How sticky toepads evolved in geckos


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Moreover, the discovery “upends [the] feather theory,” National Geographic headlined, and also upends the portrayal of dinosaurs as “overgrown lizards.”  Switek remarked, “If so, we will have to start thinking about what kind of feathery covering these creatures display when we depict them in art and film.

  • Moreover, the discovery “upends [the] feather theory,” National Geographic headlined, and also upends the portrayal of dinosaurs as “overgrown lizards.”  Switek remarked, “If so, we will have to start thinking about what kind of feathery covering these creatures display when we depict them in art and film.

  • 1. Rauhut, Foth, Tischlinger and Norell, “Exceptionally preserved juvenile megalosauroid theropod dinosaur with filamentous integument from the Late Jurassic of Germany,” PNAS, published online July 2, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1203238109.



You have type 1 protofeathers, too.  They’re called hairs.  Imagine finding a fossil skeleton of a horse so well preserved, impressions of its mane and tail were clearly seen in the rock (but strangely, none of the internal organs).  Would you be justified in saying that horses were evolving flight?  Horsefeathers.  Would it make any sense to say that the trait originated further back than expected, implying that the common ancestor of birds and Pegasus had protofeathers?  If you didn’t already “know” the evolutionary story about how mammals, dinosaurs and birds are supposed to have evolved, it would be a similar inferential fallacy.

  • You have type 1 protofeathers, too.  They’re called hairs.  Imagine finding a fossil skeleton of a horse so well preserved, impressions of its mane and tail were clearly seen in the rock (but strangely, none of the internal organs).  Would you be justified in saying that horses were evolving flight?  Horsefeathers.  Would it make any sense to say that the trait originated further back than expected, implying that the common ancestor of birds and Pegasus had protofeathers?  If you didn’t already “know” the evolutionary story about how mammals, dinosaurs and birds are supposed to have evolved, it would be a similar inferential fallacy.

  • There’s still something very weird about these “feathered dinosaur” discoveries.  They are found in Germany or China, often involve the same fossil-hunters, and often come from private collectors.



Even giving the evolutionists the maximum credibility about the authenticity of the fossils, they still usually create problems for Darwin.  They don’t show a clear path from fuzz to flight.  The  “protofeathers” are on the wrong animals.  They have an unknown function.  Their dates overlap, or belong in the wrong eras.  They don’t show a progression in complexity over time till true powered flight is thought to have evolved.  They are either simple protrusions, or complex feathers found on animals that clearly used them for flying or gliding.  Given how quickly animals equipped for flight could conquer the globe, one would expect to find them everywhere (compare pterosaurs, flying insects, bats).  Informed skepticism is still in order.

  • Even giving the evolutionists the maximum credibility about the authenticity of the fossils, they still usually create problems for Darwin.  They don’t show a clear path from fuzz to flight.  The  “protofeathers” are on the wrong animals.  They have an unknown function.  Their dates overlap, or belong in the wrong eras.  They don’t show a progression in complexity over time till true powered flight is thought to have evolved.  They are either simple protrusions, or complex feathers found on animals that clearly used them for flying or gliding.  Given how quickly animals equipped for flight could conquer the globe, one would expect to find them everywhere (compare pterosaurs, flying insects, bats).  Informed skepticism is still in order.



Another lesson is how readers can be distracted by the wrong questions.  Stop listening to the evolution tales, and ask other questions: Why are dinosaurs so often found in the typical death pose, suggesting rapid suffocation in  water (11/23/2011)?  Why are they exquisitely preserved?  Why do so few reporters fail to question the dates and stories of the Darwinists?  Why don’t they focus, instead, on the high levels of complexity required to have an animal run, hunt, fly, or live at all?

  • Another lesson is how readers can be distracted by the wrong questions.  Stop listening to the evolution tales, and ask other questions: Why are dinosaurs so often found in the typical death pose, suggesting rapid suffocation in  water (11/23/2011)?  Why are they exquisitely preserved?  Why do so few reporters fail to question the dates and stories of the Darwinists?  Why don’t they focus, instead, on the high levels of complexity required to have an animal run, hunt, fly, or live at all?

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As summer Olympics season approaches, we should remember that we humans are not the only ones with some amazing physical abilities.

  • As summer Olympics season approaches, we should remember that we humans are not the only ones with some amazing physical abilities.

  • Giraffe-alympics:  Humans may dive from 10 meters or more, but the distance between heart and head does not change significantly.  Giraffes, by contrast, can lower their heads 18 feet to drink water without their brains exploding.  Then they can take off galloping if a predator approaches, all the while maintaining constant fluid pressure.  PhysOrg wrote in a short article, “Giraffes are living proof that cells’ pressure matters.”  It’s about researchers in France who came up with a better model to explain fluid pressure in tissues when cells divide.  The new model explains how a tissue maintains a steady state between cell division and cell death.  “If that were the case, very tall organisms such as giraffes could not exist, because the cells in their lower body would die under pressure.”





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