Introduction to Hadeeth Based on the books

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Introduction to Hadeeth

  • Based on the books:

  • 1) Mustalaahaat Hadeeth by Shaikh Ibn Uthaimeen,

  • 2) Hujjiyat Hadees by Shaikh ul Hadeeth Abu Ahmad Haafiz Abdus Sattaar and

  • 3) The Speech “Fitna Inkar Hadeeth” by Shaikh Ibraaheem Bhatti


  • Please click on any of the following

  • sub-headings or browse normally

Hadeeth in the light of Quran (Only a few proofs)

  • 1) He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a

  • Messenger from among themselves, reciting to them

  • His Ayat, purifying them, and teaching them the Book

  • and the Hikmah. And verily, they had been before in

  • manifest error. [Surah Jum’aa, Ayat 2]

  • Meaning: Allah sent Quran and the Hikmah. Hikmah is the

  • Sunnah. Similar Ayat is in Surah Aal-Imran, Ayat 164]

Hadeeth in the light of Quran (Only a few proofs)

  • 4) Nor does he speak of desire, It is only a revelation revealed

  • [Surah An-Najm, Ayat 3]

  • Meaning: Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam

  • did not speak anything of his desire, but speaks

  • whatever Allah revealed to him by Wahee

The Definition of Hadeeth

  • Allah has sent Prophet Muhammad(Sallaahu alaihi wa sallam) with the guidance and religion of truth that it may prevail over all falsehood.

  • Furthermore he has been commanded to present all the religion of Islam to mankind.

  • So, Allah Subhanu wa ta’ala revealed to him the Book(the Quran) and the Wisdom (Hikmah/Sunnah) and commanded him to explain the people what has been sent down to them, in order for them to ponder over, act upon and benefit from.

  • Thus, Quran and Sunnah are the two sources by which Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala has provided and established the Hujjah(proof) against His slaves and upon these 2 sources is built the ruling of belief and action. [i.e., what beliefs and actions consititue the Shariah(Divine Law)]

  • The Quran is the Speech of Allah. The words of Quran are set in text and meaning exactly the way Allah revealed onto the heart of the Messenger of Allah(sallallaahualaihi wa sallam) i.e., it is connected to Allah in both text and meaning.

  • The Hadeeth of Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is related to the prophet(sallaahu alaihi wa sallam) in text and meaning. Except Hadees E Qudsee which is related in Meaning to Allah but in text to Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).

The Definition of Hadeeth


  • FIRST DIVISION: Based on whom the narrations are related to.

  • Narrations are divided into 4 types. They are HADEETH, KHABAR, ASAR AND HADEETH QUDSEE.

      • 1) HADEETH: This is the narration which is directly related to the prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) concerning his actions, sayings, tacit approvals, descriptions and manners
      • 2) KHABAR: The Khabar narrations are same as HADEETH but they can be related to the prophet(Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) or others. Therefore, the Khabar narrations are more general than the Hadeeth
      • 3) AL-ATHAR: This is the narration connected to the Sahabah(Radhi Allahu Anhum), the Taba’een and the at’ba taba’een
      • 4) AL-HADEETH QUDSEE: This is the narration reported by the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) on the authority of Allah i.e., the words are of the prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) but the meaning is from Allah
  • The Hadeeth al Qudsee, although the meaning is from Allah cannot be recited in the prayer because the words are from the prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).

The Definition of Hadeeth

The Writing of Hadeeth

  • The writing of Hadeeth was started at the time of prophet(sallallaahu alaihi wa

  • sallam). Some of the Sahabah used to remember the Ahadeeth and some of

  • them recorded in writing. The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) on some

  • occasions ordered the companions to write and some occasions kept quite

  • on seeing them writing and on some occasions encouraged to write

  • everything he tells. The process started with small pamphlets and booklets.

  • Later were collected by a number of Muhaddiseen in Musnads & Sunans.

  • 1) Narrated Abu Huraira(Radhi Allahu Anhu):

  • There is none among the companions of the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) who

  • has narrated more Hadiths than I except 'Abdullah bin Amr (bin Al-'As) who used to

  • write them and I never did the same.

  • [Saheeh Bukhari, Book of Knowledge, Chapter Wrting of knowledge, Hadeeth 113]

  • 2) Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As narrated:

  • I used to write everything which I heard from the Apostle of Allah(peace_be_upon_him).

  • I intended (by it) to memorise it. The Quraysh prohibited me saying: Do you write

  • everything that you hear from him while the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) is a

  • human being: he speaks in anger and pleasure? So I stopped writing, and mentioned it

  • to the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him). He signalled with his finger to his mouth

  • and said: Write, by Him in Whose hand my soul lies, only right(HAQ) comes out from it.

