Introduction to pred

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Phytophthora ramorum: Educate to Detect (PRED) USDA-Forest Service USDA-Cooperative State Research Education & Extension Service IPM Regional Centers National Plant Diagnostic Network USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

  • Introduction to PRED

  • History of P. ramorum

  • Symptoms and look-alikes

  • Regulations

  • Sample collection and handling

  • Status in North American forests

  • Status in Europe

  • Status in North American landscapes and nurseries

Sudden Oak Death

  • Sudden Oak Death

    • Red oak group hosts and tanoak
    • Stem lesions beneath the bark
    • May bleed or ooze
    • Can kill adult plants
  • Phytophthora ramorum Foliar Blight

    • Non-oak hosts
    • Spots and blotches on leaves
    • Shoot dieback
    • Can kill juvenile plants, occasionally mature plants

Trace-forward & trace-back investigations

  • Trace forwards = to the nurseries where stock was shipped TO

  • Trace backs = to the nursery where stock was shipped FROM

Phytophthora ramorum national survey

True oaks (Quercus spp.)

  • True oaks (Quercus spp.)

  • Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus)

  • Chestnut (Castanea) [Europe only]

  • Beech (Fagus) [Europe only]

‘Bleeding’ or oozing on the bark

  • ‘Bleeding’ or oozing on the bark

  • Not associated with cracks in bark or insect holes

  • Usually on the lower 6 ft. of tree trunks

  • Pyracantha

  • Honeysuckle

  • Yew

  • Douglas-fir

  • Grand fir

  • Coast redwood

P. ramorum symptoms on kalmia (mountain laurel)

P. ramorum symptoms on lilac

P. ramorum symptoms on conifers

Phytophthora ramorum regulations & quarantines

  • Federal quarantines –

    • prevent movement between states
  • State quarantines –

Phytophthora ramorum domestic regulated materials

  • Nursery stock

  • Forest stock

  • Wood

Phytophthora ramorum host list

  • tanoak horse-chestnut southern red oak

  • canyon live oak sweet chestnut northern red oak

  • coast live oak European beech Holm oak

  • California black oak drooping leucothoe wood rose

  • Shreve oak European turkey oak Viburnum varieties

  • bigleaf maple toyon madrone

  • coffeeberry cascara Formosa firethorn

  • California buckeye coast redwood huckleberry

  • salmonberry manzanita honeysuckle

  • Western starflower grand fir poison oak

  • California hazelnut Douglas-fir Scotch heather

  • mountain laurel European yew witch-hazel

  • Pieris varieties strawberry tree Victorian box

  • Camellia species California wood fern lilac

  • European yew Pacific yew rhododendrons/azaleas

  • false Solomon’s seal winter’s bark sweet bay laurel

  • goat willow Andrew’s clintonia bead lily

  • California bay laurel/pepperwood

Federal P. ramorum quarantine program goals

  • Prevent the artificial spread of P. ramorum

  • Take the least restrictive action necessary

  • Determine status of disease, nationwide

  • Keep the regulations current with the science and risk

  • Identify where infected items came from and went to

  • Clean up infested nurseries and garden centers

APHIS website:

  • Review of material just presented

  • Goal of PRED

  • Overview of the program

  • What to do…

Sample referral and submission

  • In some states, only the State or federal regulatory officials will be collecting the specimens.

  • Contact your county extension agent or supervisor to find out who is authorized to collect suspect samples in your county.

Sample referral criteria

  • Plants likely to be infected by Phytophthora ramorum (as indicated by the screening questionnaire):

    • Affected plant is on host list and purchased since 2002
    • Affected plant is near a recently purchased host plant
    • Symptoms are consistent with Phytophthora ramorum
  • Screening questions at the NCIPM website: (


  • Submit the suspect sample to:

  • Avoid alarming behavior. Don’t jump to conclusions.

    • Wait for lab result
    • Maintain confidentiality

If you’re asked to collect a sample

  • Collect leaves that show various stages of symptom development.

  • Take pictures of symptoms and environment.

Packaging a sample

  • Place sample on a paper towel. Do not wet the towel.

  • Double bag and seal the sample in zippable bags.

  • If shipping, use a crush proof box with seams sealed completely with tape.

  • Be sure to include the sample submission form required by your state.

Delivering a sample

  • Contact the sample recipient.

  • Samples must be fresh and in good condition.

  • Rapid delivery is critical (no Friday shipments).

Sampling reminders

  • The accuracy of a disease diagnosis can only be as good as the sample and information provided.

  • Sample must be representative of symptoms and severity in the field and must contain the right material.

Sampling reminders

  • Sanitation

  • Chain of custody

    • restrict access to sample
    • make sure sample collection location is retraceable

Diagnostics: laboratory tests

  • There are three detection methods:

    • Antibody test (ELISA)
    • Plating on selective media
    • DNA (PCR)
  • Relatively expensive

  • Time consuming

Where to go for more information

  • APHIS:

  • California Oak Mortality Task Force:

  • NCIPM:


  • Authors

    • Jennifer Parke
    • Susan Frankel
    • Janice Alexander
    • Carla Thomas


  • We have assembled a group of experts to answer your questions:

      • David Rizzo, University of California, Davis
      • Jonathan Jones, APHIS
      • Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University
      • Kerry Britton, USDA-Forest Service
      • Carla Thomas, NPDN
      • Susan Ratcliffe, NCIPM

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