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Тузувчилар:
Махкамова Г.Т. ЎзДЖТУ, Лингвистика ва инглиз адабиёти”

кафедраси профессори, п.ф.д.;


Галиева М.Р. ЎзДЖТУ, “Лингвистика ва инглиз адабиёти”

кафедраси доценти, ф.ф.н.



Тақризчилар:
Назирова Ш.О. ЎзМУ, “Инглиз филологияси” кафедраси доценти,

ф.ф.н.;
Караева К.Н. ЎзДЖТУ, “Замонавий педагогик технологиялар”

кафедраси доценти, п.ф.н.

Фаннинг ўқув дастури Ўзбекистон давлат жаҳон тиллари университети Илмий кенгашида кўриб чиқилган ва тавсия қилинган (2014 йил 26 июндаги11-сонли баённома).



КИРИШ
Мазкур дастур “Чет тилини эгаллаш умумевропа компетенциялари: ўрганиш, ўқитиш ва баҳолаш” тўғрисидаги ҳужжатда келтирилган меъёрий талаблар, 5А120102–Лингвистика (роман-германтиллари) магистратура мутахассислигининг Давлат таълим стандарти ва намунавий ўқув режасига мувофиқ такомиллаштирилди. Ушбу дастур доирасида магистрантларнинг чет тилда коммуникатив компетенцияларини (лингвистик,ижтимоий-лингвистик, дискурсив, ижтимоий, ўқув-когнитив) ривожлантириш назарда тутилади.

Дастур қўйидаги тамойилларга асосланган:

• дастур чет тили таълими узлуксизлиги ва компетент ёндашув асосида ишлабчиқилган;

• чет тилини ўргатиш фанлараро, интеграллашган, шахсга йўналтирилган вакоммуникатив-когнитив ёндашувлар асосида амалга оширилади;

• чет тилига ўргатиш магистр-лингвистларнинг коммуникатив компетенцияси,умуммаданий ва касбий компетенцияларини комплекс ва ҳар тарафламашакллантиришгайўналтирилган;

• таълимнинг асосий объекти – тилни маданият билан ўзаро боғлиқликдаўрганиш, нутқ модуллари (тинглаб тушуниш, гапириш, ўқиш, ёзув), тили ўрганилаётганхалқнинг ахлоқий меъёрларини ўрганиш;

• таълимнинг касбий йўналиши ўқув материали танлаш, лисоний материал ванутқмодулларига ўргатиш каби методик жараёнларда ўз аксини топади;

• илмий услуб нутқига ўргатиш академик ёзув ва нотиқлик санъатитехникаларини ўргатиш асосида амалга оширилади;

• касбий чет тили коммуникатив компетенциясини такомиллаштиришда алоҳидаэътибор мустақил ишга қаратилган.

Мустақилишахбороттехнологияларваилмийтадқиқотнилойиҳалаштиришметодикасиниқўллаганҳолдаоғзакиваёзмавазифаларнибажаришниўзичигаолади. Ушбу дастур умуммутахассислик интеграллашган курсининг етакчи фанлариданбири ҳисобланади. Фанни ўрганиш жараёнида магистрантлар бакалавриат босқичидаолган билимларини янада чуқурлаштириш билан бир қаторда нутқий фаолиятнинг барчатурлари бўйича (тинглаб тушиниш, гапириш, ўқиш, ёзув) малака ва кўникмалариниривожлантирадилар.


Фаннинг мақсад ва вазифалари
Фаннингмақсади - С1даражасида (CEFR) четтиликомпетенциясиниэгаллаш, магистрантларнингилмий-тадқиқотвакасбиймалакалари, ҳамдамустақилишлашмалакавакўникмаларниривожлантиришватакомиллаштириш.

Фаннингасосийвазифаситалабаларнингкасбий, ижтимоий, кундаликмулоқотжараёнидатилбирликларинингқўлланилишхусусиятларивамеъёрларибўйичабилимларинитакомиллаштиришвачуқурлаштиришданиборат. Шунингдек,

• маданиятлараро мулоқотнинг барча жабҳаларида тил соҳибларига адекватравишда турли жанр ва услубдаги матнларни тушуниш, таҳлил этиш ва тузишкўникмаларини такомиллаштириш;

• лисоний воситаларни таҳлил қилиш, қиёслаш, синтез ва баҳолаш мақсадидарефлексив кўникмаларни ривожлантириш ва такомиллаштириш;

• оғзаки ва ёзма матнларни тушуниш ва тузиш стратегияларини, ҳамда касбийфаолиятда мулоқотнинг перцептив, интерактив ва информацион тактикаларини эгаллаш;

• оғзаки ва ёзма шаклдаги лойиҳа ва презентациялар тайёрлаш кўникмаларинитакомиллаштириш;

• республика, ўқув юртлараро илмий анжуман ва семинарларда сўзга чиқишмақсадида нотиқлик санъати кўникмаларини шакллантириш;

• илмий тадқиқот кўникмаларини шакллантириш ва ривожлантириш: илмийахборотни излаб топиб, интерпретация қила билиш; сараланган ахборотни матнлардаумумлаштириш, кенгайтириш ва торайтириш; плагиат (кўчирмакашлик)га йўл қўймаслик,библиографик ҳаволаларни, иқтибосларни тўғри расмийлаштира олиш; турли жанрдагиилмий матнларнинг структурасини, мазмунини таҳлил қилиш;

• чет тилини амалиётда, илмий тадқиқот ва лойиҳалаштириш фаолиятда қўллашбилан боғлиқ бўлган касбий кўникма ва малакаларини такомиллаштириш;

• танқидий фикрлаш кўникмаларини такомиллаштириш;

• гуманистик дунёқарашни ривожлантириш (эмпатия, раҳмдиллик, бағрикенглик,миллий ва ўзга миллатнинг маданий қадриятларига нисбатан ҳурматда бўлиш) ҳамфаннинг вазифалари сирасига киради.
Фан бўйича талабаларнинг билим, кўникма ва малакаларига

қўйиладиган талаблар
Магистрантлар қўйидаги таркибий қисмларини ўз ичига олувчи чет тиликоммуникатив компетенциясига эга бўлиши керак:

Тил компетенцияси:

а) лексик компетенция: мавзуларга оид лексикани ва соҳага оид атамаларни илмийдаражада ривожлантира олиш; сўз ясаш моделлари асосида сўзлар ҳосил қила олиш;

б) грамматик компетенция: ихтисослашган матнлардаги (масалан, тилшунослик ёкитаржимага оид) грамматик структураларни қўллай билиш; артиклни илмий услубда тўғриқўллай билиш; турли матнларнинг лингвистик ёки дискурс таҳлилини қила олиш.

Тинглаб тушуниш:


  • ўз мутахассислик соҳаларига оид бўлмаган абстракт ва мураккаб мавзулардаги кенг

кўламли нутқларнинг айрим жиҳатларини ойдинлаштириб олиш зарурати туғилса,айниқса сўзловчининг талаффузи ноаниқ ёки тил диалекти нотаниш бўлганҳолларда ҳам тушуна олиш;

  • кенг кўламдаги идиоматик ва оғзаки нутқ ибораларини фарқлай олиш ва ижтимоий

муҳитга мос тарзда тилнинг ўзгариш хусусиятини тушуна олиш;

  • кенг кўламли нутқларни аниқ тузилмаган ҳолларида ҳам тушуниш ва улардаги очиқ

ойдин ва яширин фикрларни ҳам етарли даражада англай олиш;

  • муҳокама ва дебатлардаги асосий ва бошқа иштирокчилар ўртасидаги мураккабмулоқотни, мавзулар бирмунча мавҳум ёки нотаниш бўлган ҳолларда ҳам, осонликбилан тушунган равишда кузата олиш;

  • кенг қамровли, тилнинг айрим ностандарт ишлатилиш ҳолларини ҳам ўз ичигаолган аудио тасма ва ахборот материалларини тушуна олиш ва сўзловчиларўртасидаги бирмунча яширин қарашлар ва муносабатлар, кичик деталларнинг ҳаммуҳим жиҳатларини аниқлай олиш;

  • фильмларни сленг ва идиоматик ибораларнинг ишлатилиш ҳолларининиг аксарқисмини тушунган ҳолда кузата олиш;

  • сифат жиҳатдан бирмунча ёмон, овоз эшитилиши ноаниқроқ бўлган оммавийэълонлардан (масалан, темир йўл вокзали, спорт майдончасидаги эълонлар) тегишли

маълумот ола билиш.

Гапириш:


Диалог

  • илмий ва соҳага оид конференция, давра суҳбатлари, мунозара (жонли ёкивоситали) ларда мулоқотни бошлаш, олиб бориш ва якунлай билиш;

  • фикрларни аниқ ифодалаган ҳолда муҳокамаларда фаол қатнаша олиш;

  • вазиятга мос тарзда тилни мослаштира олиш;

  • ўзрасмийнуқтаиназариниишончбиланилгарисурганҳолдақаршитомоннингбирқатормураккабсаволвашарҳларигамосравишдаравонваспонтантарздажавоббераолиш;

  • семинарвамуҳокамалардасўраш, ойдинликкиритиш, нутқнибўлишватўлдиришстратегияларинимосравишдақўллайолиш.

Монолог

  • соҳага оид мавзулар бўйича презентация ва маърузалар қила олиш;

  • объект, субъект, вазият ва ҳодисаларни батафсил тасвирлай олиш;

  • маъруза, муҳокама ёки мақолага тўғри ва равон тарзда хулоса қила олиш;

  • илмий нуқтаи назар ёки фикрни ривожлантириш, далиллар келтириш орқалиасослай олиш.

Ёзув:

  • барча турдаги хатлар;

  • барча турдаги иншолар;

  • танлаган мавзулари бўйича магистрлик илмий иши;

  • соҳага оид мақолалар;

  • соҳага оид ва оид бўлмаган адабиётлар (мақолалар, китоблар, малакавий иш)таҳлиллар;

  • соҳага оид ва оид бўлмаган адабиётлар (бирламчи ва иккиламчи манбалар)гааннотациялар;

  • турли илмий материалларга хулоса;

  • тезис ва конференцияда қатнашиш учун таклиф ва мушоҳадалар;

  • грант ва стипендиялар учун таклиф ва аризалар ёза олиши лозим.


Фаннинг ўқув режадаги бошқа фанлар билан ўзаро боғлиқлиги ва услубий

жиҳатдан узвийлиги
“Асосий чет тили” фани мутахассислик фани ҳисобланиб, магистратурабосқичининг 1, 2, 3- семестрларида ўқитилади. Магистратура босқичи талабаларигамўлжалланган ушбу фан бакалавриат таълим йўналишидаги “Оғзаки ва ёзма нутқамалиёти” фани билан узвий боғлиқ бўлиб, мантиқий давомийлигидан далолат беради.Мутахассисликфани бўйича назарий ва амалий курсларда эгаллаган билимлар,малакалар ва кўникмалар базасида бўлажак лингвистларнинг чет тили коммуникативкомпетенцияси ривожланади ва такомиллашади. Магистратурада ушбу фанумуммутахассислик блоки фанлар ва бошка ихтисослик фанлар, ҳамдалингвомамлакатшунослик, маданиятлараро мулоқот, чет тилини мутахассислик тилисифатида ўқитиш методикаси фанлари билан чамбарчас боғлиқ.
Фаннинг ишлаб чиқаришдаги ўрни
“Асосий чет тили” курси ишлаб чиқариш жараёни билан бевосита боғланмаган.Ушбу фан инсонлараро ва маданиятлараро мулоқотнинг оғзаки ва ёзма шаклларида зарурбўлган чет тили коммуникатив ва касбий компетенцияларни такомиллаштиришга хизматқилади. Бундан ташқари, ушбу курс турли хил илмий ишлар олиб боришда (мақолалар,тезислар, тақризлар, рефератлар, курс ишлари, магистрлик диссертациясини), ҳамдакасбий мулоқот жабҳаларида оммавий сўзга чиқишларда зарур бўлган нотиқлик санъати маҳоратини ўзлаштиришга имконият яратади.
Фанни ўқитишда замонавий ахборот ва педагогик технологиялар
Магистрантларнинг “Асосий чет тили” фанини ўзлаштиришлари учун ўқитишнинг замонавий педагогик ва ахборот технологияларидан кенг фойдаланилади: гуруҳли музокаралар (group discussion); жамоа лойиҳалари (project work); жуфтликлар бўлиб топшириқларни бажариш (pair work); якка ҳолда маълум мавзу бўйича презентациялар қилиш (individual presentation); давра суҳбатлари ўтказиш (round-table discussion); инсерт техникаси (Insert technique);пинборд техникаси (Pinboard); кейс-стади (Case-study); ақлий ҳужум (brainstorming); кластер (cluster); муҳокама (discussion), баҳс-мунозара (debate); кичик ҳимоя (mini-dissertation); роли ўйинлар (roleplay); рефлексив усуллар (таҳлил, қиёслаш, синтез, баҳолаш, ассоциатив алоқалар). Ахборот технологиялари, жумладан, мультимеди авоситалари ёрдамида машғулотлар ташкил этилади, Power Point дастури ёрдамида презентациялар ва компьютерда тестлар ўтказилади.

АСОСИЙ ҚИСМ
Фанга кириш
Таълимнинг асосий мазмунига лисоний материал, маданиятлараро билимлар, нутқфаолиятининг турлари киради. Дастурда нутқ фаолиятининг ҳар бир тури модул сифатидабелгиланган (тинглаб тушуниш, гапириш, ўқиш, ёзув). Модулларни эгаллаш жараёниинтеграллашган ҳолда олиб борилади.

Асосий чет тили курси таълими иккита алоҳида босқични ўз ичига олади:умумтаълим ва касбий. Биринчи босқич ижтимоий, маиший соҳаларда оғзаки ва ёзма нутқчет тили компетенциясини такомиллаштиришга қаратилган. Иккинчи босқич – илмийуслубдаги оғзаки ва ёзма нутқни эгаллашга мўлжалланган.



Асосий чет тили курси бўйича нутқий модулларни ўргатиш жараёнидамагистрантлар илмий адабиётлардан фойдаланиш ва унга тўғри ёндашиш ҳамда фикрниоғзаки ва ёзма тарзда илмий услубда баён этишнинг асосий усулларини, нотиқликсанъати, академик ёзув, илмий тадқиқот олиб бориш кўникмаларини эгаллайдилар.Асосий ўқув материали сифатида аутентик материаллар (публицистик, бадиий,энциклопедик, шахсий ва расмий мазмундаги хатлар), ҳамда аудио- ва видеоматнлархизмат қилади. Асосий диққат-эътибор матннинг коммуникатив, мантиқий ва мазмунийжихатларини таҳлил этишга қаратилган (матннинг функционал-стилистикхусусиятларидан келиб чиқган ҳолда). Алоҳида эътибор магистрантларнинг илмийматнлар (мақолалар, тезислар, тақризлар, шарҳлар, рефератлар, аннотациялар,библиографик хрестоматиялар) билан ишлашига қаратилган. Бу эса, ўз навбатида, илмийматнларнинг структура ва мазмун жиҳатидан қўрилишини билиш, ҳамда уларни тузиш ваамалиётда қўллаш кўникмаларини билишни талаб этади. Матннинг ахборот ва мазмунжиҳатларини таҳлил этиш жараёнида таҳлил қилинаётган матнлардан кўрилаётганмасаланинг моҳиятини, таклиф этилаётган усулларнинг мазмунини аниқлаш, матнданкеракли ахборотни чиқариб олиш тажрибаларига эга бўладилар. Турли жанрдаги илмийматнларни яратиш мақсадида магистр-лингвист академик ёзув техникаларини эгаллайди.Машғулотлар эса илмий услубни (танқидий таҳлил, синтез, баҳолаш, олинган ахборотнитўғри етказа билиш, ахборотни ихчамлаштириш ва кенгайтириш ва ҳ.к.) ўринли ва фаолқўллай билишни ривожлантиришга қаратилган.


Амалий машғулотларнинг тахминий рўйхати
Ҳозирги замон дунё муаммолари: гиёҳвандлик, терроризм, жиноятважазо, экология, этник низолар, бедаво касалликлар.
Илмий-техник прогресс ва унинг башариятга бўлган таъсири: биоинженерия, нанотехнология, замонавий ахборот воситалари, илғор технологиялар (компьютер, интернет, айпэд), ароф-муҳитнинг ифлосланиши, ишсизлик.

Маданиятлараро зиддиятлар: диний ақидапарастлик, аёлларнинг жамиятдаги ўрни, жинслараро муаммолар, авлодлар зиддияти, тенг ҳуқуқлилик.

Замонавий қадриятлар: ватанпарварлик, маданият ва маънавият, диний, миллий толерантлик.

Соғлиқни сақлаш тизими: соғлом турмуш тарзи, соғлиқни сақлаш органлари, тиббиётнинг Шарқ ва Ғарбда ривожланиши, Ибн Сино - тиббиёт асосчиси, анъанавий ва ноанъавий тиббиёт турлари.

Ўзбекистон ва тили ўрганилаётган мамлакатларнинг замонавий таълим тизими: ўқув муассасаларининг турлари, таълим босқичлари, таълим моделлари, магистратурадатаълим, чет элда таълим олиш.

Касбий ўсиш: ўқитувчи, таржимон, муҳаррир, раҳбар, шахсий хислатлар ва хулқ- атвор.

Магистрантнинг илмий-тадқиқот амалиёти: нотиқлик санъати, илмий мақола, илмий маъруза, презентация, илмий конференция ва симпозиум, тақриз, менинг диссертациям, мини-ҳимоя, илмий лойиҳалар, муаллиф ҳуқуқи ва патент.
Нутқ фаолияти турлари бўйича:
Тинглаб тушуниш:

  • кенг қамровли мавҳум ва мураккаб мавзулардаги матнлар;

  • кенг кўламдаги идиоматик иборалар ва оғзаки нутқ намуналарига бой аудио тасмалар, ахборот ва оммавий эълонлар (масалан, темир йўл вокзали, спорт майдончасидаги эълонлар);

  • гуруҳ муҳокамасидаги асосий ва бошқа иштирокчилар ўртасидаги мураккаб мулоқот;

  • теледастур ва фильмлар;

  • ўрганилаётган тил соҳиби бўлган ва бўлмаган сўзлашувчиларнинг турли расмий ва норасмий доиралардаги ёки таълим муассасаларидаги аутентик оғзаки нутқ намуналари;

  • соҳага оид маърузалар, баҳс-мунозаралар.

Гапириш:

Диалогик нутқ:

  • шахслараро мулоқот ва суҳбатлар;

  • оммавий мунозаралар ва расмий муҳокама;

  • ўз мутахассислик соҳасига оид бўлмаган мавҳум ва мураккаб мавзулардаги маърузалар ва мулоқотлар;

  • ишга қабул қилувчи ёки ишга кирувчи сифатида интервьюда қатнашиш;

  • аудиторияда қўлланиладиган иборалар.

Монологик нутқ:

  • кўрсатмалар;

  • тақдимотлар;

  • конкрет ёки мавҳум мавзулар бўйича ўз мулоҳазасини билдириш ва уни асослай олиш;

  • ўз фикрини асосланган тарзда ифода этиш;

  • фикрлар, муҳокама ёки соҳага оид мақола юзасидан умумлашган хулоса чиқариш.

Ўқиш:

  • ижтимоий, мутахассислик ёки таълим соҳаларида учраш эҳтимоли бўлган бирмунча узун ва мураккаб матнлар;

  • бадиий ва илмий-оммабоп китоблар, шунингдек адабий журналлар;

  • газета ва журналлар;

  • йўриқномалар (қўлланмалар, таомнома китоблари ва ҳоказо);

  • реклама материаллари;

  • турли маълумотнома шакллари, ўқитувчи кундалиги, сўровномалар;

  • расмий хатлар, электрон хатлар ва ҳоказо (меморандумлар, маърузалар,танқидий баёнотлар/мақолалар, илмий ишлар).

Ёзув:

  • маълумотнома шакллари ва сўровномалар;

  • иш ва мутахассисликка доир хатлар;

  • мавзу танлаш баёноти;

  • резюме;

  • тезис;

  • мини-диссертация;

  • таҳлиллар;

  • маърузалар;

  • иншолар;

  • грант ва стипендиялар учун таклиф ва мулоҳазалар;

  • расмий ҳужжатлар (шартномалар, битимлар).

Тил материали:

  • нутқнинг лексик жиҳати;

  • юқорида қайд этилган мавзуларга оид лексика;

  • таълим ва мутахассисликка оид лексика;

  • сўз ясаш моделлари ва қисқартмалар;

  • нуқтаи назар ва қарашларни ифодаловчи сўз ва иборалар.

Нутқнинг грамматик жиҳати:

  • ихтисослашган матнлардаги грамматик структуралар (масалан, илмий иншодамажҳул нисбатнинг қўлланилиши);

  • дискурс намуналари (масалан, грамматик, лексик ёки мазмун жиҳатданбоғланиш);

  • боғловчилар;

  • артикл ва белгиловчилар (детерминантлар).

Социолингвистик компетенция

  • тилнинг маданият жиҳатлари (масалан, идиомалар, мақоллар ва ҳоказо);

  • хулқ-атвор, ўзини тутиш ва этикет қоидалари;

  • новербал коммуникация воситалари;

  • ижтимоий ва илмий доирага хос тарзда тилни мослаштириш;

  • маданиятлараро мулоқотни чуқурроқ тушуниб етиш;

  • ўзга миллат вакилларига нисбатан ҳурмат ва толерантлик;

  • ўзга маданият ва турли вазиятларга мослашиш.

Прагматик компетенция

  • нутқни тушуниш, талқин этиш ва сўзлашдаги тегишли стратегия ва услублар;

  • турли дискурслар таркиби ва мазмунини билиш;

  • мулоқотдаги бўшлиқларнинг олдини олиш мақсадида тил камчиликларинибартараф этиш;

  • расмий ва норасмий доираларда нутқни бўлиш, аниқлик киритиш, бошқачаталқин этиш, жумлаларни тузатиш,тўлдириш ва ҳоказо стратегиялар.