  • [Sunan Abu Daawood, Kitaab-ul-ilm, baab kitaabatul ilm, 133; Musannaf Ibn Abee Shaibaa, Kitaab ul Adab]

  • [Musnad Ahmad 2/162/6510 & 2/192; Sunan Ad-Darimi 1/125; Mustadrak Al Hakim 1/359]

  • [Silsila Ahaadeeth As-Saheehah, 1532]

The Writing of Hadeeth

  • 3) Abdullah bin Umar(radhi Allahu Anhu) narrated that the prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa

  • sallam) of Allah wrote a letter about sadaqah (zakat) but he died before he could send it

  • to his governors. He had kept it with his sword. So AbuBakr acted upon it till he died,

  • and then Umar acted upon it till he died. {this letter is reported as Kitaab-us-sadaqa}

      • [Sunan Abu Dawood, Kitaab Us-Zakaat, 1568; Tirmidhee, Abwab uz Zakaat, 617; Musnad Ahmad, 2/14
      • & 2/15; Musannaf Ibn Abee Shaibaa, Kitaab-uz-Zakaat, 3/121; Bayhaqi As-Sunan Al Kubra, Kitaab-Uz-
      • Zakaat, 4/88; Musnad Abu ya’la, Volume 9, 5470; Irwa Ul-Ghaleel, 265/3; Mustadrak Al Haakim, Volume
      • 1, 1443] GRADED SAHEEH
  • 4) On the conquest of Makkah the prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) gave a speech on

  • human rights. Then a Yemeni man, named Abee Shaa requested “write that for me Oh

  • Allah’s Apostle”(he said it twice). The prophet(sas) ordered: “Write that for Abu Shah.”

      • [Bukhari and Muslim][See For details Saheeh Bukhari Volume 3, Book 42, Number 613 and more]
  • 5) Mousa Bin Talha said that we have the book of Muaaz Bin Jabal(Radhi Allahu Anhu)

  • which he reported from the Prophet(sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam)

    • [Sunan Daraqutni, 2/95,1897; See Mishkaat Ul Masaabih 1803]
  • 6) Abdullah Bin Ukaim(Radhi Allahu Anhu) reported that the letter(pamphlet) of

  • Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) was read in the territory of Juhaina when I was a

  • young boy

    • [Sunan Abu Daawood, Kitaab ul Libaas, 4127]

The Rules and Conditions for Acceptance of Narrations

  • A Hadeeth (pl. Ahaadeeth) is composed of two parts:

  • (i) The Matn (text) and

  • (ii) The Isnad(chain of reporters).

  • The ‘Matn’ is the narration itself i.e., the words which are attributed to who is reported as being said.

  • The Isnaad is the chain of reporters(men or women) starting from the Muhaddis eg., Bukhari to Whom the narration is related eg., the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam). The scholars involved in transmitting the narrations also collected the information about the narrators. This information is the basis for the rules and condition defined in the acceptance of the narrations.

  • Imam Malik(b93Hijri) said that the Isnaad was started in the period of Imam Zuhree(b50Hijri). As time passed, more reporters were involved in each isnad, and so the situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of ahadith; the rules regulating this discipline are known as Mustalah al-Hadith (the Science of Hadith).

  • This clarifies that, the matter of spurious Ahadeeth was not an ignored or unknown thing for the scholars of the era. Infact, they made sure of the authenticity, by collecting information about every narrator who reports a Hadeeth.



The Rules and Conditions for Acceptance of Narrations

  • The Five Criteria for judging the authenticity:

      • 1) Lack of continuity in the chain of transmitters.
      • 2) Lack of integrity in the Narrators
      • 3) Inaccuracy of the memories of the transmitters
      • 4) Non-conformity of a Hadith then it is called "odd" (shadhdh).
      • 5) Because of a "defect" ('illah).
  • A Saheeh Hadeeth meets the above 5 conditions. Hasan Hadeeth meets all except the 3rd condition in

  • any point in the Isnaad. If a Hadeeth is not Saheeh or Hasan then it is Dha’eef. Especially the 1st and the

  • 2nd requirements are not met.

The Books of Hadeeth

  • The Companions of the prophet(sas) were distributed in various cities across the muslim

  • ummah. They gave the knowledge of Quran and Sunnah to their students. The scholars of

  • Hadeeth travelled from place to place and collected the reports from their predecessors.

