Historia de España


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Historia de España










Hannibal

  • The Carthaginian general Hannibal is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. In 218 BC Hannibal traveled from Spain across the Alps to attack Rome. He inflicted crushing defeats on Roman armies as he marched, but lacked the reinforcements necessary to take the city. In 202 BC Hannibal was called back to Africa to defend Carthage against invading Roman forces, and there he was finally defeated at the Battle of Zama.











Arco de herradura







La Alhambra

  • The Alhambra complex sits on a hill at the base of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada, Spain. The Alhambra is made up of three distinct areas: a fortress known as the Alcazaba, extensive gardens called the Generalife, and the royal palace. The Alcazaba, parts of which date to the 11th century, is the oldest part of the complex. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Spain’s Moorish rulers built the Generalife and the royal palace in the Islamic architectural style. This photo faces the Alcazaba, with parts of the royal palace showing in the background.









Isabella I

  • In 1469 Isabella of Castile, heiress to the Castilian crown, married her cousin, Ferdinand of Aragón (later known as Ferdinand V). As Queen Isabella I, she and Ferdinand ruled the kingdoms of Castile and Aragón. Their rule brought about the permanent union of Spain and saw the beginning of an overseas empire in the Americas



Ferdinand V

  • King Ferdinand V was a gifted statesman. Ferdinand used foreign policy to expand the domains controlled by the kingdoms of Aragón and Castille, which he and his wife Queen Isabella I ruled jointly. When Ferdinand died, both of their crowns went to their grandson, Charles I, later known as Charles V.



Cristóbal Colón

  • Sponsored by Spain, explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west from Europe in an attempt to find a shorter route to India and China. He landed in The Bahamas in 1492. Soon after, Spain began to colonize areas of the West Indies.













Philip II – Felipe II

  • The Spanish Empire reached its height during the reign of Philip II (1556-1598), and Spain’s great Golden Age of art, literature, and learning began under him. However, Philip’s efforts to stamp out Protestantism in Europe, including attempts to conquer England, permanently impaired the financial resources of Spain.







Cervantes

  • Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes changed the face of fiction with his early 17th century masterpiece, Don Quixote (part I, 1605; part II, 1615). In the book, a distinguished country gentleman becomes a knight after reading too many chivalric novels. Intended as a spoof on the romantic literature of the time, Don Quixote exposed and satirized Spanish society, medieval romance, and the pastoral novel. Don Quixote reveals the essential humanity of its complex, crazed characters and has influenced many subsequent works.















Six nations Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia venerate Simón Bolívar as their liberator from the rule of Spain. This great statesman, writer, and revolutionary general is known as the George Washington of South America. He inspired men to follow him through trackless wilderness to fight and die for liberty. Bolívar's followers, however, did not support him as loyally in his struggle to set up stable governments. Simón Bolívar was born in Caracas (now in Venezuela) on July 24, 1783, of a noble Spanish family. Orphaned in boyhood, the youth was educated in Europe. He absorbed the spirit of revolution then widespread in Europe and vowed to free Venezuela. When Napoleón Bonaparte overran Spain, the restive colonies of Spanish America seized the opportunity to revolt. Venezuela was the first to declare its independence, in 1811. The revolt failed and in 1812 the colony was again under stern Spanish rule. For 20 years Bolívar led the fight to free northern South America. His small, poorly equipped forces won amazing victories and met overwhelming defeats. At one time he might be a conquering hero, with honors and autocratic power at another, a fugitive in exile. At his height, between 1825 and 1828, he was president or protector of Gran Colombia (now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador), Peru, and the newly formed Bolivia. The spirit of disunion and opposition, however, was strong. Bitter and broken in health, he died at a friend's estate in Colombia on Dec. 17,1830 seven months after he resigned his offices. Bolívar was a sincere patriot, devoted to the cause of liberty and equality. While ruler of Venezuela he proclaimed the liberation of slaves. He also was a pioneer in urging the formation of a union of American republics