Лаборатория ишларини ташкил этиш бўйича кўрсатмалар

Фан бўйича лаборатория ишлари намунавий ўқув режада кўзда тутилмаган.


Курс ишини ташкил этиш бўйича услубий кўрсатмалар

Фан бўйича курс иши намунавий ўқув режасида режалаштирилмашан.


Мустақил таълимни ташкил этишнинг шакли ва мазмуни
Талабаларнингмустақилишидастурнингасосийбўлимлариасосидарежалаштириладивақуйидагииштурларининазардатутади:

- танланган мавзу бўйича қўшимча тил материали йиғиш, уни таҳлил қила олиш (Libraryresearch, ReadingLog, WritingAssignment);

- илмийустахоналардақатнашиш (Scientific workshops, Tutorial);

- сўзбойлигиникенгайтириш (Programme of vocabulary development);

- мини – диссертацияёзиш;

- тилвоситаларинингоғзакиваёзманутқдақўлланишимкониятларибиланянадакенгроқтанишиш;

- муайянкўрсатмаларбўйичаберилгантопшириқларниёзмабажаришталабэтилади.
Тавсия этилаётган мустақил ишларнинг мавзулари


  • Берилганмавзубўйичақўшимчатилматериалийиғиш, унитаҳлилқилаолиш(Library research, Reading Log, Writing Assignment);

  • Дебатларгатайёргарликкўриш: Илмий-техникпрогрессвауниинсониятгабўлгантаъсири: биоинженерия, нанотехнология, замонавийахбороттехнологиялари,атроф-муҳитнингифлосланиши, ишсизлик. Ўзбекистонватилиўрганилаётганмамлакатларнингзамонавийтаълимтизими. Таълиммуассасаларинингтурлари,таълимбосқичлари, Кадрлартайёрлашмиллийдастури, магистратурадатаълим,четэлдатаълимолиш;

  • Илмий мақолалар ёзиш;

  • Презентация устида ишлаш: Ҳозирги замон дунё муаммолари: Гиёҳвандлик,терроризм, жиноят ва жазо, экология, этник низолар, касалликлар.Соғлиқнисақлаш тизими: Соғлом турмуш тарзи, соғлиқни сақлаш, тиббиётнинг Шарқ ваҒарбда ривожланиши, анъанавий ва ноанъавий тиббиёт турлари;

  • гуруҳ муҳокамасига тайёрланиш: ватанпарварлик, маданият ва маънавият, диний,миллий толерантлик, экология муаммолари, замонавий ахборот технологиялари;

  • лойиҳалар ишлаб чиқиш;

  • мини-диссертацияни презентация қилиш;

  • семинарларда иштирок этиш.


Дастурнингинформационметодиктаъминоти
Фанниўқитишжараёнидатаълимнингзамонавийметодлари, педагогикваахборот

коммуникатив технологияларидан фойдаланиш назарда тутилган. Булар:

‒ замонавий аудио-видео воситалари ва компьютер технологиялари ёрдамида

маърузаларни ўқиш;

‒ мазкур фаннинг курси юзасидан машғулотларда компьютер технологиялари

ёрдамида тақдимотлар ўтказиш;

‒ амалий машғулотлар дарсларида ақлий ҳужум, гуруҳли фикрлаш, диалог, полилог,

коммуникатив мулоқот каби интерфаол усуллардан фойдаланиш;

‒ кичик гуруҳ мусобақалари, интернет янгиликлари ва шу каби илғор педагогик

технологиялар қўлланилади.


Фойдаланиладиган адабиётлар рўйхати1
Асосийадабиётлар
1. Bakieva G.H., Iriskulov M.T., Isamuhammedova N.N., Kim O.G. English for Professional Development. Олий таълим муассасалари магистратура бўлими талабалари учун Асосий чет тили (чет тили) фанидан дарслик. -Тashkent, 2011.

2. Anderson T., Forresrer K. Reading, then Writing (From Source to Essay). –New York, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1997.

3. Blass L., Pike-Baky M. A Content-based Writing Book. -McGraw-Hill, 1996.

4. Jordan R.R. Academic Writing Course. Study skills in English. – Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited, 1999.

5. АбдушукуроваЛ.А., КаримоваИ.А. «Français 3ème » Тошкент, 2009

6. АбдушукуроваЛ.А., КаримоваИ.А. «Presse française », Тошкент, 2011

7. АбдуразаковМ.А., КлимоваА.А. ГродзинскаяТ.В. «Manuel de français», Тошкент, 1982.

8. Мошенская Л.О., Арутюнян О.С. «Аналитическое чтение. Пособие по французскому языку: Учебн. пособие». – М., Высш. шк., 1986

9. МаматовМ. ИсмоиловЮ. ваб. Deutsch für Hochschulen. Tашкент. 2003

10. Delfin Lehrwerk für Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Lehrbuch Arbeitsbuch. Ismaning 2001

11. Em – Brückenkurs. Kursbuch und Arbeitsbuch. Deutsch als Fremdsprache für die Mittelstufe. Ismaning Max Hueber Verlag 2002

12. ЧичинА.В. Учебникиспанскогоязыка. М. 2002.

13. Фирсова Н.М. Испанский речевой этикет. M. 1991

14. Lipatova O.I. Desarrоllе sus conocimientos de español. M. 2003


Қўшимча адабиётлар
1. Fried-Booth D.L. Resource Books for Teachers: Project work. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

2. Fine Clouse B. The Student Writer.Editor and Critic. -Mc. Craw-Hill, Inc., 1992.

3. Long Richards A. Methodology in TESOL. Book for reading. –USA: Newbury House Publishers, 1987.

4. Robinson C., Parker H. Themes for Listening and Speaking. – Liverpool: University of Liverpool Press, 1992.

5. Collie J., Slater S. Cambridge Skills For Fluency: Listening 3. –Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

6. Rames A. Exploring through Writing. –NewYork, 1992

7. Sanabria K. Academic Listening Encounters: Life in Society. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004

8. Dreyer H.Schmidt R . Lehr-und Übungsbuch der deutschen Grammatik. Verlag für Deutsch 2000.

9. Anglizismen Wörterbuch. De Gruyter. Berlin. 2001.

10. Das große Lexikon der sprichwörtlichen Redensarten. Herder. Freiburg-Basel-Wien. 1991.

11. Duden. Richtiges und gutes Deutsch. Band 9. München 1985.

12. Duden. Das Fremdwörterbuch. Band 5. 1985.

13. Manekeller W. Bürokorrespondenz – professionell und überzeugend. München 1996.

14. Wagner W. Kulturschock Deutschland. Rotbuch Verlag. 1996.


15. Usbekistan durch Raum und Zeit. Der sozio-kulturelle Almanach. Sug’diana nashriyoti. Taschkent 2011.

16. Кумарьян Т.И.Пособие по испанском языку M. 1994

17. Conjunto. Revistas y periуdicos uzbekos, rusos y españoles.M. 2003
Интернет сайтлари
1. http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/

2. www.educationuk.org

3. http://www.bbc.co.uk\worldservice\learningenglish/

4. http://www.channel4.com\learning\

5. http://www.better-english.com\exerciselist.html

6. http://www.bbc.co.uk\worldservice\learningenglish\business\index.shtml

7. http://www.englishclub.com\index.htm

8. http://www.bbc.co.uk\schools\teachers

9. http://education.leeds.ac.uk\edu-mwe/eltwww.htm

10. www.teachertrainingvideos.com

11. www.francophonnie.hacherre-livre.com

12.www.portail.lettres.net

13.www.Ziyonet.uz

14. www.edu.uz




O’ZBEKISTON RESPUBLIKASI OLIY VA O’RTA MAXSUS TA‘LIM VAZIRLIGI

URGANCH DAVLAT UNIVERSITETI

FILOLOGIYA FAKULTETI "INGLIZ TILI VA ADABIYOTI" KAFEDRASI

O’quv-uslubiy boshqarma “Tasdiqlayman”

tomonidan ro’yxatga o’quv ishlari bo’yicha prorektor

olingan №_____ __________dots . Xo’janiyozov S.U.

___”_________ 2017-yil “______” _________2017-yil

ASOSIY CHET TILI “

fanidan


ISHCHI DASTUR


Bilim sohasi: 100000-Gumanitar

Ta‘lim sohasi: 110000-Pedagogika

Ta‘lim yo’nalishi: Magistratura (5A Lingvistika (ingliz tili) yo’nalishi uchun)


Urganch – 2017

Ishchi dastur O’zbekiston Respublikasi Oliy va o’rta-maxsus ta’lim vazirligi tomonidan 9 yanvar 2016 yil № MD-5A120102-2.04.raqam bilan ro’yxatga olingan o’quv dasturi asosida tuzilgan bo’lib, “Ingliz tili va adabiyoti” kafedrasining ___avgust 2017 yildagi yig’ilishida muhokama qilingan va tasdiqlangan. Bayonnoma №


Tuzuvchi : _______ Eshmuratova M.

Taqrizchi : __________katta o’qituvchi Rahimova G. Yu.


“Ingliz tili va adabiyoti”

kafedrasi mudiri: __________ katta o’qituvchi Rahimova G.Yu.

Fakultet kengashining raisi: _________ f.f.n.dots. Jumaniyazov Z.A.

Ishchi o’quv dasturi universitet kengashining 2017 yil “____ ” avgustdagi yig’ilishida ko’rib chiqildi va o’qitishga tavsiya qilindi. (bayonnoma№)



KIRISH

Fan, texnika va texnologiyalar yutuqlari asosida ta`lim tizimini isloh qilishda davr sinovlaridan o‘tgan ilg`or tajribalarni o‘rganish hamda milliy va umuminsoniy qadriyatlarni e`tiborga olgan holda ularning joriy etilishini ta`minlash raqobatbardosh kadrlar tayyorlashning muhim omili sanaladi. Amaldagi Davlat ta`lim standartlari, o‘quv reja va fan dasturlarini takomillashtirish ehtiyoji ham ana shu islohotlar natijasida yuzaga keldi. Xususan, O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidentining 2012 yil 10 dekabrdagi “Chet tillarni o‘rganish tizimini yanada takomillashtirish chora-tadbirlari to‘g`risida”gi PQ-1875-son qarorida belgilangan vazifalar ijrosini ta`minlash maqsadida “Oliy ta`lim muassasalarida chet tillarni o‘qitish tizimini yanada takomillashtirish chora-tadbirlar dasturi” ishlab chiqilgan bo‘lib, unda chet tillar bo‘yicha Davlat ta`lim standartlari, o‘quv rejalari va dasturlarini takomillashtirish va bosqichma-bosqich o‘quv jarayoniga tatbiq etish ustuvor vazifalardan biri sifatida belgilangan.

