Interdependence of transport and tourism

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eng 2015
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The shuttle service in tourism depends on the physical availability of the destination, movement within the destination and the transport itself. Travelling certain vehicle can be a tourist attraction because traveling can be a part of leisure and entertainment.

The purpose of the study is to determine the fundamental determinants of transport, transport infrastructure, and explore the role of transport in tourism development.

The aim is to point out the interdependence of transport and tourism considering that it was the development of transport infrastructure, encourage the development of mass tourism.

The authors analyze the importance of transport infrastructure and transport vehicles by choosing a tourist trip. In order to evaluate the role of transport in the sustainable development of tourism, special analyzes forms of transport which are themselves tourist attraction and provides an overview of certain forms of transport.

Keywords: tourism, traffic, transport, transport infrastructure, interdependence.


Despite the fact that the traffic is one of the holders of tourism which takes place various transport sectors that connect destinations, it is still insufficiently studied connection between the development of transport and tourism. Great significance has the means of transport and transport route selection by the user of the service when choosing a destinations.

The development of transport and tourism development mutually influence each other. The development of traffic, favors the development of tourism and in terms of its functionality. Modern telecommunications infrastructure and its development is also very important factor when it comes to the development of tourism.


Traffic in the widest sense of the word means relationships between people, but we can talk about socially trade, among the people and so on. (Kos, authorized lectures)

In a little narrower sense traffic means economic or economic-financial category, so we can talk about goods, no goods, the tourist, trade traffic. Transport consists of: infrastructure (roads, railway, airports, ports and other, transport vehicles (road vehicles, rail vehicles, aircraft, ships, boats, etc.) and operation (lights, signs, air traffic control). (Kos, authorized lectures)

Tourism is a set of relationships and occurrence of resulting from residence in a place, if the stay does not involve a change of residence and is not tied to the acquisition of profits. Tourism is a journey that is not aimed at carrying out an economic activity.

According to the author Zelenika (Zelenika, 2005, p. 508), tourism is a group of activities that satisfy the needs of tourists during their travel and temporary stay in the chosen tourist destination and object, and their development has a positive impact on the overall economic and social life of the tourist state.

Transport infrastructure

Prerequisite for the development of transport is transport infrastructure. Because the traffic consists of a set of individual transport, it is an integral part of the tourist trips. Transport infrastructure is a necessary condition for the development of tourism in a destination, although not sufficient. The transport infrastructure, in itself, does not always mean the availability of adequate traffic destinations, since it depends on the availability, or the organization of transport (Master Plan and Development Strategy of the Croatian Tourism, 2011, p. 5).

Touristic travels is primarily an experience, which consists of a series impressions in which individual loads, or in wider sense the market, has an important role. In conditions where there is an increasing competition in the tourism market, and dissatisfaction with one part of the tourist experience may distract buyer (tourists) from the repurchase of the same products. If having in mind the fact that the time spent in vehicles often accounts for a significant portion of the total time spent on traveling, it can be easier to look at the role that transportation has in today's tourism. From the former role of transport, arrive as soon as possible and forget the discomfort, transport today has a completely different role - and it turns into a tourist attraction. This is the role of transport, or in wider sense traffic, so can observe at least the following three main aspects: (Master Plan and Development Strategy of the Croatian Tourism, 2011, p. 5)

transport provides transport accessibility of tourist destinations,

transport provides mobility in the tourist destination,

some types of transport are a tourist attraction.

Primarily, transport accessibility of tourist destinations is related to main state and interstate transport infrastructure (roads and terminals) which should, along with public and personal transport vehicles can organize traffic, enable the satisfaction of traffic demands called distant traffic. Destination of the road better connected will have a better chance for a better use of tourist capacities and overall development than the one that it is not, provided that both are almost equally attractive tourist contents.

