Lecture 7 translation of mass media materials

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1. The language of English mass media and their lexical peculiarities;

2. The grammatical peculiarities of a mass media style.

3. Translation peculiarities of newspaper headlines

4. Translation peculiarities of terms and abbreviations.

KEY WORDS: mass media, propaganda, commentaries and references, inverted pyramid style, power, emergency, trade, coventry, apartheid, racialism, clichés,

Mass media are means that spread the materials of daily events and incidents. One of the most principle means in the system of mass-media and propaganda is a newspaper. Not only the current events that going on in the world, but also some commentaries and references to these events are given in mass media. Today the role of means of mass media as a point of controlling the complex system of society is changing a lot.

The language of mass media includes a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means serving the purpose of informing, instructing and, in addition, of entertaining people.

The materials of mass media are formed like an inverted (upside down) pyramid, it means that the most important part of the news is given at the beginning.

The special limits, such as, shortage of time, having no chance to give a stylistic color to the texts, the repetition of topics and themes, different and limited character of the topics may cause to the simplifying and standardizing of the publicistic style and it may also cause to lexical simplifying.

Lexical peculiarities of a newspaper style. There are so many homonyms, synonyms, antonyms and polysemantic words used in mass media texts. Despite all of these words provide the variety of a mass media language, at the same time; they make the text difficult to understand to people. The different meanings of these words are opened and become obvious in the context. For ex: Power: great power-buyuk davlat, state power-davlat hukumati, equal powers-teng huquqlilik, emergency powers-favqulotta muxtoriyat, man power-ishchi kuch.

One should be very careful to find the equivalent to polysemantic words in mass media, because their meanings and figurative meanings can be very minimal in character. For ex: the meaning of the word “emergency” is “eng so’nggi choralar”, but its typical context is “in case of emergency”-“zarurat tug’ilsa”. This word can be in the function of an attribute in sentences and in this case it has another different equivalent: emergency care-zarur choralar, emergency exit-favqulotta holatlar uchun zahira chiqish yo’li, emergency landing-majburiy qo’nish, emergency powers-favqulottda muxtoriyat.

The difference in the meanings of polysemantic words can be very great and the connection between their meanings sometimes loses. For ex: trade-kasb, trade-mijozlar, cover story-insonning eng muhim xabari. In the language of mass media the base of the word keeps its new meanings in derivative words too: For ex: coverage-hodisani yoritish, to receive wide coverage-matbuotda keng yoritilish. One more peculiarity of a mass media language is the use of synonyms. In most cases, in order to express the realias belonged to different nations, we can use the synonyms that express the one and the same notion: For ex: “rus fazogirlari” is translated into English as “cosmonauts” and “amerika fazogirlari” is translated as “astronauts”. The word “satellite” is used as the synonym of “sputnik”.

The event may be reported differently according to what country it is happened. For ex: the policy of race oppression is expressed differently according to its country: the notion of “white supremacy” is expressed by the term “apartheid” in South Africa, in the USA it’s expressed by “racism” and in England it’s expressed by “racialism”. The synonyms used in newspapers are usually met in two lexical units: Statesman=political figure, strike=work out, intimidate=threaten, meeting=rolly, old-timer=veteran, negotiations=talks, work-force=man-power, redundancy (for the work-force)=unemployment, in route=on the way (yo’lida), demo=march (namoyish).

Sometimes we can see some pair synonyms in newspapers, but antonyms are used relatively less: For ex: white-collar workers, blue-collar workers; champions for peace – war-mongers.

Clichés, i.e., stereotyped expressions, commonplace phrases familiar to everybody e.g., public opinion, free markets, long-term agreements, a melting pot, to cast a veto over, crucial/pressing problems, zero tolerance, political correctness, to go postal (extremely hostile). Clichés more than anything else reflect the traditional manner of expression in a mass media language.

Abbreviations News items, press reports and headlines are full of abbreviations of various kinds. Among them abbreviated terms - names of organizations, public and state bodies, political associations, industrial and other companies, various offices, etc. known by their initials are very common; e.g., EU (European Union), UNO (United Nations Organization), WTO (World Trade Organization), EEC ( European Economic Community), CNN (Cable News Network), BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), CEO (Chief Executive Officer), MBA (Master of Business Administration), DWI (Driving While Intoxicated), ВАС (Blood Alcohol Concentration). The widespread use of initials in newspaper language has been expanded to the names of persons constantly in the public eye, and one can find references to LBJ (Lyndon Baines Johnson), JFK (John Fitzgerald Kennedy), W/Dubya (George W, Bush). Sometimes the whole statements are referred to by their initials, e.g., WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get), FAO (Frequently asked questions), BTW (By the way), 9/11 or 9-11 (September 11,2001).

Neologisms: They are very common in newspaper vocabulary. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society, in science and technology. Hence, neologisms make their way into the language of the newspaper very easily and often even spring up on newspaper pages. Now, in the early 21st century, neologisms relating to computers and the Internet outnumber all others, for example, cyber sickness (a feeling of illness caused by using a computer for long periods of time,), keypal (someone with whom one regularly exchanges e-mail), online auction, access provider, MP3, PDA (Personal digital assistant), animatronics.

Finance has also launched numerous new words, such as dead cat bounce (a situation in which the price of shares rises a small amount after a large fall, sometimes before falling further), stealth tax (a tax that you pay on something that you buy rather than tax you pay directly to the government, and which you are less aware of paying than, for example, direct tax on your income). Sometimes finance and computers come together, as with dot-com (a person or a company whose business is done using the Internet), e-cash (money that can be used to buy things on the Internet, but that does not exist in a physical form or belong to any particular country). Many new words have come from medicine and biological science, e.g., biologically engineered, genetically modified, from the world of business: benchmark (to use a company's good performance as a standard by which to judge the performance of other companies of the same type), best practice (a description of the best way of performing a particular activity in business).

Foreign words. These have come from different languages. Some are traditionally used in newspaper writing, others have recently come from the areas of new technology (computers, Internet, business, entertainment and changes in society), for example, beaucoup {= a lot of money; from French); ad hoc (= specialized; from Latin); bona fide (= real, true and not intended to deceive somebody (from Latin): / wanted to prove my bona fides; curriculum vitae (CV) (= resume; from Latin); sine qua поп (= something that you must have; from Latin); carte blanche (= complete freedom, from French); nouveau riche (= someone who has only recently become rich and spends a lot of money; from French); Ше-а-Ше (= a private conversation; from French); glitch (= a small fault in working of something; from German); macho (= a man who is always trying to show that he is strong, brave; from Spanish); schlock (= careless work / odd jobs, catchpenny job; from Yiddish).

The grammatical peculiarities of a mass media style. As the reporter is obliged to be brief, he naturally tries to cram all his facts into the space allotted in newspapers. This tendency predetermines the peculiar composition of brief items and the syntactical structure of the sentences. The size of brief items varies from one sentence to several short paragraphs. And generally, the shorter the news item, the more complex its syntactical structure. The following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as grammatical parameters of mass media.

Article: Although, the definite and the indefinite articles are not translated into Uzbek according to the general rules, they sometimes have semantic function in the newspaper texts and have great importance in understanding a sentence. This rule especially belongs to the indefinite article which is in the function of the indefinite pronoun. For ex: The M.P is a Mr.Hollen – Парламент аъзоси, қандайдир жаноб Холлен. This was a Coventry – бу яна бир Ковентри (портлаш) эди.

Noun: When we work with newspaper texts, sometimes we come across the nouns which do not correspond to their number in the translation: We should emphasize that, despite their number, the English nouns are translated into Uzbek according to the norms of the Uzbek language: For ex: The horror of Vietnam- Веьтнамдаги уруш даҳшатлари. It is there that anxieties are most pressing - Айни шу ерда қўрқув айниқса кучлидир.

In most cases the number in nouns in the original and translating texts doesn’t correspond to each other: For ex: Britain is the source of the phrase “brain- drain” which describes the movement of British talent to the USA- Брейн-дрейн бирикмасининг ватаниБуюк Британия бўлиб, унинг маъноси иқтидорли, билимли инглизларни АҚШга алдаб чақиришдир.

Possessive Case: In old English all nouns could be used in the possessive case in the function of an attribute. But, then only the nouns which denote living beings began to be used in the possessive case to denote the possessiveness. In modern English the tradition of using non-living objects in the possessive case is developing. Nowadays, especially the nouns which denote time, distance, country, organization and companies are being used in the possessive case. For ex: The Republics’ Supreme Council, Britain’s Labour movement, France’s policy, Tomorrow’s meeting and Yesterday’s march.

