How sticky toepads evolved in geckos


Download 501 b.
bet5/55
Sana21.08.2018
Hajmi501 b.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   55

Lizard diving competition:  Like cats, lizards land on their feet after a fall; but unlike cats, they do it with a twist of the tail.  “Lizards in their natural environment encounter various situations where they could fall, PhysOrg explained.  “For instance, they could fall while fighting over territory, seeking food, or even mating. To avoid injuries, they must have a way to turn themselves during a fall to land safely on their feet. ” PhysOrg reported how researchers from UC Berkeley took high-speed video of green anoles and flat-tailed house geckos to see how they do it.  They were impressed enough to design a Righting Bot robot that imitates the tail-flick trick.  They believe their findings “could also help engineers to design air– or land-based robots with better stability.”

  • Lizard diving competition:  Like cats, lizards land on their feet after a fall; but unlike cats, they do it with a twist of the tail.  “Lizards in their natural environment encounter various situations where they could fall, PhysOrg explained.  “For instance, they could fall while fighting over territory, seeking food, or even mating. To avoid injuries, they must have a way to turn themselves during a fall to land safely on their feet. ” PhysOrg reported how researchers from UC Berkeley took high-speed video of green anoles and flat-tailed house geckos to see how they do it.  They were impressed enough to design a Righting Bot robot that imitates the tail-flick trick.  They believe their findings “could also help engineers to design air– or land-based robots with better stability.”



Ageless diving seabirds:  One might think that animals with the most strenuous lives would age sooner, but guillemots (a species of diving bird) maintain fitness until their last dive, without showing signs of aging.  “The guillemots — which look similar to penguins but can fly — have the highest flight costs of any bird and expend substantial energy for diving,” Science Daily explained.  “Their high metabolisms and frequent dives should produce oxidative stress, causing the birds to deteriorate as they age. But, the researchers discovered that the birds stay fit and active as they grow older, maintaining their flying, diving, and foraging abilities.”  Kyle Elliott (U of Manitoba) remarked, “Not only do these birds live very long, but they maintain their energetic lifestyle in a very extreme environment into old age.”  Maybe they could help humans in the Aging Competition in which everyone is participating.

  • Ageless diving seabirds:  One might think that animals with the most strenuous lives would age sooner, but guillemots (a species of diving bird) maintain fitness until their last dive, without showing signs of aging.  “The guillemots — which look similar to penguins but can fly — have the highest flight costs of any bird and expend substantial energy for diving,” Science Daily explained.  “Their high metabolisms and frequent dives should produce oxidative stress, causing the birds to deteriorate as they age. But, the researchers discovered that the birds stay fit and active as they grow older, maintaining their flying, diving, and foraging abilities.”  Kyle Elliott (U of Manitoba) remarked, “Not only do these birds live very long, but they maintain their energetic lifestyle in a very extreme environment into old age.”  Maybe they could help humans in the Aging Competition in which everyone is participating.



Now, back to our regular stadium coverage.  Dr. Michael Wilkinson still thinks Olympic runners would train better by kicking off their training shoes.  He’s been running barefoot for six years, studying the performance and health benefits of running unshod.  It’s not just more natural; Science Daily quoted him explaining, “There’s a difference between shod and barefoot running gaits that comes about from feeling the ground. The sensory feedback when running barefoot encourages runners to put their feet down more gently in an attempt to avoid the impact forces that would cause discomfort and are also linked to injury.”  Need more reasons?

  • Now, back to our regular stadium coverage.  Dr. Michael Wilkinson still thinks Olympic runners would train better by kicking off their training shoes.  He’s been running barefoot for six years, studying the performance and health benefits of running unshod.  It’s not just more natural; Science Daily quoted him explaining, “There’s a difference between shod and barefoot running gaits that comes about from feeling the ground. The sensory feedback when running barefoot encourages runners to put their feet down more gently in an attempt to avoid the impact forces that would cause discomfort and are also linked to injury.”  Need more reasons?



In new research, Dr. Michael Wilkinson found that when runners who always wear shoes run barefoot they immediately alter their gait to that characteristic of habitual barefoot runners, and also use less oxygen during barefoot running compared to running with shoes at the same speed. This indicates greater running economy which is an important determinant of distance running performance, especially in elite runners.

  • In new research, Dr. Michael Wilkinson found that when runners who always wear shoes run barefoot they immediately alter their gait to that characteristic of habitual barefoot runners, and also use less oxygen during barefoot running compared to running with shoes at the same speed. This indicates greater running economy which is an important determinant of distance running performance, especially in elite runners.

  • Habitual barefoot runners have a distinctive running gait — using mid-foot landings, shorter stride lengths, faster stride rates, and less time in contact with the ground. They are also known to hit the ground with lower impact force and loading rates than runners who land on the rear foot in trainers. This cushions the force of landing, avoiding the discomfort associated with striking the ground heel-first common in runners who wear shoes.





Download 501 b.

Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   55




Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2020
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling