Learning Points In Part 8, you will discover the answers to the following

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Learning Points

  • In Part 8, you will discover the answers to the following:

    • What is the role of the leader as teacher and developer of people?
    • What can a leader do to help people through change?
    • What are the roles of attitude and personal example?
    • Where are you in the burnout process?

Learning Points

  • What steps can be taken for emergency, short-term, and long-term aid?

  • What are the characteristics of a hardy personality?

  • Are you a stress-resistant person?


  • Leaders show concern for others by:

    • Taking an interest in people
    • Helping them grow to their full potential
  • Developing others

    • Viewed as the most relevant and rewarding of all management tasks


  • The expectation of failure can bring about failure, just as the expectation of success can bring about success

    • Known as the Pygmalion effect
    • Expecting high performance is a prerequisite for the it’s achievement
    • An analysis of 17 studies shows the positive power of beliefs to influence results
  • Author and education John Gardner writes:

    • One’s faith in human possibilities is the generative element

The Development of Others

  • Performers in every field are developed

    • Effective leaders:
      • Recognize the importance of developing people
      • View developing others as a key to success
  • Leaders are mentors and teachers

    • The word “mentor” comes from Homer’s Odyssey
    • Caring for and protecting people, and giving good counsel are attributes central to our modern concept of mentoring

Types of Teacher/Leaders

  • There are five types of teacher/leaders

    • Shamans heal through personal power; they focus the attention of their followers on themselves
    • Priests claim power through office; they are agents of omnipotent authority
    • Elected leaders undergo trials, self-transformation, training, or other rites to achieve their positions
    • Missionaries are goal-directed
    • Mystic healers seek the source of illness and health in the follower’s personality

Types of Teacher/Leaders

  • Much contemporary leading/teaching incorporates the priestly, elected, and missionary types

    • Priests bring continuity and hierarchy to the task
    • Elected leaders gain authority by election and followership
    • Missionaries are found in many organizations that have some kind of central mission
    • Shamans and mystic healers are individualistic and personalized

Principles of Developing Others

  • People experience maximum development under certain conditions

    • Personal conditions conducive to growth:
      • When there is a felt need
      • When encouraged by someone respected
      • When personal plans move from general goals to specific actions
      • When moving from a condition of lower to higher self-esteem
      • When moving from external to internal commitment

Principles of Developing Others

    • Organizational conditions conducive to growth:
      • Basic respect for the worth and dignity of all
      • Individual differences are recognized, and a variety of learning experiences are provided
      • Each person is addressed at his/her level of development and helped to grow to fuller potential
      • Good communication prevails
      • Growth is rewarded through recognition and tangible signs of approval

Principles of Developing Others

  • Principles to follow in developing others:

    • Have a respectful attitude
    • Build self-esteem
    • Use the correct medium or combination of techniques
      • One-on-one coaching, formal education, professional conferences, on-the-job learning
      • Sabbaticals keep leaders fresh and motivated

Principles of Developing Others

    • Use coaching versus judging in developing people; consider-purpose, timing, focus, and process
      • Purpose-coaching improves performance
      • Timing-coaching is ongoing and provided as needed
      • Focus-coaching is tailored to each individual
      • Process-coaching is interactive, two-way

Principles of Developing Others

    • Practice
      • Builds proficiency
      • Important in the development of leaders
      • Sophocles said, “Knowledge must come through action”
      • Confucius said, “I listen and I hear; I see and I remember; I do and I understand”
      • Henry Mintzberg writes that learning to manage through classroom training alone is unrealistic

Training in the Workplace

  • Management author Gary Hamel argues that:

    • The most successful organizations are masters of learning
    • The most effective leaders are masters of teaching
  • Individuals who acquire multiple skills help the organization as well as themselves

    • Employer and employee share responsibility for maintaining proficiency and achieving success
    • Employers allow employees to develop enhanced employability in exchange for better productivity and commitment to the company’s goals

Training in the Workplace

  • The American Society of Training and Development (ASTD) states that:

    • The average commitment to training is 2.2 % of payroll
    • Better employers provide 2.5 to 5% of payroll
    • Average annual training per employee is 28 hours
    • Leading employers provide 57 to 62 hours

Training in the Workplace

    • The most common types of training are:
      • Leadership development
      • Technical procedures
      • Information technology
    • Revenues and profitability are positively correlated with training expenditures

Training in the Workplace

  • ASTD developed a model of training that supports:

    • Organizational effectiveness
    • Contributes to individual productivity
  • Table 23-1 shows the types of training recommended to address these training needs:

    • Ensuring organizational performance
    • Meeting strategic goals
    • Implementing new technology
    • Engaging customers
    • Protecting employees and communities
    • Ensuring job readiness

Measuring Learning Effectiveness

  • Donald Kirkpatrick outlined four learning measurement levels in The Four Levels Approach:

    • Satisfaction
    • Learning
    • Application
    • Impact

Measuring Learning Effectiveness

  • Individuals are concerned about the first two levels

    • Managers focus on applications
    • Sponsors concentrate on impact
  • Level 1

    • Data usually gathered by questionnaires at the end of the training session
    • Measures participant satisfaction and evaluates content, delivery, and so on

Measuring Learning Effectiveness

  • Level 2

    • Learning is measured in terms of increased knowledge, skill, or attitude
    • Measurement ranges from paper-and-pencil tests to job demonstrations
  • Level 3

    • Seeks to determine if employees are using the new knowledge and skills on the job
    • Measurement through observation, surveys, and interviews