  • There are more than 30 books of Hadeeth each one giving evidence of the truthness that

  • they are the recorded sunnah of Prophet(SAS) and the Sahabah(Radhi Allahu anhum). The

  • following are the most famous among them. The first 6 in the following list are called as

  • Ummahaat As-Sitta or the Sihaah As-Sitta (The Authentic Six).

Saheeh Bukhari:

  • Saheeh Bukhari:

  • The author called it Al Jami as-Saheeh. This book was compiled by Abu

  • Abdullah Imam Muhammad Bin Isma’eel Al Bukhari. Imam Bukhari was

  • born in 194 Hijri. He was brought up as an orphan with his mother.

  • Imam Bukhari was a man of Taqwa. He studied under many Shaikhs and

  • stayed in hijaz for 6 years. He travelled to as-shaam, al-misr, al-basra, al

  • kufa, al-baghdad etc. He had a strong memory.

  • He collected the reports from different scholars dispersed across the

  • muslim world and completed the book in 16 years. He showed it to the

  • famous Muhaddiseen of the time namely Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal

  • (d241hijri), Yahya bin Ma’een(d233 hijri) and Alee Ibn Madinee(d234hijri).

  • Imam Bukhari was a Mujtahid and Faqi and has strange way of

  • extracting rules from Hadeeth and indeed his book and biography testify

  • this fact.

  • Saheeh Bukhari has a total of 7397 Ahadeeth and after removal of

  • repeated Ahadeeth it becomes 2602. Imam Bukhari said that he included

  • only Saheeh Hadeeth in this book. The book has unique chapters based

  • on the topic.

  • Some Statements about him from the Muhaddiseen in his time:

  • Imam Ahmad(d241hijri) said “Khurasan has not brought out of it a

  • man like Muhammad Bin Ismail” [Mustalahaat Hadeeth, Ibn Uthaimeen]

  • Imam Ibn Khuzaima(d311hijri) said “I have not seen under the sky,

  • anyone having more knowledge and better memory of the

  • Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah(sas) than Muhammad bin

  • Ismail” [Mustalahaat Hadeeth, Ibn Uthaimeen]

  • Imam Bukhari wrote many other books like Al-Adab ul Mufrad & others

  • books which deal with the knowledge of the reporters(transmitters).

The books on Reporters and authenticity of Hadeeth

  • The Muhaddiseen recorded the information about the reporters in the Isnaad of the Ahadeeth. This is to make sure that every Hadeeth which is reported is made sure that it is transmitted actually from the prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).

  • Remarks like “Imam(leader)” , “Haafiz(Preserver)”, “Reliable, trustworthy”, “Makes Mistakes”, “weak”, “Abondoned(by the muhaddiseen)”, “Liar, Used to fabricate” are made for the reporters in order to make sure that the Ummah is not left unguided with a lot of Ahadeeth which are un-authentic and the people get confused and might prefer unauthentic and fabricated Ahadeeth instead of the authentic ones.

  • Among the earliest books are Tareekh of Ibn Ma‘een (d. 233), Tabaqat of Khalifa bin Khayyat (d. 240), Tareekh of al-Bukhari (d. 256), Kitab al-Jarh wa 'l-Ta'dil of Ibn Abee Hatim (d. 327) and Tabaqat of Muhammad bin Sa‘ad (d. 320).

  • A number of such books are there especially on the reporters of Hadeeth in the Ummahaat As-Sittah. The first among them is about the reporters in Sunan Ibn Majah (d. 273), the ten-volume collection of al-Hafiz 'Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi (d. 600), known as Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal. Al-Mizzi(d. 742h) abridged and included punctuations in the book.

  • The later scholars like Imam Zahhabi(d.748 hijri), Ibn Hajr Asqalaani(d852 hijri) have worked on the reporters details. There are many books which discuss the authenticity of the Ahadeeth collected in various books. The famous are Majma Al Zawa’id by Ibn Hajr Al Haythami, the books of Imam Zahhabi, Ibn Al jawzi, Imam Nawawi, Imam Ibn Taymeeyah and the most recent of those being of Al-Albani the Muhaddis of our times.

  • Allaama Al-Albaani’s large collection of work like Saheeh Al Jaami As-Sagheer, Sisila Ahaadeeth Al Saheeha, Silsila Ahadeeth Al-Dha’eefah, works on Mishkat-ul-Masabih, and the four sunans Abu Dawood, Tirmidhee, Nisaa’ee and Ibn Majah and other such are a big asset for the students and scholars

  • Allaama Al-Albaani discusses the Hadeeth and mentions the many books which collected them and the comments of the previous Muhaddiseen. And makes his comments on it. Any muhaddis who declares a Hadeeth as un-authentic gives detailed explanation for the weakness of the Hadeeth.

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