Yevropa Kengashining “Chet tilini egallash umumevropa kompetentsiyalari: o‘rganish, o‘qitish va baholash” to‘g`risidagi hujjatida til egallashga qo‘yiladigan talablar va mezonlar e`tiborga olingan holda O‘zbekiston uzluksiz ta`lim tizimida chet tillarini o‘rganishning yagona maqsad va vazifalari belgilanib, chet tillari bo‘yicha ta`limning barcha bosqichlari bitiruvchilari tayyorgarlik darajasiga qo‘yiladigan Davlat ta`lim standarti talablari ishlab chiqildi. Chet tilini egallash darajalarini o‘zida aks ettirgan mazkur standart O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Vazirlar Mahkamasining 2013 yil 8 maydagi“Chet tillar bo‘yicha ta`limning barcha bosqichlari bitiruvchilarining tayyorgarlik darajasiga qo‘yiladigan talablar” to‘g`risidagi 124-sonli qarori bilan tasdiqlandi.

Mazkur dasturni ishlab chiqishda Evropa Kengashining “Chet tilini egallash umumevropa kompetentsiyalari: o‘rganish, o‘qitish va baholash” to‘g`risidagi umume`tirof etilgan xalqaro me`yorlari (CEFR – Common European Framework of Reference) va O‘zbekiston Respublikasining uzluksiz ta`lim tizimida chet tillarni o‘rganishga qo‘yiladigan talablar e`tiborga olindi. Unda chet tilini o‘qitishga ixtisoslashgan ta`lim yo‘nalishlari bitiruvchilari oliy ta`lim muassasasidagi tahsillari nihoyasida o‘rgangan chet tili bo‘yicha C1 darajani egallashlari minimum sifatida belgilab qo‘yilgan. Shuningdek, takomillashtirilgan Davlat ta`lim standartlarida talabalarning tayyorgarlik darajasi, bilim, malaka va ko‘nikmalariga qo‘yiladigan talablar hamda turdosh oliy ta`lim muassasalari mutaxassislari tomonidan bildirilgan takliflar inobatga olindi.



Fanning maqsad va vazifalari

Mazkur fanning maqsadi talabalarga kasbiy yo‘nalish doirasida tilning og`zaki va yozma shakllarini o‘rgatish, ularning ijtimoiy-madaniy muloqot malakalarini rivojlantirish, xususan o‘rganilayotgan asosiy chet tilining funktsional shakllari va uslublarini, til to‘g`risidagi amaliy va nazariy bilimlarini takomillashtirish hamda egallangan bilim, ko‘nikma, malakalarini kasbiy va ilmiy faoliyatda erkin qo‘llay olishlarini ta`minlashdir. Fanning asosiy vazifasi umume`tirof etilgan xalqaro me`yorlarga ko‘ra talabalarning o‘rganilayotgan chet tilini C1 darajada egallashlari uchun zaruriy bilimlarni integrallashgan tarzda o‘rgatish va muloqot malakalarini rivojlantirishdir.



Fan bo‘yicha magistranlarning bilim, ko‘nikma va malakalariga

qo‘yiladigan talablar

Mazkur dastur bo‘yicha ta`lim olgan magistrantning:



  • chet tilini egallash Umum Evropa standartlariga ko‘ra C1 daraja;

  • o‘rganilayotgan chet tilida o‘qish, tinglab tushunish, gapirish va yozish ko‘nikmalari;

  • o‘rganilayotgan chet tilining xalqaro muloqotdagi roli;

  • til o‘rganish jarayonlari hamda ularning til o‘rganishdagi roli va ahamiyati;

  • o‘quv materiallarini tanqidiy tahlil qilish, baholash, muayyan sharoitga moslashtirish va yangilarini yarata olish;

  • darsni rejalashtirishda izchillikni ta`minlash hamda reja asosida mashg`ulot olib borish;

  • chet tilini o‘qitishning turli uslublari va til o‘qitishdagi turli yondashuvlar;

  • til o‘qitilayotgan guruh va sharoitga mos ravishda o‘qitish uslublarini tanlash va to‘g`ri qo‘llay olish;

  • ta`lim oluvchilar bilimini baholashning turli shakl va metodlari;

  • o`zining o`quv va pedagogik faoliyatini baholay olish va refleksiya ko`nikmalarini qo`llay olish;

  • o`z faoliyati bo`yicha ilmiy tadqiqot olib boorish;

  • tilni anglash va til tahlili sohalaridan pedagogik maqsadlarda foydalana olish;

  • madaniyatlararo kompetensiya va uning chet tilini o`qitishdagi roli bo`yicha bilim, malaka va ko`nikmalarga, kompetensiyalarga ega bo`lishi talab etiladi.


Fanning o‘quv rejadagi boshqa fanlar bilan o‘zaro bog`liqligi va

uslubiy jihatdan uzviyligi

Asosiy chet tili fani mazkur ta`lim yo‘nalishi o‘quv rejasidagi boshqa ixtisoslik fanlari bilan o‘zaro bog`liq bo‘lib 1-3 semestrlar davomida o‘qitiladi. Mazkur fan umumkasbiy fan hisoblanib,o‘quv rejaning matn lingvistikasi, zamonaviy lingvistika yo’nalishlari, va o‘rganilayotgan asosiy chet tilining nazariy kurslari – xorijiy mamlakatlarning lingvistik nazariyalari, qiyosiy tilshunoslikning zamonaviy yo’nalishlari, frazeologiyaning zamonaviy konsepsiyalari va tarjima nazariyasi va amaliyoti fanlaridan zaruriy bilimlarni egallashda ushbu fan modullari bo‘yicha o‘zlashtirilgan ko‘nikma va malakalar muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi.



Fanning hajmi va mazmuni.





O’quv yuklamasi hajmining mashg’uloti ko’rinishida taqsimlanishi


semestr


Jami

Ma’ruza


Amaliy

mashgulot



seminar

Mustaqil ish

Asosy chet tili

1

136




80




56

2

68




40




28




3

68




40




28

Jami




272




160




112

FANNING AMALIY MASHG`ULOTLARI MAZMUNI



Seminar mashg’ulotlarning bo’limlar bo’yicha mavzusi va mazmuni

Soat

Mashg’ulot turi

Sana




3-semestr







1

Aral sea and its effect to the country

2

Amaliy




2

Terrorism and its impact

2

Amaliy




3

Ecological problems of Uzbekistan

2

Amaliy




4

Development of medicine in Uzbekistan and UK

2

Amaliy




5

Global environmental issues in the world

2

Amaliy




6

Education system of European countries compared to Uzbekistan

2

Amaliy




7

Implementation of correspondence Education in Uzbekistan

2

Amaliy




8

Politics in UK and Uzbekistan

2

Amaliy




9

Current linguistic researches in linguistics

2

Amaliy




10

Professional activity: teachers

2

Amaliy




11

The term of educational technology

2

Amaliy




12

Masters’ research paper

2

Amaliy




13

Conclusion of research paper

2

Amaliy




14

Different types of classes at university

2

Amaliy




15

How to defend PhD after Masters

2

Amaliy




16

Importance of English in Uzbekistan

2

Amaliy




17

Accomplishments in education system

2

Amaliy




18

Interntional journals of the world

2

Amaliy




19

Youth is decisive force of our today and tomorrow

2

Amaliy




20

Linguistics and Language Science

2

Amaliy




Mustaqil mashg’ulotlar ro’yxati



Mustaqil ishlarning mavzusi va mazmuni

Soat

Sana




3-semestr




1

Aral sea and its effect to the country

2




2

Terrorism and its impact

2




3

Ecological problems of Uzbekistan

2




4

Development of medicine in Uzbekistan and UK

2




5

Global environmental issues in the world

2




6

Education system of European countries compared to Uzbekistan

2




7

Implementation of correspondence Education in Uzbekistan

2




8

Politics in UK and Uzbekistan

2




9

Current linguistic researches in linguistics

2




10

Professional activity: teachers

2




11

The term of educational technology

2




12

Masters’ research paper

2




13

Conclusion of research paper

2




14

Different types of classes at university

2




15

How to defend PhD after Masters

2




16

Importance of English in Uzbekistan

2




17

Accomplishments in education system

2




18

Interntional journals of the world

2




19

Youth is decisive force of our today and tomorrow

2




20

Linguistics and Language Science

2





BAHOLASH MЕZОNLARI
2017-2018 o`quv yilida Urganch Davlat universitetida talabalar bilimini baholash mezonlarini yanada takomillashtirish va soddalashtirish bo`yicha tavsiyalar.

Ushbu tavsiyalar O`zbekiston Adliya vazirligida 2009 yil 10 iyulda N 1981 bilan davlat ro`yxatidan o`tkazilgan “Oliy ta`lim muassasalarida talabalar bilimini nazorat qilish va baholashning reyting tizimi to`g`risidagi Nizom” asosida ishlab chiqilgan va 2017 yil avgustda UrDu ilmiy kengashi tomonidan tasdiqlangan “Urganch Davlat universitetida talabalar bilimini nazorat qilish, baholash va reyting tizimi to`g`risidagi Nizom” ga ko`ra fanlar ishchi dasturida talabalar bilimini baholash mezonlarini to`la yoritishga yordam beradi.




Nazoratlar

JN-1

JN-2

JN-3

ON

JN-4

YaN

Jami

Maksimal ball

10

10

10

30

10

30

100

ON, YN: Jami 3 ta savol beriladi. Har bir savol 0-10 balldan baholanadi.

JN : 4 marta JN chiqariladi, har birida talaba bir marta baholanadi, har bir baholash 0-10 balldan baholanadi.




Nazoratlar

JN-1

ON

JN-2

JN-3

JN-4

YaN

Jami

Maksimal ball

10

30

10

10

10

30

100

Saralash ball

5.5

16.5

5.5

5.5

5.5

16.5

55

Nazorat haftasi

6

9

11

13

16

18




























JN natijalari guruh jurnali qaydnomaga butun sonlarda (0-10 ballgacha) qayd qilinadi.
Orаliqnаzorаt uchun bаholаsh mеzonlаri:

ON dа fаnning bir nеchа mаvzulаrini qаmrаb olgаn bo‘lim yoki qism bo‘yichа nаzаriy mа‘lumotlаr o‘tib bo‘lingаndаn so‘ng tаlаbаning nаzаriy bilimlаri bаholаnаdi vа undа tаlаbаning muаyyan sаvol yoki muаmmoni еchish mаhorаti vа qobiliyati аniqlаnаdi. ON sеmеstrdа bir mаrtа, fаnning tаxminаn 50% i o‘tilgаndаn kеyin 3 tа nаzаriy sаvoldаn iborаt yozmа nаzorаt ishi shаklidа o‘tkаzilаdi. Hаr bir jаvob 0 dаn -10 gаchаbo‘lgаn bаllаrdа fаqаt butun sonlаrdа bаholаnаdi.

1- sаvol: B1=10 bаll

2- sаvol: B2=10 bаll

3- sаvol: B3=10 bаll

Hаr bir sаvolgа yozilgаn jаvoblаr quyidаgi mеzon аsosidа bаholаnаdi:



9-10 bаll bilаn bаholаnаdi:

- sаvolgааtroflichа, аniq vа to‘gri jаvoblаr yozilgаn bo‘lsа;

- o‘quv rеjаdаn tаshqаri (zаmonаviy) mаtеriаllаrdаn xаbаrdorligi bilinib tursа;

- qonun vа qoidаlаr, nаzаriyalаr, tushunchаlаr vа tаsаvvurlаr to‘gri vааniq yozilgаn bo‘lsа;

- bаyondа ilmiy xаtoliklаrgа yo‘l qo‘yilmаy, mаtеriаl mаzmunining ilmiy vа mаntiqiyligi sаqlаngаn holdа puxtа yozilgаn bo‘lsа;

- bаyondа orfogrаfik vа grаmmаtik kаmchiliklаr uchrаmаsа.