Apostrophe “-‘s” may belong to a whole word combination as a sign of possessiveness. This combination is called as “Genitive group”. For ex: the disaremement Commetee’s Session-куролсизланиш қўмитасининг йиғилиши. The Queen of England’s policy- Англия қироличасиинг сиёсати.

Adjective: Adjectives in the English language and, especially, the Participle I in the function of an attribute denote not only the quality of a thing but also possessiveness, reason and result. The use of them in this function is mostly peculiar to a newspaper style. In this case, they are translated with a noun, a noun phrase or with a subordinate clause. For ex: book selling association – китоб сотиш бўйича компания. decading action - паракандаликка элтувчи ҳаракатлар, voting system - сайлов тизими. Adjectives in the English language are usually used before the nouns determined by them, if adjectives come after nouns they are only used to give an emphasis or a stress to the expression. In some cases, for example, the adjective “general” – is used in the function of an attribute in the post position: Prosecutor General – бош прокурор. UN Secretary General – БМТ бош котиби, Attorny General – Адлия вазири.

Verb. Verbs that have adverbial meanings: In the English language there are a lot of verbs that denote two meanings at the same time, one of them is action and the other is the quality of an action, the reason, the result or the situation of doing something. Most of them are the significant part of the English vocabulary; the others are just enriching the vocabulary. They are often met in Press. For ex: The delegation banged out of the room and banged the door – делегациялар (шиддат билан) эшикни қаттиқ ёпиб чиқиб кетдилар. The scramble for unskilled jobs – улар бор ишга ўзини урмоқдалар. Бироқ, қуйидаги сарлавҳалар таржимасида қийинчиликлар туғдирмоқда. “Police chief Told Toe Lira to Elsa…” – In this sentence the word “to toe” means “to obey to an order” (buyruqqa bo’ysinish). But the combination itself is a metaphor and means “to stand straight” «бир текис туриш» And the other example: If they Red-bait you, stand your around. In this sentence the word «Red-bait» means “қармоққа илинтирмоқ, пулга сотиб олмоқ” and the translation of the headline is as following: «Агар улар сизни қармоққа илинтирмоқчи бўлса,ўзингизникидан қолманг». Usually, we get to the complete correspondence and adequate translation through the lexical and grammatical transformations of verbs. It is a pity that, the transformations may lead to a decompression, that means to make the sentence longer, but this is the only way out to the adequate translation, because there is no analogy.

The sequence of tenses: According to the English grammar rules, if the predicate of the principal clause of the subordinate clause is in the past tense, the predicate of the subordinate clause is obliged to be in one of the past tenses or one of the futures in the past tenses. But, this rule doesn’t work in newspaper texts, especially in the political texts, it is because not to confuse the happened time of the news: Mr. Smith warned the economic situation on other NATO countries is also becoming critical.

It was learned in London this week that Mr. Victor Krushi, secretary general of the league of Human Rights in Argentina is also alive despite threats to his life.

Secretary of Defense Mr. Brown said that there is Parity of strength.

The Passive Constructions: The reason of using passive constructions in newspapers is to show the unknown doer of action or when the doer of action is not important for the news: For ex: A country support for the UN will be judged according to its willingness to accept UN mediation – Давлатнинг БМТни қўллаб қувватлаши мамлакатнинг ташкилот воситачилигини қабул қилишга қараб баҳо берилади.

In most cases, the change of passive constructions into the metaphoric combinations makes the text difficult to understand: for ex: He was pitch forked into the post of Ministry of Health – Кутилмаганда уни Соғлиқни Сақлаш Вазири лавозимига тайинлашди. Stones and bottles were showered upon the marchers by white racialists– Оқ расистлар намойиш қатнашчилари устига тош ва шишалар улоқтиришди.

In translating passive constructions, firstly, the main event is reported, then its resource. In news itself, firstly, the event is shown, then its place and time: For ex: The event was reported in Washington next morning.

There are clichés that consist of a lot of passive constructions in newspaper articles. These clichés usually conclude the news. For ex: to concern: As far as world economic problems are concerned. To state: The US special envoy arranged a talk on European problems, it was stated yesterday. to report, to understand.