Provision of transport for tourists in the busy tourist destination means the availability of tourist attractions and other contents needed by tourists, which can result in conditions for their visits and for the pleasure of staying in tourist destination. In doing so, the destination realizes beyond the boundaries of a city or town and its surroundings including accessible its surroundings within an acceptable time for day trips.

Carriage in some cases can be so attractive that the experience of certain of transport vehicle can be a main motive for a trip. Similarly, certain types of of transport in the tourist destination may, for its attractiveness, do stay interesting and relevant, all contribute to the overall attractiveness of the destination.

Carriage can be a tourist experience. But, ensuring adequate quality standard transport services as well as the creation of attractive offers which tourists can use during a trip to the selected destination. In it can be introduced: (Master Plan and Development Strategy of the Croatian Tourism, 2011, p. 5)

offer roadside service facilities along the road

offer at airports and other passenger terminals (marine, rail and road) and in public transport, and includes the provision of various information during a trip

the possibility of reservation

tour of roadside tourist attractions etc.

Transport vehicles in the tourist trips

In tourism are used all available transport vehicles, in the function of transport and entertainment. Share of the particular transport facilities in tourist travel, including their meanings, for each tourist destination differs each destination of each other. (Horak, 2014, p. 83)

Air traffic of Europeans in international voyages with tourist purposes has been represented by 48%, but when looking at all international departures by about 46%. (IPK International (2001) In doing so, the use of aircraft greatly depends on the length of tourist stay (Horak, 2014, p. 83):

Air Transport - 48% (long stay)

Air Transport - 15% (short stays)

Road transport (car) - 46% (short stays)

Road transport (car) - 31% (long stays).

Chart 1. International tourist arrivals according to mode of transport in 2010

Source: World Tourism Organization (2011). Tourism highlights, Madrid, p. 2

In Croatia, foreign tourists mostly come by car or other road vehicle (91%), while the other transport vehicles are significantly less represented (8% of the aircraft, ship 1% and railways only marginally). (Institute for Tourism, 2011)

In southern Dalmatia the share of air transport was the largest, and reached almost 70% of all tourist arrivals. The deterioration of the political - security situation in the former country almost stopped arrivals aircraft (Horak, 2014, p. 84).

Although the railways actually marked the beginning of the development of mass tourism, today its share in the small tourist trips. The great return rail passenger transport takes place the last 20 years the introduction of super-fast trains that significantly reduce travel time from middle distance and compete with air transport. In Croatia is also working on a revitalization of the railways, and it was introduced the technology called trains that can operate at existing lines significantly higher speeds than those on these lines which are not possible today. (Horak, 2014, p. 84).

From the point of time spent traveling to and from the destination, and the destination, transport is also an important factor , especially when it comes to short-term stays, it can do a significant part of the total time allocated for the tourist experience, which its role in activities destinations only more increases.

It is also important to note that, because of the significant presence of tourist trips in total travel and due to the specific needs of tourists for transportation, it was created a special kind of transport with intended primarily to tourists and that transport is continually developing growing. The transport infrastructure has been built for the needs of the overall economy and the population of a country, and as part of the tourism economic system, the development of transport infrastructure and transport as a whole should be taken into consideration needs of tourism. In areas where tourism is one of a header or the main economic activity, construction of transport infrastructure for the purposes of tourism, if it is economically and socially justified. (Horak, 2014, p. 86)

The choice of transport vehicle will depend on: (Bakan, R.)

the choice of destinations,

length of the journey,

mode of travel agencies,

the level of available information,

access to Information,

existing opportunities in transport,

the availability other modes of transport and information about them,

buying power of individuals,

price / cost of transport.

