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- 3. Materials and Methods
- 4. Results and Discussion
- 5. Conclusion
- 6. Acknowledgments
2. Literature Review
As mentioned above, deviant behavior is studied by experts in various fields of humanitarian
knowledge due to the complex, multi-level and multidimensional nature of this phenomenon.
Thus, even a special branch appeared at the junction of psychology and pedagogy, which is called
deviantology and is represented by the works of E. V. Volchenkova (2010), E. V. Zmanovskaya (2004),
V. D. Mendelevich (2004), E. V. Tsareva (2011).
If we talk about the legal determinants of deviance, it should be noted that this phenomenon is studied
mainly in criminology, for example, in the works of Yu. M. Antonyan (2010), Ya. I. Gilinskiy (2007). The legal
mechanisms of prevention of negative deviance are reflected in the works of Paulova Yu. E. (2017),
Potapova L. A. (2010).
As for extremism being one of the most dangerous manifestations of deviance, the corps of works on
this social evil is so extensive that the format of the paper does not allow presenting its deep and
comprehensive analysis. Nevertheless, we will note that among having such "ocean" of scientific
publications, the works of foreign and domestic experts on the so-called "radical Islam" (the conditional
nature of this term will be discussed below), such as N. DeLong-Bas (2010), G. Kepel (2004), V. V. Naumkin
(2005), M. Bonner (2006), Youssef Choueiri (1990), D. Hiro (2002) should be highlighted. In addition, special
attention should be given to the research on the leftist or ultra-right wing youth extremism made by such
authors as S. V. Belikov (2012) and V. A. Shnirelman (2007).
Works of A. N. Vyrschikov (2007), A. V. Kuznetsova (2005), V. I. Lutovinov (2004), N. A. Mileshina
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(2010) are devoted to the patriotic, civil and spiritual education, problems of developing tolerance among
young people as the means of the prevention of deviance.
In general, a sufficiently high degree of knowledge of the essence, determinants, and specific
manifestations of social deviance in the youth environment should be noted. However, there has been
insufficient research on the prevention of deviant behavior, especially at the level of pedagogical university
and in the context of professional self-determination of young people. This paper is intended to fill a part of
The research is based on the principle of historicism, the basic characteristic of which is the approach
to reality as something changing in time. In accordance with this principle, the problem of prevention of
deviant behavior in the educational environment is considered by the authors of this paper in the dynamics,
development in the course of time, in the context of the development of the modern Russian education
system in the period 1990s-2010s. In solving research objectives, the general methodological methods of
comparison, analysis and synthesis were used.
At Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute named after M. E. Evseviev (MSPI), various forms of work
are applied, which allow to combine efforts in solving two major objectives of the university – the prevention
of deviant behavior and professional self-determination of students.
First, it is the objective of forming the scientific communities of researchers in the form of continuously
operating laboratories for studying the problems of destructive behavior. Work with young people is
organized by updating and activating the social youth movements, programmes, competitions, Olympiads,
discussion clubs, volunteer movements, projects, etc.
The scientific research laboratory "Scientific and Methodological Support for the Prevention of
Extremism and Xenophobia in the System of Russian Education" that has been operating as an innovative
structural unit of the institute from 2009 to the present time represents a unique experience in this regard.
The head of the Scientific Research Laboratory is a doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor A. V. Martynenko
(one of the authors of this paper), and this scientific research community in itself unites specialists in various
fields of humanitarian knowledge, first of all – in history, law and psychology. In this regard, the laboratory
is distinguished by a multi-level approach to the study of the problem of the destructive state of young
people (historical, legal, psychological, etc.) and testing the results at educational organizations and at the
regional, national and international conferences that were held in Saransk, Kazan, Saint Petersburg, Tyumen,
Saratov and Khanty-Mansiysk. In addition, the results of work of the Scientific Research Laboratory were
highlighted abroad: at conferences in Hungary (N. F. Belyaeva (2007)), in Armenia (L. A. Potapova (2010), N.