Infinitive: The infinitive plays a compressive function in newspaper articles and it has a great semantic character. For ex: Banner’s too many to list –Байроқларнинг кўплигидан, уларни санаб бўлмайди.

In such cases, the infinitive is translated into Uzbek with the help of word combinations or subordinate clauses. The use of infinitive instead of a subordinate clause makes the sentence shorter and unextended. One more thing that we often come across in newspaper articles is passive infinitive constructions: For ex: This case needs to be seen in it’s connection with disarmament – Бу ҳодисани қуролсизланиш билан боғлаб кўриб чиқиш зарур.

In most cases Infinitive is used in the function of an attribute for a noun. When the infinitive comes before the noun, it is usually written after the adverb. For ex: This never to be forgotten day – Бу унутилмас кун. The infinitive which comes after a noun denotes the action that will happen or may happen in the future.

The Past Participle: Participle II denotes not the action itself but the result, manner or quality of the action. Used frequently in newspapers, participle II forms absolute constructions. In these cases the inversion is often formed: Called Enamite the coating lasts between 3 and 5 years – Энамит деб аталмиш тиш қопламаси уч йилдан беш йилгача чидайди. Participle II form of intransitive verbs is rarely used alone, they usually come with prepositions: Arrived at this point the delegation halted – манзилга етиб делегатлар тўхташди. Such kind of Participle is used in elliptical constructions: When asked Sandi B Buhr declared … - Ундан сўрашганда, Санди Б. Бурдеди.

Modal verbs: The least used form of modality is “to be to + infinitive” construction. This construction denotes the necessity and purpose of realization of the action that had arranged beforehand: The propaganda campaign is to intimidate people – Тарғибот ишлари одамларни қўрқитишни ўз олдига мақсад қилиб қўйган. The document is to go before the executive – ҳужжат қўмита тамонидан кўриб чиқилиши зарур. The construction “to be + infinitive” in the conditional clauses has a special peculiarity. In such case “to be + infinitive” denotes the meaning of intention and wish: If the Labour Party is to draw the right conclusion from the General Election defeat, it will have to go deep into the conflict between the interests of the workers and the employers – Агар Лейбористлар партияси умумий сайловдаги мағлубиятдан тегишли хулоса чиқармоқчи бўлса, у ишчилар ва иш берувчилар ўртасидаги келишмовчиликлар сабабларини чуқурроқ излашлари керак.

Prepositions and conjunctions: These conjunctive words arouse special interest. We can not say that they get completely different meaning in newspaper style, but in certain constructions some prepositions express particular meaning: before: The document is to go before the executives – (ўзида чуқурроқ маънони мужассамлаштирган бу предлог ёрдамида хужжат ижроия қўмитасига кўриб чиқишга берилиши хабар қилинади.).

Preposition “For” also used mostly in the second meaning: a candidate for the district - округдан номзод, prosprеt for detente – вазият юмшашига умид.

Preposition “On” denotes different meanings in newspaper texts: Position on detente – вазият юмшашига нисбатан қараш, suggestion on disarmament – қуролсизланиш ҳақида таклиф.

While translating conjunctions we shouldn’t forget their polysemantic character: Preposition “While” denotes not only “time” but it also comes in the function of concessive clause conjunction: The civil rights groups complained that while racial segregation was illegal in New York, it existed in fact – ижтимоий ҳуқуқлар учун курашувчи гурухлар Нью Йоркда ирқий тенгсизлик ноқонуний деб эълон қилса-да, аслида у мавжуд.

Preposition “Once” is not only conjunction of time but also conditional conjunction: We are confident peace can be maintained once the determination is there – Биз аминмизки, агар қаътий бўлсак, тинчликни сақлай оламиз.

Translation peculiarities of newspaper headlines

Headlines are the titles given to a news item or a newspaper/magazine article and the most important constitutive part of the newspaper texts and a means of effect. It attracts readers’ attention to the most important and interesting parts of newspaper article. In many cases the main point of the article isn’t clarified and headlines try to introduce the reader with the given information.

The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about. Sometimes headlines contain elements of appraisal, they show the reporter’s or the paper’s attitude to the facts reported. English headlines are short and catching, they compact the gist of news stories into a few eye-snaring words. A skilfully turned out headline tells a story, or enough of it, to arouse or satisfy the reader’s curiosity, (George C. Bastian, 1956. Editing the Day’s News. N.Y.)