7-8 bаll bilаn bаholаnаdi:

- sаvolgа yozilgаn jаvoblаr o‘quv dаsturi tаlаblаri doirаsi bilаn chеklаngаn, аmmo to‘gri bo‘lsа;

- jаvobdа ilmiylik buzilmаgаn, bаyon mаzmunidа mаntiq sаqlаngаn bo‘lsа;

- qonun-qoidа, nаzаriya, tushunchа vа tаsаvvurlаr bаyonidа xаtoliklаr uchrаmаsа;

-bаyondа orfogrаfik vа grаmmаtik xаtolаr uchrаmаsа.

5-6 bаll bilаn bаholаnаdi:

-sаvolgа jаvob o‘quv dаsturi tаlаblаrigа mos kеlmаsа, ya‘ni tor doirаdа yoritilgаn bo‘lsа;

-qonun-qoidа, nаzаriya, tushunchа vа tаsаvvurlаr bаyonidа bа‘zi xаtoliklаr uchrаsа;

-bаyondа bа‘zi orfogrаfik vа grаmmаtik xаtolаr uchrаsа.



3-4 bаll bilаn bаholаnаdi:

-sаvolgа jаvob judа tor doirаdа yoritilgаn bo‘lsа;

-qonun-qoidа, nаzаriya, tushunchа vа tаsаvvurlаr bаyonidа qo‘pol xаtoliklаr uchrаsа;

-bаyondа qo‘pol orfogrаfik vа grаmmаtik xаtolаr uchrаsа.



1-2 bаll bilаn bаholаnаdi:

-bеrilgаn sаvolgа jаvob yozilmаsdаn, boshqа sаvollаrgа jаvob yozilgаn bo‘lsа;

-qonun-qoidа, nаzаriya, tushunchа vа tаsаvvurlаr bаyonidа qo‘pol xаtoliklаr uchrаsа;

-bаyondа qo‘pol orfogrаfik vа grаmmаtik xаtolаr uchrаsа.



0 bаll bilаn bаholаnаdi:

-sаvolgа umumаn jаvob yozilmаgаn bo‘lsа;

-mаvzugа doir hеch qаndаy tаsаvvurgаэgаbo‘lmаsа.

Talabaning ON dan to`plagan umumiy o`zlashtirish ko`rsatkichi 3 ta savolga qo`yilgan ballar yig‘indisidan iborat:



OON=V1+V2+V3
Dasturning infоrmatsiоn-uslubiy ta‘minоti
Asosiy chet tili fanini o`qitishda zamоnaviy (хususan intеrfaоl) mеtоdlar, aхbоrоt kоmmunikatsiya (mеdia ta‘lim, amaliy dastur pakеtlari, prеzеntatsiоn, elеktrоn-didaktik) tехnоlоgiyalarining qo`llanishi nazarda tutiladi.Fanni o`qitishda elеktrоn darslikdan, mavzuga оid tеlеdisklardan va bоshqa ko`rgazmali qurоllardan fоydalaniladi.

TAVSIYA ETILGAN ADABIYOTLAR RO`YXATI

Асосий адабиётлар

1. Bakieva G.H., Iriskulov M.T., Isamuhammedova N.N., Kim O.G. English for Professional Development. Олий таълим муассасалари магистратура бўлими талабалари учун Асосий чет тили (чет тили) фанидан дарслик. -Тashkent, 2011.

2. Anderson T., Forresrer K. Reading, then Writing (From Source to Essay). –New York, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1997.

3. Blass L., Pike-Baky M. A Content-based Writing Book. -McGraw-Hill, 1996.

4. Jordan R.R. Academic Writing Course. Study skills in English. – Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited, 1999.
Қўшимча адабиётлар
1. Fried-Booth D.L. Resource Books for Teachers: Project work. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

2. Fine Clouse B. The Student Writer.Editor and Critic. -Mc. Craw-Hill, Inc., 1992.

3. Long Richards A. Methodology in TESOL. Book for reading. –USA: Newbury House Publishers, 1987.

4. Robinson C., Parker H. Themes for Listening and Speaking. – Liverpool: University of Liverpool Press, 1992.

5. Collie J., Slater S. Cambridge Skills For Fluency: Listening 3. –Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

6. Rames A. Exploring through Writing. –NewYork, 1992

7. Sanabria K. Academic Listening Encounters: Life in Society. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004

Интернет сайтлари
1. http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/

2. www.educationuk.org

3. http://www.bbc.co.uk\worldservice\learningenglish/

4. http://www.channel4.com\learning\

5. http://www.better-english.com\exerciselist.html

6. http://www.bbc.co.uk\worldservice\learningenglish\business\index.shtml

7. http://www.englishclub.com\index.htm

8. http://www.bbc.co.uk\schools\teachers

9. http://education.leeds.ac.uk\edu-mwe/eltwww.htm

10. www.teachertrainingvideos.com



O’ZBEKISTON RESPUBLIKASI OLIY VA O’RTA MAXSUS TA’LIMVAZIRLIGI
AL-XORAZMIY NOMLI URGANCH DAVLAT UNIVERSITETI

Ingliz tili va adabiyoti” kafedrasi



Asosiy chet tili”
fani

O’quv-metodik materiallari





  1. Aral sea and its environmental effect to the country

Since the very beginning of its existence, the human being has been developing. It has never stopped, and it never will. During the last couple of centuries it has been developing very aggressively, and it has reached tremendous achievements in all fields. Unfortunately mankind has achieved tremendous success in polluting its environment also. Nowadays, nature is missing many of its inhabitants: – those who are supposed to be under the protection of humans as young brothers and sisters. Pollution was the reason for their extinction. Finally, the humanity started paying more attention to what surrounds it. It started thinking about the future, its future generations, and the inheritance to these generations. People have started asking themselves more often questions like, "What will we have left to other children after us?" Currently, humanity has plenty of global environmental problems that it has to take care of now. Tomorrow will be too late. Some of these global environmental problems are global warming, deforestation, freshwater contamination, destruction of ozone layer of the earth, pollution of space orbit of the earth by parts of used equipment.

Desiccation of the Aral Sea is one of the items on the list. The Aral Sea, which is also considered to be a lake or Inland Sea in Central Asia, is located in southwestern Kazakstan and northwestern Uzbekistan, near the Caspian Sea. The Aral has no outlet. The Aral Sea is still listed as the fourth largest lake in the world. But it has been shrinking for decades, and the statistics might change. In time the Aral Sea may not the fourth largest lake in the world anymore. Nowadays, two major problems have risen before the governments of Uzbekistan and Kazakstan; the desiccation and as a result of this threat of the complete disappearance of the sea, and the danger of the broad extension of anthrax bacteria that was stored by the Soviet Army on the Vozrozdenia Island. In comparison with the size of the sea in the 1960's, the Sea has declined in size by seventy-six percent. The initial reason for the Aral's decline is the fact that Soviet planners diverted water from Aral's two big feeding rivers (Amu Darya and Syr Darya) into cotton fields in the territory of Uzbekistan. Because of this irrigation, the sea is now seventy miles away from its former bank (in some places even more). Ninety percent of the Syr Daya's water is diverted into canals and reservoirs. Millions of people in Central Asia rely on the rivers for a livelihood. Uzbekistan, for instance, generates twenty-eight percent of its hard currency from cotton irrigated with river water. Planning the irrigation system, the Soviet planners were only after high rates of cotton harvests. Unwise use of water has led to the current state of the Aral Sea. The salt content of the Sea's waters increased by about threefold, adversely affecting plant and animal life and causing the fishing industry to decline. The disappearance of the sea as a part of the ecosystem is just one problem that is followed by hundreds of subsequent problems. One of them has already risen: The drying of the sea has left behind three million hectares of desiccated seabed, covered with accumulated salts which the wind carries away and deposits over thousands of square kilometers of arable land turning the land into dead ones. One can see white ridges amid the soil in the field. Salty dust from the dried out land blows in squalls through the area, causing discomfort and respiratory problems. Wind brings more than a hundred tons of salty dust per square mile on the region every year. As a result of this, trees do not bear fruit any more.



The Aral Sea's desiccation has an influence on everything that is around it. The climate in the region has changed significantly; the winters are even colder, summers are even hotter.

The sea was not only the water supply for the population, but it was the source of their income. A large part of the population was involved in fishing and resort industries. Now, that the Sea is far away, these businesses are no longer available, and that leads to deterioration of the financial situation of the people in the area. "In city of Muynak, the three hundred-vessel fleet once employed a thousand fishermen. It is now a collection of rusting hulls half-buried amid the dunes on the edge of town. Yet the sixty-year-old canning factory still clatters, all steam and stench, although its seven hundred workers handle fish brought by lorry from the lakes around Tashkent, one thousand miles away" (Reeves, The Sea Sickness). The sea has turned from a rich fishing ground to a prairie of poison dust. Desiccation has a great deal of influence on the population's health; the change in environment has significantly increased rates of birth defects, infant mortality, cancers, malnutrition, respiratory diseases, and the anemia suffered by almost all women of child-bearing age. Malnutrition has risen sharply; fish is no longer a part of the people's daily diet. Another side effect imposed on the population is a dramatically increased rate of tuberculosis in the area.One of the causes of health deterioration is that over three decades the water could not or barely could make it to the Aral Sea. The Aral's water contains a lot of pesticides. The pesticides sank to the bottom of the lake. As the lake dried up, this layer of pesticide became exposed to the wind, which blows it away on the other lands. The partial solution for the problem is to build a dam to keep water from flowing into the larger, southern portion.

Plans call for the structure's base to be 150 yards wide. If money is found for the construction, the water level of the northern sea will rise to the same level it was in 1960's. As a result of the construction, salination of the sea will decrease. This fact might contribute to restoration of fishing and resort industries. For the population of this region, the dam is a rare ray of hope. If the dam holds on the small sea, a microclimate will be restored there. The health of people will improve and it will be good for the economy. Calculations by the Kazak Academy of Science in Almaty, the country's main commercial city, suggest the entire sea might disappear by 2010 without the dam. Currently the northern Sea is one-sixth as large as the southern portion. If the surface area is reduced, less water will evaporate. The full damage caused cannot be repaired, but it can be stopped from going any further.

The second threat to the Aral Sea and its inhabitants is anthrax bacteria stored 1988 by the Soviet Army. The Army was trying to get rid of its germ weapons and stored the bacteria on one of the Aral's islands. Soldiers dug large pits and poured a mixture of anthrax bacteria and bleach. The bleach was supposed to kill the bacteria, but it did not. Even with the passage of time, the bacteria stay alive. Now, the Sea is drying out and this island can become a part of land. This fact carries the threat that anthrax bacteria can be exposed to atmosphere one day, and it will become a very serious danger to both countries. At this time, both governments in cooperation with the United States are undertaking actions in order to prevent the extension of the bacteria. Over the two last centuries many of Earth's inhabitants became extinct as a result of environmental pollution. It is time to stop it; otherwise the next extinct inhabitant might turn out to be humanity itself.