It should take care of real needs of tourists; how is the tourism and what we want to have and therefore harmonize the transport policy. There are four dimensions of transportation planning, sequence: (Horak, 2014, p. 100-163)

external and

internal transport accessibility,

service facilities along the transport routes and

standstill traffic


From the beginning of the development of tourism, transportation is considered as a part of the tourist experience. Over time, the constantly looking for new experiences, certain types of transport have become a tourist attraction because of which the primary travel are taken. Today there is a range of different types of transport because of its attractiveness draws tourists and holiday-makers, who are ready to spend considerable amounts of money on the driving experience with some of the transport vehicles. Often the individual modes of transport complements other, equally attractive transport or transport takes place through the area which is very attractive, although the vehicle is not that attractive.

Traffic vehicles as a tourist attractions can be divided considering on the their different physical characteristics, but the most interesting tourist point of view seems to be divided according on the character of the tourist experience which it provides. Therefore characteristic of transport can be divided into: (Horak, 2014, p. 100-163)

luxury transportation

adventurous transport

nostalgic transport and

other active transport.

It should be noted that a special place in the carriage has a nautical tourism, through its three practical forms such as: yachting, cruising and chartering.

Nautical tourism

Nautical tourism as a phenomenon, is a part of the tourism phenomenon from which it's originated. Definition of nautical tourism stems from the problem of the definition of tourism. Nautical tourism derives from two concepts: nautical and tourism. Tourism is a term in the scientific tourism literature sufficiently explained, and the first is derived from the Greek word Naus which means boat, ship, or and skills of navigation. In the modern sense of nautics or navigation represent a set of of practical and theoretical knowledge and skills necessary to the boat operator to safely and successfully carriage by sea vessel, starting from port to port arrival. The concept of navigation and nautical, in a wider sense represent marine. This is precisely the reason why the international communication is increasingly using the English term yachting tourism, and less nautical tourism, or maritime tourism, and the German term nautischer Tourismus. The yacht, a symbol of luxury private vacation at sea, more tiedes a nautical tourism with the tourism industry, and less with marine. (Lukovic, T, 2007, p. 690-691).

Nautical tourism and its development accompanied by two sets of factors: (Luković, T., 2005., p. 691):

which causes the occurrence of nautical tourism and

the factor of development of nautical tourism.

The factors of emergence and development are essential for the understanding of nautical tourism. Still the evaluation of his character should be based on scientific and technical researches indicating its direct and indirect use and the need to build appropriate nautical infrastructure. (Favro, et al., 2009).

Luxury transportation

Carriage that greatly exceeds the usual standards of transport similar transportation services or is unique and expensive, so it can afford fewer passengers, is called the luxury transportation. Maybe the concept of luxury transportation can be summed up in a sentence which confidently advertises driving one of the most luxurious trains in the world: "Driving this train offers to passengers luxurious experience railway of transport in the world and an experience that will forever be remembered." (Horak, 2014, p. 227)

When in tourism talks about luxury transport, lot of people think on the Venice Simplon-Orient-Express, known from the novel by Agatha Christie. (Horak, 2014, p. 227)

The nostalgic transport

In the last days, more and more interesting tourist trips taking place means of transport that are no longer functioning regularly of transport because of outdated technologies that are used. The most used trains and ships on steam-driven original museum examples, and the old sailing ships. This kind of trips are organized under the name nostalgic trip and they are not expensive, but the dominant experience of nostalgia, not a luxury.

The nostalgic transport includes reconstructed or renovated ships, such as in Croatia, for example, Vrgada, Michael, Romance and others, who have except sails and motor drive, a cruise throughout Adriatic on different routes. (Horak, 2014, p. 236)

Lufthansa offers a nostalgic flight over London in the three-engined Junkers 52 bomber from World War II. The flight takes 45 minutes, and the promotional slogan of these flights is nostalgia, charm and a unique above view of London. (Horak, 2014, p. 236)

Adventurous transport

Touristic arrangement are prepared as an anti-stress program for special user groups, which have an affinity to this kind of tourism. Studies have shown that a large number of managers, entrepreneurs, brokers and other business people who are daily pressured and come in a stressful situation, are tend to use recreational services and undergoing various anti-stress programs.