Newspaper headlines often follow rather different grammatical rules from other kinds of writing.

a) Headlines are not always complete sentences. MORE EARTHQUAKE DEATHS. b) Headlines often contain strings of three, four or more nouns. FURNITURE

FACTORY PAY CUT RIOT. In expressions like this, all the nouns except the last one act as adjectives. The easiest way to understand headlines of this kind is to read them backwards. FURNITURE FACTORY PAY CUT RIOT refers to a RIOT about a CUT in PAY for the workers in a FACTORY that makes FURNITURE.

We can see the lexico-grammatical peculiarities and ways of translating of headlines in the following examples:

1. Articles and the verb to be are often left out in order to draw readers’ attention to the main meaning of the information:. Action is expressed by Indefinite or Continuous tense forms: (The) Uzbek Athlete (is) Winning (a) Prize. Ўзбек спортчтси мусобақа ғолиби. Houses (are) Smashed by (the) Hurricane. Тўфон оқибатида уйлар шкастланди.

Shakespeare play immoral, says headmaster. Sentences with articles omitted, e.g.. Frogman finds Girl in River (Daily Worker), Staff Join Teach-in by Bristol Students (The Observer).

d Newspaper headlines have a special tense-system. It is unusual to find complex forms like is coming от has produced; generally the simple present form (comes, produces) is used, whether the head­line is about something that has happened, something that is hap­pening, or something that happens repeatedly. BRITAIN SENDS FOOD TO FAMINE VICTIMS STUDENTS FIGHT FOR COURSE CHANGES FAT BABIES CRY LESS, SAYS DOCTOR

Sometimes the present progressive tense is used (usually to describe something that is changing or developing), but the auxiliary verb ((5, are) is usually left out.


2. The information about the recent happenings is given in the Present Indefinite tense. This case brings the reader closer to the event or happening, and increases their interest: Influenza Kills 200 in India. Ҳиндистонда грипп оқибатида 200 киши қурбон бўлди.

3. Actions that denote future meaning is expressed by Infinitive. That is, to refer to the future, headlines often use the infinitive. (This is really a contracted form of the “be + infinitive” construction): Factory Workers to Resume Work. Завод ишчилари иш соатини қисқартииш тараддудида. QUEEN TO VISIT SAMOA PM TO ANNOUNCE CABINET CHANGES ON TUESDAY

Passive sentences are constructed with no auxiliary verb, just the past participle. MAN HELD BY POLICE IN MURDER HUNT (= A man is being held…) NUNS KILLED IN EXPLOSION

Headlines like these are sometimes easy to misunderstand. For instance, BLACK TEENAGERS ATTACKED IN RACE RIOT means that the teenagers were attacked, not that they attacked somebody. If the black teenagers did the attacking, the headline would probably use the simple present tense (BLACK TEEN­AGERS ATTACK . . .).

4. If the predicate has no importance, in that case it is omitted from the headline: Hurricane in Miami. Майамида тўфон. Oil in Shortage. Нефть заҳиралари камаймоқда.

5. Sometimes the subject is omitted if the predicate is more important than it, in order to pay greater attention to the predicate and also to interest the reader: (They) Expect New Economic Depression. Янги иқтисодий таназзул кутилмоқда.

6. According to its structure the possessive case is used with non-living nouns and it четлаштиради the noun with the preposition “of” from the sentences:

Price Control’s Discussion. Нарх назорати мухoкaмада.

7. Instead of names and surnames of political figures their well-known abbreviated names or nicknames are used: Winnie = Winston Churchill. Уинстон Черчил

Arni = Arnold Scharsnegr. Арнольд Швацнегр

8. In order to give emotional colouring some neologisms, dialectal and poetic words and slangs are used in headlines: Cop – in place of Policeman. Коплар полиция нозирлари.

9. Abbreviated nouns are used a lot in headlines: Usually they are expressed by letter-abbreviations and in many cases their meaning clarified in the text: I.H.M Got Help.

Injured by Hurricane in Minnesota received help of the Government.

Минисота штатида тўфондан зарар кўрганларга ҳукумат ёрдам қўлини чўзмоқда.

10. Sometimes the elements of stylistic colourfulness are used: Bush Rises his Eyebrows.

Буш лолу-ҳайрон. American President on Fire. Америка президенти ташвишда.
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