  1. Terrorism and its impact

The term terrorism is not new. It is in practice since the known recorded history of the world in one way or the other. The terrorists hale this nomenclature for themselves because they justify their actions and strategy to fight against oppression and injustice. The phrase “one man’s terrorist is an other man’s freedom fighter” is what the terrorists boast to accept. They normally act upon their motto of violence, fear and intimidation towards govt. or civil societies in pursuit of their goals that are political, religious or ideological.

The term terrorism was first coined by the French Revolutionary governments by applying systematic state terror against the population of France in 1790s, killing thousands of peoples.



The heart of every compatriot and Islam loving person weeps when he is labeled as terrorist by the so called civilized nations of the Europe. Whatever claim and Quranic quotations we proffer that we being Muslims are a peace loving nation and our religion strongly teaches us to be peaceful people not only to our brotherhoods but towards the people of the other religions as well. And as the past history proves we have been following these injunctions of the Quran in letter and spirit.

Unfortunately the freedom struggle by the frustrated elements of some of the countries including Palestinian Arabs after the Arab Israel war in 1967, the war in Vietnam which created a sense of reaction against the govt. of the USA, prevalent war fare in Afghanistan as well as biased American policy and illegal control in Iraq are some of the major factors which have been termed as terrorism by the western lobby with well planned propaganda.


As a mailer of fact the term of international terrorism came up as a serious issue in 1960s and unfortunately our previous rulers did nothing practical to combat the specter of the terrorism-rather it was beefed up either by their vested interest or due to their novice grip on good governance.

Now the main problem facing the whole world is that will terrorism continue unabated looking at the back history? The answer must be In positive, as grass roots are various forms of political violence in different countries for centuries. After effects of both the world wars of 1920 and 1940 (first and second world wars). as well as post war decolonization which prolonged through 1960s are considered to be the beginning of terrorism. Besides, the biased American policies and political behavior also created displeasure, resentment and reaction by the aggrieved freedom fighters irrespective of religion and nationhood, the latest offshoot of which was the 9/11 tragedy.

The terrorism in its earlier stages i.e 1920s and 1940s was not that powerful and fast. With the advancement of science and technology like easy availability of weapons and explosives both via open market or through the underworld, television and communication devices as well as increasing trend of air traveling are some of the major causes of mushrooming of terrorist activities. In this way the global terrorism has now become institutionalized. But regrettably the prominent European scholars are putting us on target. Recently two Americas leading theorists on terrorism and how to fight it are having controversial views in the very nature of the threat.

Mr. Bruce Hoffman 53, George Town University historian and author of his famous book “Insight Terrorism (1998)” argues that the ‘Alquaeda’ is alive and more dangerous than several years before. He has boldly warned in his book that the ‘alquaeda’ has reconstituted in Pakistan.

On the other side Mr. Marc Sageman – a Polish born, psychiatrist, sociologist, former CIA officer and scholar with the New York police department in his latest book ” The jihad” argues that the main threat no longer comes from the organization called the Alquaeda. but from the bottom up – from radicalized individuals and groups who are plotting it all in there neighbor hood and on the internet.

The views of both the above scholars have further created an alarming feeling among the European people and such views will certainly have fatal feelings among the immigrants As a matter of fact the term of international terrorism came up as a soaring issue in 1960s.


After review these factors one can easily conclude that there are very bleak chances of stoppage of terrorism in the world because the activities of the terrorists is not confined to a few countable groups. It has spread beyond one’s imaginations and statistical assessment.

In spite of most modern scientific devices it is not possible to monitor with exactness the presence and non-presence of terrorist groups of the world who own the claim of terrorist attack. There are certain groups who try to encash the events unnecessarily without having involvement therein.

What is the main objective of the terrorist?
The dominating policy given to the terrorists by the hidden elements has been to create harassment, uproar and sense of insecurity among the people. Simply killing, or massacre a large number of human beings has never been their main objective. They resort to this tactics as a last step to achieve their aim, when they feel that the concerned rulers show resistance to their demands. The state sponsorship by some of the rulers-particular!} the rulers of the Middle East to counter their conflicts inter se has provided sufficient helipad to the terrorists when they are provided with the latest technical means to operate lethal devices.

The terrorists observes and operate in a limited scope of activity. Their main tools upon which they frequently operate or bombings manual or suicidal, armed attacks, killings, kidnappings, highjacking and seize hostages incidents etc.

A few years before attacking, bombing or seizing embassies was a common practice of the terrorists. It declined due to strict security measures. Now the terrorists use varied son of tactics for their targets which are obviously unlimited and after each event they change their method of attack for the next one. They can attack anything, anytime and anywhere for which they are dictated. Normally their chosen targets are railways, airlines, embassies, rail roads, sub ways, buses, power lines, sui gas lines, journalists, diplomats, mosques, hotels, restaurants, schools, missionaries, women and children.

After the tragic event of 9/11, the Europe in general and the USA in particular have become terrified and frightened as they now feel that the terrorists in the garb of Taliban and Alquaeda etc are a clear danger to the nuclear power. This apprehension has made the lives of the immigrants including Pakistanis working or living there quite miserable. This however is a satisfying note that they have not been able to attack nuclear reactors maybe because of their limited knowledge of this device so far.

Anticipated future target of terrorism
With the increasing hostile attitude of the USA towards our frontier areas, the targets of the terrorists are likely to double up their activities to target high technology like nuclear reactors, refineries as well as guerilla warfare. However, their common targets will include the political leaders and top govt. representatives and diplomats of the European countries.

Remedial Measures.


There is no denying the fact that the terrorism has grown into an international terrorist den. It is now the responsibility of all the countries to root it out with some collective efforts for which the following steps are recommended:

1.   The root cause of the trouble and crises is in Middle East as well as the Arab word as a whole. These countries should revamp their agencies with collaboration mutually putting aside the political differences. The UNO and OIC (organization of Islamic conferences) should also play their role with more zeal and propagation.


                                                                                                                                     
2.      As for Pakistan, it is quite necessary that the religious extremist be bridled more
     tightly to eradicate this menace.

3.      As we all now the disclosure of nuclear underworld has put every one an alarming


situation with reference to terrorism. The nations of the nuclear club should have
to be more cautious to ward off the nuclear proliferation with strict safety of the
network.

In the end we can only hope that the increasing menace of the terrorism be stopped by all the nations in general and the countries of the third world in particulars. But it is not as simple as it looks because unfortunately the rulers of some countries are not much sincere to root out this menace-rather some countries are behind their back.



  1. Ecological problems of Uzbekistan

Ecology is a science which studies the relationship between all forms of life on our planet and the environment.

Since ancient times Nature has served Man, giving him everything he needs: air to breathe, food to eat, water to drink, wood for building and fuel for heating his home.  For thousands of years people lived in harmony with the environment and it seemed to them that the resources of Nature had no end or limit.

With the industrial revolution our negative influence on Nature began to increase.  Large cities with thousands of polluting plants and factories can be found nowadays all over the world. They pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the fields where our crops are grown. Big cities suffer from smog. Cars with their engines have become the main source of polluting in industrial countries.

Vast forests are cut down everywhere for the needs of industries. As a result many kinds of animals, birds, fish and plants are disappearing nowadays.

The pollution of the air and the world’s oceans and the thinning the ozone layer are the other problems arising from men’s careless attitude to ecology.

Active measures should be taken to save the life on our planet. There is an international organization called Greenpeace which is doing much to preserve the environment.

The present environmental problems have become exceptionally urgent. If many years ago people lived in harmony with the environment, today their interference in the Nature has reached such a degree that it becomes dangerous for their lives.  And if the same tendencies remain for the next years, our planet will soon become uninhabited. The ecological problems are not the problems of a single isolated country. They are global in character and involve all countries in the world.  The ecological problems have much in common. The main problem is pollution. It is not a secret that  every year more and moreindustrial enterprises are built.

And they have a very bad effect on the environment. They pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink and the land that grain and vegetables grow on.



In addition to air pollution people upset the oxygen balance of our planet because people cut down forests and woods. One of the most dangerous things is radiation. There is a greаt number of nuclear power stations. They have many advantages for the industry, but they present a threat for the life.

Nature is a source of our life and destroying it we destroy ourselves. People forget that natural resources are not endless even though they seem unlimited. Nature has enough resources for the present generation. But their amount becomes less with every year. To protect nature is a duty of all people.

The extensive development of irrigation in the Aral Sea region began on the premise of promising economic advances to support a sharp increase in the living standard of the population. An improved supply of meat and rice, transformation of the region into an all-union flower and vegetable garden, and significant increases in hard currency receipts by the USSR from the sale of cotton and clothing were all envisioned. Against this background of heady optimistic prognoses of agricultural development based on the expansion of irrigated areas, the emergent problems of the Aral Sea and their environmental consequences have been a secondary priority.

In the 1960s and early 1970s, a viewpoint prevailed, initially set forth by A. I. Voiyeikov (1908), that the Aral Sea itself was a blunder of nature and that its existence was absolutely unjustified from the point of view of a rational economy. S. Yu. Geller, a well-known researcher of Central Asia, argued that the use of river waters for irrigation promised higher economic returns than allowing the runoff to proceed to the Aral (Geller 1969). A number of other scientists agreed with him. It should also be noted that water experts from Central Asia proposed a project in the mid-1920s to lower the level of the Aral Sea, with the aim of developing irrigation on the dry sea bed (Buniyatov and Mustafaev 1989). This recommendation was not based on physical-geographical, economic, or sociological studies, or on any special analysis of predicted changes in natural-social interactions in different parts of the Aral region.

Early in the 1970s, works began to appear that suggested that changes in the natural environment of the Aral area were significant and that recommended that several cubic kilometres of river water be supplied to preserve the deltas (Kliukanova and Kuznetsov 1971). The first projects for the partial salvation of the Aral Sea proposed disaggregation of the sea into individual water basins, with manageable water and salt regimes (L'vovich and Tsigel'naya 1978). By the middle of the 1970s, many scientists were concerned about the future of the Aral Sea and its region. This was reflected in the papers presented to the All-Union Working Meeting, organized by the Institute of Geography of the (then) USSR Academy of Sciences, addressing the impacts of inter-basin transfers of river runoff (Gerasimov 1975). Headed by I. P. Gerasimov, the Ad Hoc Scientific-Technical Commission of the USSR State Committee on Science and Technology worked in 1975 to assess the impacts of changes in the level of the Aral Sea on the environment and economy of the surrounding region. The Commission noted two opposing viewpoints on the Aral problem: (1) a fall in the sea level was unavoidable and would not have any serious negative consequences; (2) a fall in the sea level would be accompanied by important ecological and economic losses, and therefore stabilization of the sea level at the highest possible level was necessary.