However, the biggest effect in rehabilitating and relaxation have shown the anti-stress programs related to spending time outdoors. This type of program, called Adventure tourism, offers a combination of adventure riding terrain vehicles, riding a raft and boat (rafting) river and riding.

At the inappropriate locations are planned rest stops, where it is possible relaxation and sightseeing attractions and natural beauty. Food is prepared on the ground, which gives a special charm and raises the quality of tourist services to a higher level. Culinary specialties are also carefully prepared to match the content of tourism programs.

Therefore, adventure tourism is certainly blend of adventure, recreation, relaxation, entertainment and culinary experiences. In this way, users will be moved away from everyday problems and stressful situations, and prepare their body and psychophysical condition to further ventures.

Users who belong to the top of European and world elite recognized this form of tourism. Interest in this form of tourism has caused a plethora of expensive hotels, the abundance, elegance, conferences, business dinners, occasional parties and similar, which is why these users want a simple and normal way of life. (Development project of the Municipality of Starigrad)

3.5. Other attractive transport

Other forms of attractive transport include:

taxi (London)

boats and sightseeing buses (London, Amsterdam, Paris)

boats with glass bottoms for viewing underwater world

funicular and trams

road trains

horse-drawn carts

a variety of animals (camels, horses, elephants, ...)

exotic transport vehicles (rickshaws, tooktook, ...).


Today, there are over one billion international tourist arrivals worldwide per year, forecast to rise to 1.5 billion per year by 2020. Growth will come especially from developing economies with the increase in disposable incomes of their populations. Transport is an essential component of tourism by definition, providing connections between regions, domestically and internationally, and connecting attractions, accommodation and commercial services at destinations.

Tourism is a key element in promoting national and regional economies but it can put pressure on existing transport services and infrastructure. Cities and regions are faced with absorbing seasonal tourist flows while delivering adequate transport network performance.

The location, capacity, efficiency and connectivity of transport can therefore play a significant role in how a destination develops. At the same time the growing number of travellers creates numerous challenges in terms of transport infrastructure and capacity, border crossing, intermodality, information for travellers and inter-operability of technologies with tourism service providers.

This growth will require close coordination between the different sectors involved in the tourism activities. Making public transport easier to use by tourists and encouraging them to walk or cycle more frequently can help to mitigate negative environmental impacts and manage seasonal peaks. However, the environmental impact of long distance transport remains a significant challenge.

The nature of tourism has been evolving lately, moving from simply recreation to “self-fulfilment”. This has an impact on the type of destinations sought and the activities engaged in, often involving more travel. Transport systems and services themselves can be at the heart of tourist activities. This includes sustainable tourism based around walking and cycling. In this context, Switzerland and Germany have become international references for promoting cycling and hiking. This rediscovered form of tourism is growing significantly and shifting tourism from traditional urban locations to natural sites. The promotion of this new form of tourism requires close collaboration between local and regional authorities to provide infrastructure, services and information. Ensuring good linkage (information and physical connections) with traditional transport services for intercity travel is fundamental to encouraging a sustainable and also a pleasant experience. (Transport, Trade and Tourism, International Transport Forum, 2015)


Transport and tourism are interrelated. Without the temporary change of residence there is no tourism. Well organized and arranged traffic makes an additional guarantee of its tourist attractions, and only a balanced development can provide quality and efficient logistics support tourism.

Carriage of tourist destinations and inversely, is a part of the tourist experience, so its effect can be positive and negative as well as the impact their stays in the destination, because it depends on the tourist or his experience. Therefore, the traffic gets more and more importance in total attractiveness of individual destinations.

The connection of tourism and transport does not end on the route between the residence and the tourist destinations, because this relationship is much more complicated and it extends to transport in a tourist destination.

Travelling to certain vehicle becomes more tourist attraction, especially in terms of super luxurious transportation services, the transportation services outside regular use or unusual transportation services.
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