A. Mileshina(2010)), Egypt, Turkey, Israel, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Spain, Malta and Cyprus (A. V.
One of the most important consequences of the work of the Scientific Research Laboratory was
building a whole system of partner organizations engaged in network interaction in the field of the problems
analyzed in the paper. The "geography" of this network interaction is sufficiently broad and includes
universities and scientific centers of Moscow, Penza, Nizhniy Novgorod, Saratov, Ufa, Kazan, Grozny,
Makhachkala and other cities. Thus, Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) became one of
the leading partners of the Scientific Research Laboratory: in particular, the result of their cooperation was
the information and educational portal "Youth for Clean Internet" (http://www.truenet.info/).
At the platform of the laboratory, the methodological recommendations for implementing preventive
activities which were developed by the researchers with constant monitoring of students of educational
organizations on the degree of reinforcement of destructive ideas in the youth environment were tested.
Scientific-methodological and educational recommendations are outlined in training manuals (Martynenko,
2017), in the programme of the course on choosing higher educational organizations for students, in the
programme of additional education for students on the organization of the child summer camps and in the
programme of advanced training courses. Scientific and educational work among the young students was
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carried out with the broad involvement of public organizations (the international forum "World without
Extremism" annual since 2009, thematic sessions at the children's health camp "Golden Ear" of
Krasnoslobodsky municipal district of the Republic of Mordovia).
The forum "World without Extremism", which is held annually at the Moscow State Pedagogical
Institute named after M. E. Evseviev, includes the participation of not only teachers, postgraduate students
and students, but also schoolchildren. Unexpectedly for the organizers, the forum has also become a place of
professional self-determination of future applicants. According to the statistics, 12% of students of the
faculty of history and law have decided on their future profession by taking part in the forum. At the same
time, a significant impact on their choice was made by the social activity of students of the named faculty,
their project activities, the results of which were presented at the forum. Inter-university cooperation, which
ensures the presence of interesting discussion platforms at the forum, discussion of innovative ideas, and
exchange of experience in the field of countering extremism and xenophobia also had influence. In this
regard, the project of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University on the creation of the Internet
community aimed at preventing extremism, drug addiction, alcoholism and other deviant manifestations
among young people is indicative. The website "Youth and Clean Internet" developed by the project
participants was designed to achieve the objective.
The second important objective is the activity of student pedagogical teams of the institute, which
successfully operate in the conditions of recreational activities of children, participate in professional
orientation, and organize charitable assistance to orphanages, veterans of the Great Patriotic War and
nursing homes. As part of this work, students of the faculty of history and law repeatedly had to deal with
adolescents with deviant behavior. Therefore, an idea of development of the special programme of
preparation of counselors and educators for working with such audience of children emerged at the faculty.
The next step was the development of the complex of legal documents and scientific methodological support
for the organization of work of camp counselors with children of deviant behavior on the basis of children's
health camps by the department of legal disciplines.
The testing of such sessions started in 2014 on the basis of children's health camps of the Republic of
Mordovia and it immediately showed high results. By providing comprehensive occupation of
schoolchildren during the holiday period, the participants of pedagogical teams not only fulfilled their main
function, but also gained a unique experience in working with children characterized by deviant behavior.