Measuring Learning Effectiveness

  • Level 4

    • Focuses on business results (return on investment)
  • Most training conducted in the U.S. is evaluated at Level 1, if at all

    • Level 2 is the next most used
    • Level 3 and 4 are seldom used

Developing Leaders

  • Organizations:

    • Identify a leadership gap
    • Seek to fill the gap through training efforts
  • Competency and performance goals are usually set for:

    • Achieving business results
    • Developing people-building skills

Developing Leaders

  • Interventions include:

    • Classroom instruction
    • Seminars
    • Assessment and feedback
    • Performance coaching
    • Mentoring
    • Action learning
    • Field activities

Developing Leaders

  • Robert Katz, in his book Skills of an Effective Administrator, explains that:

    • Leadership is a learned skill
    • People possess varying amounts of the aptitude to lead
    • Skills can be improved through training and practice
    • Performance can be improved through coaching and learning
  • This is the rationale for establishing leadership schools

Developing Leaders

  • Learn by studying the masters

    • Effective performers appraise their current skills and learn from others
  • Examples:

    • There is a trace of Jonathan Winters in Robin Williams
    • The Beatles learned from Check Berry
    • Matisse learned from Gauguin
    • Yogi Berra had a famous slogan, “You can observe a lot by watching”

Developing Leaders

  • To develop leadership effectiveness, one should identify superb leaders and learn from them:

    • Understand their behavior
    • Ask questions
    • Understand their values and goals
    • Identify the rationale for decisions and actions
    • Seek the principles behind skills and techniques
    • Identify the resources used to solve problems and make decisions

Developing Leaders

  • Leadership development is not always a top-down process

    • Many leaders have grown through the example, advice, and encouragement of direct-reports and peers
    • For this to occur, all involved must show maturity and personal courage
    • Reverse mentoring can keep leaders current in both the technical and human aspects of work

Developing Leaders

  • Important growth can also come from:

    • On-the-job experiences
    • Crisis
  • These experiences force people to:

    • Rise to a challenge
    • Endure a trial never faced
  • Meaningful development occurs through adversity, hardship and loss

    • Development is hard to achieve in a classroom setting

Developing Leaders

  • Other developmental possibilities include:

    • Early work experiences
    • First-time supervision
    • Responsibility for starting something
    • Expansion of job scope
    • Special projects and task force assignments
    • Line to staff switch
    • An international assignment

Developing Leaders

  • Individualized coaching can address areas for improvement:

    • Public speaking
    • Product knowledge
    • Financial management
    • Computer skills
    • Interpersonal effectiveness
  • Links to corporate, small-business, and career coaching can be found at www.coachfederation.org

Developing Leaders

  • Noel Tichy wrote in The Leadership Engine:

    • Great organizations have many good leaders at all levels of the organization
    • Leadership development and leadership excellence are a strategic commitment and the basis for success
  • The most effective leadership development efforts are:

    • Owned at the top
    • Sustained over time
    • Deemed strategically important
    • Based on behavior

What Employers Want in an Employee

  • The number one quality is honesty

    • Honest is essential because employers rely on employees to:
      • Serve customers
      • Protect property
      • Uphold their reputation
    • Want individuals that take the initiative and are self-starters

What Employers Want in an Employee

  • Companies also want individuals who take the initiative and are self-starters:

    • The employee who is eager to serve is viewed as an asset
    • Specific skills are less important than the underlying qualities of:
      • Self-motivation
      • Desire to learn
      • Personal commitment

What Employers Want in an Employee

  • Employers also want employees who have:

    • Technical knowledge
    • Communication skills
    • Ability to get along with others
    • Creative responses to setbacks and obstacles
    • High attitude-low maintenance approach to work
    • Leadership potential

What Employers Want in an Employee

  • The shift from career dependence to career self-leadership is a reality today

    • Basic rules for succeeding in one’s work:

How to Attract and Keep Good People

  • To hire a good employee, investment is high in:

    • Time, money, and energy
  • If the company loses a good employee, the cost is:

    • Lost time, money, and psychic letdown
  • Oldest and most important issues to know:

    • What attracts the best employees
    • What makes them stay

How to Attract and Keep Good People

  • The following employee needs should be met:

    • Clarity of work assignment
    • Good work tools and supplies
    • Challenge in one’s area of expertise
    • Recognition for accomplishments
    • Opportunity to grow
    • Respect for one’s opinions
    • Motivating mission
    • Feedback on performance
    • Positive social interaction
    • Pride in one’s group

How to Attract and Keep Good People

  • Points related to maintaining a strong and productive work group:

    • None of the previous needs deals with wages
    • Employees join organizations, but they leave supervisors
    • Effective leaders possess a positive attitude and use an individualized approach

Peak Performance

  • Peak performance is important for both the individual and the organization

    • It is hard to describe, but you know it when you see it

Peak Performance

  • To personalize the concept of peak performance, ask yourself:

    • Do you remember a time when you performed at your personal best? When was it? Who was involved? What happened? What were the results?
    • As a result of your personal best, what did you learn about yourself? About others? About excellence?
    • Based on your personal best and lessons learned, what are your plans for the road ahead? What goals do you have? What steps can you take to perform (again) at the highest level?

Personal Performance

  • Showing personal performance is a lifelong concern

    • Early career sets the stage for all that follows
    • Guidelines to follow:
      • Know yourself
      • Become an expert
      • Establish your style
      • Build a network
      • Focus
      • Create a cushion
      • Be true to your values

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