  • Six nations Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia venerate Simón Bolívar as their liberator from the rule of Spain. This great statesman, writer, and revolutionary general is known as the George Washington of South America. He inspired men to follow him through trackless wilderness to fight and die for liberty. Bolívar's followers, however, did not support him as loyally in his struggle to set up stable governments. Simón Bolívar was born in Caracas (now in Venezuela) on July 24, 1783, of a noble Spanish family. Orphaned in boyhood, the youth was educated in Europe. He absorbed the spirit of revolution then widespread in Europe and vowed to free Venezuela. When Napoleón Bonaparte overran Spain, the restive colonies of Spanish America seized the opportunity to revolt. Venezuela was the first to declare its independence, in 1811. The revolt failed and in 1812 the colony was again under stern Spanish rule. For 20 years Bolívar led the fight to free northern South America. His small, poorly equipped forces won amazing victories and met overwhelming defeats. At one time he might be a conquering hero, with honors and autocratic power at another, a fugitive in exile. At his height, between 1825 and 1828, he was president or protector of Gran Colombia (now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador), Peru, and the newly formed Bolivia. The spirit of disunion and opposition, however, was strong. Bitter and broken in health, he died at a friend's estate in Colombia on Dec. 17,1830 seven months after he resigned his offices. Bolívar was a sincere patriot, devoted to the cause of liberty and equality. While ruler of Venezuela he proclaimed the liberation of slaves. He also was a pioneer in urging the formation of a union of American republics



José de San Martín - El Libertador

  • By the 1820s, the cumbersome methods by which taxation was extracted by a stagnant and complacent Spain allowed a flowering pan-American identity to blossom into a push for full independence. Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín led armies of freedom fighters from Venezuela to Peru, and from Argentina into Chile. Bernardo O'Higgins, son of an Irish immigrant and erstwhile viceroy of Peru, became supreme director of the new Chilean republic. The newly independent Chile was a fraction of its eventual size, consisting of Santiago and Concepción, and with fuzzy borders with Bolivia and Argentina. The coming of the railways and military triumphs over Peru and Bolivia in the War of the Pacific (1879-83) incorporated the mineral-rich Atacama desert to the north and the southern temperate territories. Chile quickly achieved a degree of political stability and relative democracy, enabling rapid agricultural development and the advancement of mining, industry and commerce. The now empowered working class and the nouveau riche both challenged the political power of the landowning oligarchy in a brief but bloody civil war in the 1890s.



Isabella II

  • The reign of Isabella II, queen of Spain, was marred by intrigues and political instability. She was deposed in the Revolution of 1868.













SPANISH CIVIL WAR 1936 - 1939.

  • King Alfonso XIII abdicated the throne and went in exile in Rome.

  • The country chose in favor of a Republic rather than continue the Monarchy.

  • Two parties emerge in Spain, the Nationalists and the Republicans / Loyalists.

  • The Civil War saw both sides in fierce battles:

  • - The Nationalists with the help of Italy and Germany, headed by General Francisco Franco

  • - The Republicans / Loyalists with the help of Russia, France and the U.S.

  • The Germans destroyed Guernica with their bombers. This was immortalized by Picasso in his painting of the same name, Guernica. The Republicans lost.

  • Franco became Presidente / Dictator of the country, (el país) for almost 40 years. Franco repressed freedom of speech and expression. Most artists were imprisoned or had fled to France.

  • Franco appointed Juán Carlos, grandson of Alphonso XIII, as his successor to the leadership of Spain. The Monarchy was restored at his death in 1975. El Rey Juán Carlos y la Reina Sofía de Grecia tienen 3 hijos: Elena, Cristina and Felipe. Felipe, Príncipe de Asturias should later inherit the throne.

  • The Memorial to the victims of the Civil War (la Guerra Civil) is El Valle de los Caídos, not far from El Escorial





S.M. El Rey de España

  • el Rey Don Juán Carlos de Borbon

  • Roma, el 5 de enero 1938

  • Rey de España en 1975









LOS OLÍMPICOS EN BARCELONA

  • 1992 The Summer Olympic Games were held in Barcelona

  • Los Olímpicos de 1992

  • Es un estadio muy grande

  • Celebración frente al Palacio Nacional







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