At the same time, this pedagogical practice has become an important component in the professional self-
determination of students. 67 % of those who doubted their professional choice finally decided to become
The third objective is the joint scientific research activity of schoolchildren and students. In 2014-2016,
students of the faculty of history and law implemented a joint scientific research project "Everyday Life in
History" in the framework of teaching practice and extracurricular work with students. The project was
aimed at collecting and systematizing historical sources about the daily life of Russian society in the XIX
century. Since 2017, the implementation of the new project "Back to USSR" for the period of 2017-2018 aimed
at the systematization and publication of the memories of eyewitnesses about the Soviet era has started. Such
projects allow not only to feel the history, to explore it through personal feelings, emotions, experiences,
events of life, but also to successfully solve the problems of prevention of deviant behavior among young
people. The project involves communication with the relatives – the witnesses of the Soviet era, a long and
detailed work on the collection and systematization of memories, the creation of a website where anyone
willing can leave his evidences. Maximum occupation, several levels of interaction (class–school–university–
interuniversity cooperation), regular organizational meetings of the project participants just do not leave
time for other things. In addition, such projects allow to identify talented students who show a high level of
erudition, organizational, leadership qualities, pedagogical abilities and to help them make their
The fourth objective is the educational work of students at school. In this respect, the project "Patriotic
Team" developed at the faculty of history and law by the Associate Professor S. S. Eremina and postgraduate
student A. P. Chernyshov is indicative. The project is aimed at patriotic education of schoolchildren
precisely by the student community. The participants of "Patriotic Team" develop and carry out the "Lessons
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VOL. 8 (2.1)
of Courage", concerts of patriotic songs, quests aimed at the expansion and deepening of historical
knowledge, formation of citizenship, patriotism and tolerance at schools. In addition, "tourist tracks" for
traveling to historical sites, actions for repairing monuments and cleaning the surrounding areas, meetings
with war veterans and their families, working with the pedigrees of the students in the archives are
organized. At the same time, the project participants are given complete freedom of choice – they
independently choose the direction that they are most interested in.
The project "Patriotic Team", on the one hand, enhances the professional competence of future
pedagogues, on the other hand – it has a huge educational impact on both schoolchildren and students. In
addition, as practice shows, the project "Patriotic Team" presents the faculty of history and law in
educational institutions of the Republic of Mordovia. As a result, there is an increase of the proportion of
graduates employed in schools immediately after graduation, as well as the influx of applicants to the
The fifth objective is to hold scientific and practical conferences, symposia, seminars, round tables on
the relevant topics. In particular, on the basis of the department of legal disciplines, a seminar "Legal
Mechanisms for Preventing Deviance in Modern Russia" is held annually with the participation of law
enforcement agencies. "Round tables" on the problems of professional self-determination of young people
are held. At such events, interaction with law enforcement agencies, youth, scientific, patriotic and other
public organizations is carried out in order to test and actualize the results of the research on the identified
The sixth objective is to introduce new academic disciplines and advanced training courses on relevant
topics into the educational process. In particular, A. V. Martynenko (2006) prepared a number of educational
publications and elective courses on Russian and foreign Islam and the Christian-Islamic dialogue in Russia,
including the first author's school textbook "Fundamentals of Islamic Culture" in the Russian Federation. N.
A. Mileshina and A. Yu. Kupriyanov, S. S. Eremina developed and introduced the elective courses into the
educational process of the university, respectively, "Patriotic Education in Modern Russia and Its Role in the
Formation of Tolerance of the Modern Society" and "Orthodox Culture in the Context of the Formation of
If elective courses are aimed at the prevention of deviant behavior among young students, additional
educational programmes are aimed at the formation of competencies provided by the Professional Standard
"Pedagogue". T. D. Nadkin, A. V. Martynenko and L. A. Potapova developed an additional educational
programme "The Prevention of Xenophobia and Extremism at Educational Institutions" which is being
implemented since 2009.
The seventh objective is the implementation of projects within the framework of the inter-network
interaction. In this regard, cooperation not only with universities, but also with law enforcement agencies is
of interest. Thus, within the framework of the implementation of the state program of the Republic of
Mordovia "Combating Drug Abuse and Their Illicit Trafficking for 2014-2020", the project of MSPI "The
Formation of Anti-Drug Competence of Students in the Educational Environment" is being implemented
together with the Administration for Drug Trafficking Control of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the
Republic of Mordovia and the State Committee of the Republic of Mordovia on Youth Affairs. The objective
of this project is to form a negative attitude to the use of narcotic drugs among young people. To achieve this
goal, the following objectives were solved: development of the anti-drug student movement on a permanent
basis; integration of the student anti-drug team into the activities of structural units of MSPI - Junior School
Academy and the Academy of Success; creation of the specialized pedagogical teams focused on the
formation of a negative attitude of young people to the use of drug and psychoactive substances; promotion
of healthy lifestyles, conscious attitude to their health.