In December 1975, the Bureau of the Interdepartmental Scientific-Technical Council on Complex Problems of Environmental Protection, USSR State Committee on Science and Technology, considered the report of this Commission in which a decline in the sea level was linked with irretrievable consumption of water on newly irrigated land. The report stated that far-reaching adverse changes in the environment and regional economy should be expected if mitigatory measures were not undertaken. Still it is apparent that, at that time, most researchers did not comprehend the possible consequences of further irrigation developments and sealevel fall.

Early in the 1980s, more and more scientists began to recognize the urgency and complexity of the situation and tried to identify possible solutions. Taking part in the work of an Expert Commission, the USSR State Planning Committee examined the complex use of water resources in the Syr Darya river basin. The unpublished report concluded that the ecological and water problems of the region were serious and that the quality of the design, construction, and operation of the irrigation systems was unsatisfactory. Other scientists also protested against the unrestrained expansion of irrigation and cotton monoculture and the widespread use of pesticides. During the work of the Commission, headed by A. L. Yanshin, the Central Asian situation was thoroughly discussed, although most attention focused on the problems associated with irrigation in the southern European territory of the USSR.

At the first recognition of the problems associated with irrigation, and especially with the territorial redistribution of runoff, all open discussion of these problems was forbidden. Publications addressing these problems were few and were allowed only in the classified press. Critical comments on the developing economic situation in the Aral region emerged in the 1970s and early 1980s from members of the Council on the Study of Productive Forces, the State Planning Committee of the USSR, and the Council on the Study of Productive Forces, Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Specialists from the Ministry of Public Health of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic also worked assiduously to assess the medical and sanitary situation in a number of Aral regions.

As a result of the studies performed in 1983, the Soviet Institute of Geography, jointly with the Council on the Study of Productive Forces, the State Planning Committee of the USSR, and the Soyuzgiprovodkhoz, prepared and submitted to the planning bodies and the CPSU Central Committee a special report entitled "Degradation of the Ecosystems of the Aral Sea, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Deltas, and the Anthropogenous Desertification of the Aral Area Caused by the Irretrievable Withdrawals of Central Asian Rivers' Runoff with the Aim of Intensification of Irrigated Farming." This report analysed environmental changes and, to a lesser extent, the Aral Sea regional economy. It attempted to assess the economic damage and the social consequences of anthropogenic desertification of the Aral Sea area and the fall in the Aral Sea level. It also proposed a number of priority measures to save the region. Viewing this document from the vantage point of the present, we must emphasize that, in spite of the limited range of questions considered and the controversial character of certain statements, the report was the first complete and searching discussion of the essence of problems arising in the Aral Sea area. Unfortunately, only N. F. Vasilyev, the Minister of Reclamation and Water Economy, responded. It was a negative comment, supplemented by a statement signed by a number of academicians and corresponding members of the All-Union Agricultural Academy engaged in water reclamation and water economy, who argued for the further expansion of irrigation in the region.

In April 1987, the Governmental Commission on the Ecological Situation in the Aral Sea Basin was created, headed by Yuriiz A. Izrael. This Commission undertook certain necessary efforts but unfortunately the findings of the Commission were not widely discussed in the scientific community. It is difficult to share the view of the Commission chairman that, owing to the extremely acute ecological and social situation, the Commission members should deliberately avoid wide dissemination of their work. The Commission prepared a report, on the basis of which the CPSU Central Committee (CC) and the USSR Council of Ministers (CM) adopted the Resolution "On Measures of Radical Improvement in the Ecological and Sanitary Situation in the Aral Sea Region, Increase of Effective Uses, and Strengthening the Protection of Water and Land Resources in the Basin." This Resolution stated the serious effects of the use of the water and land resources of the Aral Sea basin and the development of new areas of irrigated lands without taking due account of the ecological and social consequences. A brief characterization of the state of nature and economy of the region was provided, along with proposals to change the natural environment, to restore the ecological balance in the Aral area, and to stimulate the growth of productive forces, including increasing the inflow of river water to the deltas, reconstructing irrigation systems, constructing new water supply facilities, and improving regional medical services.

We should note, however, that the Resolution also suffered from several serious shortcomings. It set forth the reasons for the Aral crisis in only a vague and general form that did not permit the formulation of a clear priority solution for the ecological, social, and economic problems of the region. The Resolution also authorized further growth of irrigated land, and the water volumes envisioned for discharge to the deltas and to the Aral Sea were completely insufficient to solve the ecological problems. Whether even this small amount of water would arrive is doubtful because the Resolution failed to specify the sources from which this water should be obtained. It also failed to make any water assignments to different regions of the basin to ensure an ecological flush.

Social democratization after 1985, and the abrogation of restrictions on scientific works analysing ecological, social, and economic problems, encouraged more extensive discussions of the Aral Sea problems. The Uzbek and Kazakh Committees for Saving the Aral were created, and numerous scientific and public conferences were held annually in different cities in the region. Public recognition of the problem occurred with the Aral-88 Expedition, organized by the Novy Mir and Pamir magazines. Participants in the expedition - writers, scientists, journalists - travelled throughout the Aral region and met with the public authorities of republics, districts, and regions, the local population, ministers, agricultural and water economy specialists, physicians, and representatives of grass-roots ecological movements. As a result of this expedition, an address was prepared and sent to the government which contained an analysis of the critical situation in the Aral area. It was accompanied by an appeal for urgent action to solve the ecological and social problems of the region. The indisputable authority of the well-known scientists, writers, and journalists who took part in the expedition and signed the appeal drew governmental attention to the Aral problem once again. An important result of the expedition was to alert public officials to the real situation and its causes.

"Aral Days" were held in the Central Club of Writers and in the editorial offices of some magazines and newspapers in Moscow where writers, scientists, and public figures voiced concern. The "Days" were organized by the Uzbek Public Committee for Saving the Aral, by the Kazakh Public Committee on Aral and Balkhash Problems, and by the International Movement of Poets "20th Century, World, and Ecology."

Late in 1989 a group of participants in the popular Aral movement addressed the Second Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR and also the Politbureau of the CPSU CC, the USSR Supreme Soviet, and the USSR Council of Ministers with an appeal to confront the Aral ecological crisis. The number of popular articles on the Aral problem had also sharply increased (Kaipbergenov 1989; Kotlyakov 1991; Selyunin 1989). Meanwhile, the Aral Sea problem began to attract the attention of foreign researchers. The most complete review of the problem using Soviet sources is that of Micklin (1988).

The Aral problem has been discussed at numerous meetings, including "Problems of the Aral Sea and the Aral Area" (June 1989), the meeting of the Uzbek "Man and Biosphere" National Committee (Bakhretdinov and Chembarisov 1989), the scientific symposium, "Working Out a Conception of Social-Economic Development of the Amu Darya Lower Reaches (the Aral Area) as a Special Economic Zone," in Shavat (1989), the International Symposium in Nukus (1990), and a number of other subsequent conferences and meetings. In the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Aral Sea problems were also discussed in depth by scientific councils of the Institute of Geography and the Institute of Water Problems at the end of 1989.

In the 1988 Resolution of the CPSU CC and USSR CM, a decision was taken to create an Institute of Water and Ecological Problems of the Aral Basin, USSR Academy of Sciences, in the city of Nukus. During 1988-1991 an international project was established by the United Nations Environment Programme, the Institute of Geography of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and the Centre for International Projects of the USSR Ministry of the Environment. The goal of the project was to analyse the situation in the Aral Sea region and to consider the possibility of undertaking other international projects. Meanwhile, several proposals have appeared for solving the Aral Sea problem (Glazovsky 1990b; Osnovnye... 1991). The Aral Sea and basin, with Chernobyl, are now recognized in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States as zones of ecological calamity.

Thus, at least three periods can be distinguished in the history of growing societal awareness of the Aral problem. The first period (the 1960s to mid-1970s) involved a lack of attention to the problems associated with the widespread development of irrigation in the region. The Aral Sea was, in short, to be sacrificed. The second period (the early 1970s to mid-1980s) saw a gradually growing perception by scientists of the acute ecological situation arising in the Aral Sea area. These scientists identified initiatives to improve the situation. The roots of the crisis, however, were not assessed even in the most objective works. Only the Aral Sea area proper was considered, and the measures suggested pertained only to relatively specific problems. In fact, hydrotechnical construction continued to aim at the maximum expansion of irrigation. Objective analysis of the problem by the press was limited and often forbidden. The third period (the mid-1980s to the present) witnessed growing scientific recognition of both the general and the specific causes of the Aral crisis and broad public discussion of the Aral problems. Public committees for the salvation of the Aral Sea were created. Continuous changes in the positions of some political representatives and public authorities of the Central Asian republics, ministers, ministries, agencies, and reclamation bureaux occurred during this time. Although emphasis initially focused on the further development of irrigation, more recent communications and statements have recognized the necessity of restricting irrigation.

Despite the recognized value of the wide and open public discussion of the Aral Sea crisis, some negative features have accompanied the growing popularity of the issue. Unfortunately the Aral Sea crisis is sometimes used for political purposes. With social democratization, some people have used this problem to enunciate nationalistic demands. Others have sought to make political capital by discussing the Aral problem, while failing to suggest any constructive proposals. Also, numerous solutions of a technocratic nature have been proposed by people who lack the necessary expertise. Unfortunately, the authors of these ideas have often done their best to avoid searching discussion while seeking the support of incompetent authorities for immediate action. One final negative phenomenon, which could be called a "leader's fear syndrome," has involved the adoption of a series of hasty and unsubstantiated scientific decisions, including superficial, if prompt, solutions to this problem aimed at mobilizing public opinion.



  1. Development of Medicine in Uzbekistan and UK

Today, the growing role of primary health care as an essential part of any countries´ health care system meets with universal approval. Primary health care reforms are fundamental to a comprehensive provision of health services, closely linked to public health, social services and the social determinants of health throughout the world.

In 2013, the global health community commemorated the 65th anniversary of the World Health Organization and the 35th anniversary of the Declaration of Alma-Ata on Primary Health Care adopted in 1978.

To honour these important events, it is my special pleasure to present the experiences of the Republic of Uzbekistan in primary health care development under the National Health Reform Program in the form of this analytical review. Primary health care development in our country has taken place as a result of strong support from the government and its targeted policy measures taken since the first days of independence. National policies were comprehensive and envisaged activities to ensure universal access to health services for the whole population, specific actions in prevention, health promotion and intersectoral cooperation.

This analytical review assesses the primary health care reforms to date and outlines priorities for further health system development and according investments.



Health care reforms in Uzbekistan were largely characterized by the challenge to preserve a vast network of health care facilities to serve the geographically widespread population, while at the same time to decrease health care costs. The first important step towards health reforms in Uzbekistan was made in 1996 with the adoption of the law “On Protection of Citizens’ Health” (5). In 1998, this was followed by the Presidential Decree on reforming the health care system. Based on this, the two important and successive projects for the restructuring of primary health care in Uzbekistan, “Health 1 and 2”, were implemented in cooperation between the World Bank and the Government of Uzbekistan. New approaches included the introduction of general practice and family medicine, along with new principles of the organization, management and financing as well as monitoring and evaluation of primary health care.

