How sticky toepads evolved in geckos


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Watermelon seeds, by contrast, were Designed by Evolution to make humans spit them out.  Humans, in response, were Designed by Evolution to create watermelon seed spitting contests (or was that Evolution designing the watermelon to make the humans do this?).  Evolution designed humans to retaliate by designing seedless watermelons.  (This is known as an evolutionary arms race.)  But if Evolution is such a good Designer, why didn’t Tinker Bell find the mutation to design watermelons with delicious seeds that pass through the human digestive tract?  Oh, we get it; it’s because Evolution designed the human to design toilets and sewer systems, so the seeds would never make it to the soil.  But the watermelon has the last laugh, because Evolution designed the human to realize that without propagation by other means than seeds, their favored watermelons would go extinct.



It must be fun to be an evolutionist.  All you need is imagination, and imagination has no limits.  To them, evolutionary imagination is like capsaicin.  Most of us run for the cold water of observable science, but to them, imagination is delicious.  They have lost all feeling.  The fiery heat of imagination is normal; the more the better!

  • It must be fun to be an evolutionist.  All you need is imagination, and imagination has no limits.  To them, evolutionary imagination is like capsaicin.  Most of us run for the cold water of observable science, but to them, imagination is delicious.  They have lost all feeling.  The fiery heat of imagination is normal; the more the better!



For a great 100% Darwin-free documentary on seed dispersal, see the Moody Video Journey of Life (also incorporated as Volume 1 of Wonders of God’s Creation).  You’ll see the examples Burns mentioned and many others: coconut, dandelion, maple seed, and many more – illustrations of little living miracles all around us that can enrich our lives just to learn about.

  • For a great 100% Darwin-free documentary on seed dispersal, see the Moody Video Journey of Life (also incorporated as Volume 1 of Wonders of God’s Creation).  You’ll see the examples Burns mentioned and many others: coconut, dandelion, maple seed, and many more – illustrations of little living miracles all around us that can enrich our lives just to learn about.



The moon stabilizes Earth’s axis and regulates the tides, but enjoy it from a distance.  Now there are more reasons you wouldn’t want to live there.

  • The moon stabilizes Earth’s axis and regulates the tides, but enjoy it from a distance.  Now there are more reasons you wouldn’t want to live there.

  • “Long-term human exposure to the lunar environment has never been studied in depth, and it’s quite possible that — in addition to the many inherent dangers of living and working in space –the Moon itself may be toxic to humans,”  wrote Jason Major wrote at Universe Today(emphasis in original).    He was reporting on  a paper produced by an international team of physiologists, pharmacologists, radiologists and toxicologists from 5 countries, who sought to quantify the dangers to humans of extended lunar exposure.



In the ArXiv paper by Linnarson et al., “Toxicity of Lunar Dust,” (open access), the researchers attempted to fill the “knowledge gaps” about health hazards in lunar dust while recognizing that “ground truth” on actual effects will require in situ measurements.  According to Major’s summary, the risks include inhalation of fine dust, skin damage and eye damage.

  • In the ArXiv paper by Linnarson et al., “Toxicity of Lunar Dust,” (open access), the researchers attempted to fill the “knowledge gaps” about health hazards in lunar dust while recognizing that “ground truth” on actual effects will require in situ measurements.  According to Major’s summary, the risks include inhalation of fine dust, skin damage and eye damage.



Lunar dust is not subject to the erosional processes on Earth, so the particles tend to have sharp edges.  These can be compared to “pollutants encountered on Earth, such as asbestos and volcanic ash,” Major said; “lunar dust particles are small enough to penetrate deep within lung tissues, and may be made even more dangerous by their long-term exposure to proton and UV radiation.”  In addition, the microgravity environment of the moon may loft these particles around the airways.

  • Lunar dust is not subject to the erosional processes on Earth, so the particles tend to have sharp edges.  These can be compared to “pollutants encountered on Earth, such as asbestos and volcanic ash,” Major said; “lunar dust particles are small enough to penetrate deep within lung tissues, and may be made even more dangerous by their long-term exposure to proton and UV radiation.”  In addition, the microgravity environment of the moon may loft these particles around the airways.



The dust is dangerous on the outside, too.  Apollo astronauts noticed that the dust clings to everything.  Long-term exposure to the sharp-edged particles, even in the safety of a lunar base, could cause skin abrasions, particularly on the fingers, knuckles, elbows and knees.  And if the dust were to irritate or scratch the cornea of the eye, would there be an opththalmologist in the base to prevent blindness?

  • The dust is dangerous on the outside, too.  Apollo astronauts noticed that the dust clings to everything.  Long-term exposure to the sharp-edged particles, even in the safety of a lunar base, could cause skin abrasions, particularly on the fingers, knuckles, elbows and knees.  And if the dust were to irritate or scratch the cornea of the eye, would there be an opththalmologist in the base to prevent blindness?





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