In general, prevention of deviant behavior of young people in a modern pedagogical university is a
complex multi-level objective. It involves the constant systematic interaction between university and school
at different levels – in the framework of scientific research cooperation, pedagogical practice,
implementation of joint grant projects, educational work and the activity of pedagogical teams. At the same
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology
VOL. 8 (2.1)
time, the professional self-determination of future applicants can and should be an important component of
this process. The effectiveness of the implementation of such a two-pronged objective is ensured by the
creation and systematic interaction of scientific communities, the implementation of the obtained results in
the educational process of universities, the actualization of the problem at various symposia, scientific
practical conferences and other discussion platforms.
The research was carried out within the framework of the grant for carrying out scientific research
work on the priority directions of scientific activity of partner universities in network interaction (Federal
State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Chuvash State Pedagogical University named
after I. Ya. Yakovleva") on the theme "The Development of Effective Mentoring Practices in the Educational
Environment in Order to Prevent Additive and Deviant Behavior of Students".
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Belikov, S. V. (2012). Antifa. Youth Extremism in Russia. Moscow: Eksmo.
Bonner, M. (2006). Jihad in Islamic history: doctrines and practice. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton university
Belyaeva, N. F. (2007). The place of folk traditions in the formation of ethnic and religious tolerance. Social
and demographic problems of the Volga region in the ethnic dimension: a collection of articles. Saransk, 19-
Choueiri, Y. (1990). Islamic fundamentalism. Boston: Twayne, Cop.
DeLong-Bas, N. (2010). Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. Moscow: Ladomir.
Gilinskiy, Ya. I. (2007). Deviantology: Sociology of Crime, Drugs, Prostitution, Suicide and Other
Saint Petersburg: Publishing house of R. Aslanov "Yuridicheskiy Tsentr Press".
Hiro, D. (2002). War without the end: the rise of Islamist terrorism and global response. L., N.Y.: Routledge,.
Kepel, G. (2004). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Moscow: Ladomir.
Kuznetsova, A. V. (2005). The Development of Patriotic Consciousness of Modern Young People. Moscow:
Lutovinov, V. I. (2004). The Development of Patriotism in Russia of the XXI Century. Moscow: Litsey.
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Saransk: Publishing house Historian-Sociologist of the Institute of Mordovian University.
Martynenko, A. V. (Ed.). (2017). Prevention of Extremism Among Young People. Textbook for universities.
Martynenko, A. V. & Nadkin, T. D. (2016). Modern Challenges to the Russian State as a Factor of
Destabilization of the Regional Society (on the Example of the Republic of Mordovia). Bulletin of the Higher
Educational Institutions. Volga region. Human Sciences, 3, 81-89.
Mendelevich, V. D. (2004). Psychology of Deviant Behavior. Moscow: Rech.
Mileshina, N. A. (2010). The Transformation of Patriotic Consciousness of the Russian Nobility in the XVII-
XIX Centuries. Bulletin of the Samara Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 12(2), 14-21.
Naumkin, V. V. (2005). Islamic Radicalism in the Mirror of New Concepts and Approaches. Moscow: URSS.
Paulova, Yu. E. (2017). Prevention of Youth Extremism in Educational Institutions. In Actual Problems of
Law Enforcement: collection of scientific works (pp. 73-78). Saransk.
Potapova, L. A. (2010). Actual Issues of Improving Legislation in the Field of Countering and Combating
Extremism in the Russian Federation. Humanitarian Sciences and Education, 3, 106-109.
Shnirelman, V. A. (2007). "Cleaners of Moscow Streets": Skinheads, Mass Media and Public Opinion.
Tsareva, E. V. (2011). Youth Extremism as a Socio-Psychological Phenomenon of Modern Society. In
Scientific Research: Information, Analysis, Forecast: collective monograph (pp. 73-78). Voronezh: Voronezh
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