It was the crossroads of trade in the Mediterranean


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It was the crossroads of trade in the Mediterranean

  • It was the crossroads of trade in the Mediterranean

  • Rome was the center of the classical world

  • Recovered from the plague with more opportunities for economic advancement

  • Wealthy and powerful merchant class







Overseas trade, spurred by the Crusades, led to their growth

  • Overseas trade, spurred by the Crusades, led to their growth

  • Northern Italy had a wealthy merchant class

  • It’s classical heritage of Greece and Rome

  • City-states governed themselves





Florence was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was rural

  • Florence was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was rural

  • Because of the plague, many of the city’s survivors could demand higher wages

  • Because Florence was small, many of its citizens could be involved in politics





Renaissance means “re-birth” which refers to revival in arts and learning

  • Renaissance means “re-birth” which refers to revival in arts and learning

  • Italian merchants displayed their wealth by giving financial support to artists

  • Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) was a generous patron of the arts





The Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around them

  • The Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around them

  • Church leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artists





Scholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman culture

  • Scholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman culture

  • Artists used ancient art as models

  • Brunelleschi designed buildings after studying Roman ruins



Filippo Brunelleschi

  • Filippo Brunelleschi

  • Commissioned to build the cathedral dome in Florence (Il Duomo)









Humanists adopted many Roman and Greek beliefs

  • Humanists adopted many Roman and Greek beliefs

  • 1. seeking fulfillment in daily life

  • 2. all people have dignity and worth

  • 3. the ideal person—one who can do almost anything (the Renaissance Man)



Humanists learned many subjects, such as Latin, Greek history, mathematics, and rhetoric (the study of language)

  • Humanists learned many subjects, such as Latin, Greek history, mathematics, and rhetoric (the study of language)

  • In the Middle Ages, religious people proved their piety(religious devotion) by living a plain life

  • Humanists enjoyed life without offending God



Father of Renaissance humanism

  • Father of Renaissance humanism

  • Poet

  • sonnets





Emphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlife

  • Emphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlife

  • Renaissance thinkers strove to master almost every art

  • Later ages called such people “Renaissance men



Individuals became the center of attention during the Renaissance as the belief in human potential & ability began to emerge from Medieval ways of thinking

  • Individuals became the center of attention during the Renaissance as the belief in human potential & ability began to emerge from Medieval ways of thinking



Machiavelli—wrote The Prince

  • Machiavelli—wrote The Prince

  • The Prince was a book about Italian government

  • Machiavelli supported the idea of absolute power

  • He believed you should “do whatever it takes” to be a great ruler, even if it means you have to hurt someone



Wrote the Book of the Courtier

  • Wrote the Book of the Courtier

  • Ideal courtier

  • Manners, skills, learning, and virtues



Ideal Man—was well educated in the Classics; should be charming, witty, & smart; can dance, write poetry, & play music; should be physically fit

  • Ideal Man—was well educated in the Classics; should be charming, witty, & smart; can dance, write poetry, & play music; should be physically fit

  • (called a “Renaissance Man”)



Ideal Woman—study Classics; write, dance, paint, make music well; but should not seek fame or political power (Renaissance women were far better educated but had fewer rights than Medieval women)

  • Ideal Woman—study Classics; write, dance, paint, make music well; but should not seek fame or political power (Renaissance women were far better educated but had fewer rights than Medieval women)







Donatello is considered by many to be the greatest sculptor of the Renaissance

  • Donatello is considered by many to be the greatest sculptor of the Renaissance

  • Medieval sculptors only carved the front of a statue, but Donatello wanted sculptures to be viewed from all sides like Greek & Roman statues









Michelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpieces

  • Michelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpieces

  • His greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty



















Michelangelo returned to the chapel to begin painting the altarpiece “The Last Judgment

  • Michelangelo returned to the chapel to begin painting the altarpiece “The Last Judgment

  • This painting features Christ judging souls as the rise and fall from each side of the painting

  • He painted The Last Judgement between 1535-1541.













Raphael “PerfectedRenaissance painting

  • Raphael “Perfected” Renaissance painting

  • He became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance people

  • School of Athens” is his greatest work

















A true “Renaissance Man” Leonardo was an inventor, painter, sculptor, mathematician & scientist

  • A true “Renaissance Man” Leonardo was an inventor, painter, sculptor, mathematician & scientist































On August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed

  • On August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed

  • After keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913



In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid

  • In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid

  • On December 30 of that same year, another person damaged the painting by throwing a rock at it

  • The result was a speck of pigment near Mona Lisa's left elbow

  • The painting is now covered with bulletproof security glass











Leonardo sketched several designs for flying machines including this one with a rotating screw

  • Leonardo sketched several designs for flying machines including this one with a rotating screw

  • He intended to power it with a wound-up spring





Leonardo’s many military inventions included this design for an armored tank

  • Leonardo’s many military inventions included this design for an armored tank

  • Four soldiers sitting inside could turn cranks to move the wheels on this tank”





da Vinci also invented a gigantic crossbow

  • da Vinci also invented a gigantic crossbow

  • It's difficult to know whether it would have worked, or whether it would have been superior to cannons of the same period







The length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height

  • The length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height

  • The maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height

  • The distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one-fifth of a man's height



The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars from other areas visited Italian city-states & took the new ideas they saw back

  • The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars from other areas visited Italian city-states & took the new ideas they saw back



Kings bought Renaissance art, helping to spread new ideas

  • Kings bought Renaissance art, helping to spread new ideas

  • Renaissance ideas spread to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), England, France, Belgium, Netherlands



Renaissance in Germany was very religious—Christian humanists criticized the church & society (will lead to Protestant Reformation)

  • Renaissance in Germany was very religious—Christian humanists criticized the church & society (will lead to Protestant Reformation)



The Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and discovery

  • The Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and discovery

  • The Renaissance spirit played an important role in helping to launch the Age of Exploration




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