • Current President: Hassan Rouhani



Iraq-Iran War: 1980-1988

  • Iraq-Iran War: 1980-1988

    • War over border disputes between Iraq & Iran from 1980-1988
  • Persian Gulf War: 1990s

    • Iraq vs. Kuwait
    • Began when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, took over oil fields
    • U.S., other Middle Eastern countries teamed up together to get Hussein out of Kuwait; succeed!
      • Also placed an embargo, or trade ban, against Iraq
    • “As long as oil is still the #1 energy producer, oil-purchasing countries will work to protect it!”






Series of protests in the Middle East

  • Series of protests in the Middle East

  • December 2010-present

  • Began with “burning man” protest in Tunisia

    • Protests of police corruption
  • Why? Some factors:

    • Absolute rule  no voice in the people
    • Government corruption
    • Human rights violations
    • Wealthy gov. with people in poverty
    • Unemployment
  • To date:

    • Governments overthrown in Tunisia, Libya & Egypt
    • Civil disorder in Syria & Yemen
    • Major protests in Algeria and Iraq (and now Syria)


Height: January 25-February 11, 2011

  • Height: January 25-February 11, 2011

  • Inspired by “burning man” protest in Tunisia

  • Mainly non-violent demonstrations, civil marches

  • Call for President Mubarak’s resignation

  • Government response

    • Internet is shut down from January 27-February 5, 2011
    • Foreign journalists jailed, some beaten (eventually released)
    • Mubarak claims he would not step down
  • A day after refusing to step down, Mubarak resigns as president & leaves Cairo

  • Current President: Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi currently in the process of joint forces against ISIS/ISIL





February 2011-October 2011

  • February 2011-October 2011

  • Protest corrupt leadership of Muammar Gaddafi

    • Natural resource, petroleum, contributed to high GDP per capita; people still living in poverty, still high unemployment rates
    • Also poor healthcare system, untreated sewage
  • Protests  CIVIL WAR

  • UN’s role:

    • Security Council froze assets of Gaddafi, which prevented them from travelling too far
    • Established no-fly zone to protect attacks on civilians
  • Interim governing body replaced Gaddafi government in September

  • Gaddafi captured & killed on October 20,2011

  • Still clashes and conflicts in the region; current PM: Abdullah al-Thani





March 2011-present

  • March 2011-present

  • Began with protesting the torture of students who had put up anti-government graffiti

  • Crackdowns by President Bashar al-Assad  open fire on demonstrators

  • U.N.’s role

  • Currently protesting in almost all major cities, including the city of Homs and capital city of Damascus

  • CIVIL WAR!

    • Christians, others fleeing to Iraq; economic sanctions placed against Syria


Radical Islamic group terrorizing Middle Eastern Countries (break-away group from Al Qaeda, who have since condemned them)

  • Radical Islamic group terrorizing Middle Eastern Countries (break-away group from Al Qaeda, who have since condemned them)

  • Ultimate goal: creation of a Sunni Islamic state in Iraq & Syria (didn’t gain much traction until June, 2014)

  • US, other western countries respond with air strikes: September 2014

  • Thousands of militants have died as a result, but terrorist attacks and public beheadings have continued as ISIS acquires more land in the region

  • Claimed responsibility for attacks in France (November 2015)

  • Refugee Crisis Explained






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