Uzbekistan is one of the largest Central Asian states. The total area of the country is 447.4 thousand km2 and population density amounts to 63.4 people per km2. Uzbekistan ranks fifth in terms of territory among countries of the former Soviet Union. The average population of the Republic as of 1 January 2013 amounted to 29 993.5 thousand people, of whom 51.4% lives in urban and 48.6% resides in rural areas. In terms of population, Uzbekistan ranks first among Central Asian countries.



To date, agriculture provides more than 40% of the gross national products. Until recently, cotton has been the main monoculture. The country has highly developed energy, chemical, oil and gas industries, as well as engineering industries. There are rich natural resources of minerals, gas and gold. 
The country is administratively subdivided into 12 provinces and the Republic of Karakalpakstan. There are a total of 157 rural districts, 119 cities and 114 townships in the country. 
The Republic of Uzbekistan is one of the countries with a relatively “young” population. The proportion of children aged 0-15 years at the beginning of 2012 amounts to 28.1% of the total population, while the proportion of the population over 65 years of age is represented with 5.9%. The average fertility rate accounts for 21.0 at the end of 2012, and the mortality rate for 4.9 per 1 000 population. The natural population growth rate is positive with 16.1 per 1 000 population. 
From the early days of independence, Uzbekistan initiated fundamental changes within the health care system, which previously had been characterized by a centralized structure, inefficient governance mechanisms and an inability to fully cater to people's needs for health care services.

In the early 1990s, Uzbekistan inherited a public health care system based on the Soviet Semashko model which was characterized by an extensive hospital sector and network of health facilities that was rigidly managed and regulated, both in terms of financing and decision-making, and policies were set centrally. Inpatient care was financed according to the number of beds, which resulted in a gradual increase in expensive bed numbers, not adapted to the actual needs of the population for primary health care services. Health facilities had outdated equipment not suitable to ensure high quality diagnosis and, accordingly, treatment. In many instances, insufficient equipment and the low skill level of health staff prevented the delivery of highly technological health care services even at specialized clinics. Moreover, the health care system appeared to be unprepared for new requirements during the transition to a market-based economic system. Accordingly, at the beginning of the transition period, population health indicators worsened in the country, for example, maternal and child mortality increased and a higher incidence of infectious diseases was reported. Overall, this resulted in a decrease in life expectancy, one of the most important indicators for population health, but has since then shown an upward trend.

In the second half of the 1990s, the Ministry of Health with the support of the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan launched a full-scale health care reform, aimed at increasing access of the population to high-quality, effective and safe medical care.

Key areas of the health care reform included:



  • the introduction of new approaches to the structuring of the health care system and the development of its infrastructure to ensure equal access of the population to free primary health care both in urban and rural areas;

  • the introduction of new conceptual and practical approaches towards mother and child health aimed at providing safe conditions for giving birth and nurturing a healthy generation;

  • the implementation of a new comprehensive system of emergency care at all administrative and territorial levels;

  • the significant increase of funding for the health sector through, inter alia, the development of fee-based and private health care;

  • the improved use and allocation of funding, primarily by channelling more budgetary funds to the primary health care level, thus to outpatient and polyclinic health services including preventative care as an alternative to the ineffective use of expensive hospital beds.

Today, an integrated health care system operates in the Republic of Uzbekistan, which encompasses public, private and other health care services. The organizational set-up of the health care system is shown in diagram 1 below.


Over the course of the reforms, the Ministry of Health along with other ministries, agencies and nongovernmental organizations implemented a number of programs in the following areas: improvement of reproductive health, maternal and child health screening, development of continuing medical education and professional development, raising public awareness in the field of reproductive health, medical ethics, expansion of international cooperation to improve women’s reproductive health, birth and upbringing of children, and the refurbishment and improved equipment of maternity and children’s facilities.

Primary health care was central to the implementation of the aforementioned national programs with positive results and outcomes for maternal and child health. The coverage of women with contraceptives increased from 13.0% in 1991 to 52.1% in 2011. Infant mortality decreased from 35.5 in 1991 to 10.2 in 2012 per 1 000 live births. Maternal mortality declined from 65.3 in 1991 to 21.2 per 100 000 live births in 2012.

In parallel to the reform efforts in primary health care, Uzbekistan established a national model for emergency care. Over a transitional period, the emergency care system was centralized and is now coordinated solely by the Republican Scientific Centre of Emergency Care (RSCEC), which has branches in all regions. In addition, the central district and city hospitals set up emergency care units in the country’s 171 locations. The advantages of this organization as compared to its pre-reform arrangement include that highly qualified specialists are concentrated under one umbrella to help patients in need of emergency medical care.

Specialized secondary and tertiary care has also been reformed, including the introduction of new medical technologies. They are now available at scientific research institutes and specialized scientific and practical republican health centres, which are developing new medical technologies and national standards for quality of care. They also introduce achievements of global medicine into the domestic health care practice.

Overall, primary health care remains at the core of the health care system development in order to ensure equal rights, social fairness, universal access and full coverage of the population with free primary care services. Accordingly, the introduction of general practice and family medicine is an inalienable element of primary health care reforms.

In recent years, Uzbekistan has achieved notable progress in structural reforms of primary health care. There are, however, still unresolved problems with regard to key primary care functions. There is still inadequate delivery of preventative and family medicine services, weak continuity of care and coordination with other levels of care, including an effective patient referral systems as well as the efficient use of financial resources.

The regular evaluation and analysis of effectiveness and efficiency play an increasingly important role in the health care reform. Findings from evaluations are essential for the public health administration for making evidence-based decisions and thus for achieving better results. Moreover, demographic and epidemiological changes now demand the adaptation of the health care systems to the new public health challenges. This requires the evaluation of responses from patient-oriented medical services.

The analytical review of the current primary health care reforms in Uzbekistan is especially relevant because it will contribute to the opening of a dialogue between governmental, nongovernmental and international organizations to enable the elaboration of further strategies for the development of primary health care in a global and changing world.


Studying medicine (Training to become a doctor) in UK is one of the best options in the word for accept international students with high grades and well-motivated. The admission to medical schools in UK is very competitive and most international students must first follow Medical Foundation Course of one year.

Studying medicine in UK is organized by many schools as 6 year program for medicine and 5 year program for dentistry and pharmacy. Graduate entry medicine programs are available for graduate students dreaming to become Doctors.



Training to become a doctor in UK

Training to become a doctor in UK is one of the long education training and may takes 10 or more years to become a specialist or General Practitioner. After 6 years of primary medical study in UK, tomorrows Doctors still have some stages to pass trough: Foundation program, Specialty, GP and run-through training.



Training to become a doctor in UK:

Medical education comprises several related stages, which are:


Undergraduate medical study: 6- year primary medical program a period of study at medical school (attached to a university) with clinical placements in hospital and community settings.
Foundation program: two-year medical program, period which all UK medical graduates must undertake before moving on to further training (it is possible, after foundation training to leave training and apply for a locally recruited post, such as a trust post). 
Specialty, General Practice (GP) and run-through training: doctors train to specialise in either general practice or a specialty. The length of and nature of the training period depend upon the career area/specialty in which the doctor wishes to work. Some specialties are run-through programs, others begin with core training.

Medical science evaluates fast and doctors are expected to keep abreast of advances in their specialty through ongoing continuing professional development.



United Kingdom 

UK or United Kingdom is the short appellation of Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.  UK is a political union made of up of four countries, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England, Scotland and Wales share the island of Great Britain lying just off the northwest coast of continental Europe. The fourth country, Northern Ireland, is a portion of another island, which is split between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, an independent country, in the south. Medical student can choose to study medicine  or train to become a doctor in one whole UK.



Study medicine in UK: application

To apply to mediacl training to become a doctor in UK, prospective studentmay must have high school excellent grades, and prove that he have set his heart on studying and working in medical field. The required academic standard for undergraduate program of medicine in UK is 3 As at A-level or an IB of 38 or equivalent, good personal statement and interview. A strong first degree and a successful career record are required for graduate Medicine.

Work experience of one day a week in a hospital, care home, hospice or other caring environment, good understanding of the National Health Service and how it works is also crucial for international applicants are very appreciate by UK medical universities

Study medicine in UK: application deadline

Deadline to apply to Study medicine in UK is in general 15 October of one year before staring studies for the receipt at UCAS of applications for all Medicine courses. This deadline is for all applicants – home, EU and international.




  1. Global environmental issues in the world





  1. Education system of European countries compared to Uzbekistan

If the world is a book, the page about European Union is one you should not skip reading. Amazing culture, great lifestyle, and a long-standing academic tradition are some of the key ingredients that make Europe a great international study destination. 

But more often than not, students outside Europe are not familiar with the European higher education system, which may lead to confusion and delay when trying to find the right Bachelor’s programme in an EU-country.

So, let’s see where it all starts and where it ends, so you don’t feel like in an endless maze.

Bachelor’s (undergraduate) programmes

A Bachelor’s degree is level 1 in the higher education game. Typically, you enrol in a Bachelor’s after high school. The duration of this undergraduate programme varies according to discipline — the more scientific and technical the field of study, the longer the programme. In the EU, the typical academic Bachelor’s takes 3 years and requires 180 ECTS (one ECTS credit equals 28 hours of study).

The story doesn’t end here though. You can select from various types of Bachelors to suit your study interests.These are:



  • Bachelor of Science (BSc) – lasts for 3-5 years and is usually awarded when you study science-related subjects.

  • Bachelor of Arts (BA) – lasts 3 years and usually offers a general overview of the subject area you choose.

  • Bachelor of Law (LL.B.) – lasts 3-4 years and focuses on typical law-related subjects, including country law, business law, environmental law, and so on.

  • Bachelor of Engineering (B. Eng.) – lasts 4-5 years and focuses on all areas related to engineering.

  • Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.) – lasts 3-4 years and focuses on business-related subject areas. 

Find out more about what Bachelor's and Master's degree abbreviations mean.

At some universities, you have the option of a joint honours degree. Sounds complicated, but it’s not. It basically means you choose two subjects areas to focus on, also called majors. The subject areas do not have to be highly related, but they usually have something in common. Like a degree in Baking and Pastry Arts (Not joking, this degree really exists!).



That’s all fine and dandy you might say, but what if I want to study an English-taught programme in Europe? Many international students decide to study their degree in English because it increases their opportunities for a future career.

European universities have caught on with this trend. European countries that are not native English-speaking with most English-taught Bachelors are:


  • English-taught Bachelors in Spain;

  • English-taught Bachelors in Greece;

  • English-taught Bachelors in Netherlands;

  • English-taught Bachelors in Germany.
Master’s (graduate) programmes

Moving on to level 2, Master’s programmes in Europe fall in the category of graduate studies. This means you need a Bachelor’s degree to enrol in a Master’s study.

Master’s degrees can be course-based, research-based or are a mixture of the two. The ultimate goal is for you to gain the necessary knowledge and analytical skills so that you can carry out independent research. At this level, the study options become more varied. The core types of Master’s degree are:



  • Master of Arts (M.A.) – gives you advanced training and preparation for employment.

  • Master of Research (M. Res.) – makes a scientific researcher of you.

  • Master of Education (M.Ed.) – prepares you to teach at all levels of secondary education.

  • Master of Philosophy (M. Phil.) – gets you ready for PhD studies over a period of 12 to 18 months, but only if you have a previous Master’s degree.

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