Lesson 1 Theme : Oriental contribution Ex1 Read the text and match the passages and their subtitles

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Lesson 1

Theme : Oriental contribution

Ex1 Read the text and match the passages and their subtitles.

1. Architecture 4. Mathematics 7.Astronomy

2. Horticulture 5.Science 8.Medicine

3 .Philosophy 6. Geography

The years between the seventh and thirteenth centuries mark a period in history when culture and learning flourished by new discoveries made in the sciences and arts which improved the life and condition of Man, and thousands of oriental contributions have become an integral part of human civilization.

a. The Arabic shifr, or zero, provided new solutions for complicated mathematical problems. The Arabic numeral - an improvement on the original Hindu concept - and the Arab decimal system facilitated the course of science. Al-Khwarizmi, credited with the founding of algebra, was inspired by the need to find a more accurate and comprehensive method of ensuring precise land divisions so that the Koran could be carefully obeyed in the laws of inheritance. 4. Mathematics

b. Al-Biruni, considered one of the greatest scientists of all time, discussed the possibility of the Earth rotation on its own axis - a theory proven by Galileo six centuries later. East astronomers such as al-Fezari, al-Farghani, and al-Zarqali added to the works of Ptolemy and the classic pioneers in the development of the magnetic compass and the charting of the zodiac. 7. Astronomy

c. The famous scientist-philosopher known in Europe as Avicenna was Ibn Sina and his Canon was required reading throughout Europe until the seventeenth century. Avicenna did pioneer work in mental health, and was a forerunner of today‘s psychotherapists. He believed that some illnesses were psychosomatic, and he sometimes led patients back to a recollection of an incident buried in the subconscious in order to explain the present ailment. 8.Medicine

d.Startling remnants of Arab architecture are particularly prevalent in Uzbekistan. The brilliant blue tiled dome of the Mosque of Bibi Khanum, Temur‘s (Tamerlane) favorite wife, catches the visitors eye in Samarkand. Here, as well as in the complex of tombs called Shah-I-Zinda (the Living Prince), much of the old beauty is being returned to its former elegance through restoration 1. Architecture

e. Al-Idrisi, a twelfth century scientist living in Sicily was commissioned by the Norman King, Roger II, to compile a world atlas, which contained seventy maps. Some of the areas were therefore uncharted.Called Kitabal-Rujari (Roger‘s book), Idrisi‘s work was considered the best geographical guide of its time. 6. Geography

f. The ancient oriental people were pioneers in botany. In the twelfth century an outstanding reference work, Al-Filahat by Ibn al-Awam, described more than five hundred different plants and methods of grafting, soil conditioning, and curing of diseased vines and trees. 2. Horticulture

g. Al-Haytham (known in Europe as Alhazen) wrote a book in the tenth century on optics, Kitab A1 Manazir. He explored optical illusions, the rainbow, and the camera obscura (which led to the beginning of photographic instruments). He also made discoveries in atmospheric refractions (mirages and comets, for example), studied the eclipse, and laid the foundation for the later development of the microscope and the telescope. 5.Science

h. Among the well-known philosophers of the medieval world were al-Kindi, who contributed to the work of Plato and Aristotle; al-Farabi, who made a model of Man‘s community; Avicenna (Ibn Sina), who developed theories on form and matter that were incorporated into medieval Christian Scholasticism; Ibn Khaldun, who expounded the cycles of a state in his Muqqadimah (Introduction). 3 .Philosophy

Ex 2. Find the meanings of reporting verbs

Argue - Give reasons or cite evidence in support of an idea, action, or theory, typically with the aim of persuading others to share one's view – спорить

assert - State a fact or belief confidently and forcefully – утверждать

assume - Suppose to be the case, without proof - предполагать

challenge - A call to someone to participate in a competitive situation or fight to decide who is superior in terms of ability or strength) - бросать вызов

claim - State or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof - требовать

contend - to compete in order to win something or to achieve a position of leadership- спорить

establish - to start having a relationship with, or communicating with another personcompanycountry, or organizationустановить , учреждать

object - to feel or express opposition to or dislike of something or someone –возражать

recommend - to suggest that someone or something would be good оr suitable for a particular job or purpose, or to suggest that a particular action should be done -рекомендовать

contradict - (of people) to say the opposite of what someone else has said, or (of one fact or statement) to be so different from another fact or statement that one of them must be wrong - отрицать

examine - to look at or consider a person or thing carefully and in detail in order to discover something about them – рассматривать, исследовать

persuade - to cause people to do or believe something, esp. by explaining why they should - убеждать

maintain to continue to have; to keep in existence, or not allow to become less - сохранять

Ex 3. Rewrite the sentences using above listed reporting verbs as give in the sample.

1. Oriental inventors have created numerous things we take for granted in our daily lives.

eg. Oriental inventors are claimed to have created numerous things we take for granted in our daily lives.

2. Ulugbek, a famous astronomer, compiled tables of sines and tangents, accurate to eight decimal places.

A famous astronomer Ulugbek wrote accurate trigonometric tables of sines and tangents values correct to at least eight decimal places

3. In 860, the three sons of Musa ibn Shakir published the Book on Artifices, which described a hundred of technical constructions.

In 860, the three sons of Musa ibn Shakir published the Book on Artifices which described a hundred technical constructions.

4. Oriental horticulture gave the world the fragrant flowers and herbs from which perfumes were extracted.

5. In the fifteenth century Vasco da Gama, exploring the east coast of Africa, new Malindi, was guided by an oriental pilot, Ahmed ibn Majid who used maps never seen by Europeans before.

In the fifteenth century Vasco da Gama, exploring the east coast of Africa, new Malindi. New Malindi was guided by an oriental pilot, Ahmed ibn Majid who used maps never seen by Europeans before.

Ex 4. Write information about any invention and its inventor .

The Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi (1896) is traditionally considered the creator of the first successful system for exchanging information using radio waves (radiotelegraphy). However, Marconi, like most of the authors of major inventions, had predecessors. In Russia, A.S. Popov, who created a practical radio receiver in 1895. In the United States, this is considered Nikola Tesla, who patented a radio transmitter in 1893 and a receiver in 1895; his priority over Marconi was recognized in court in 1943. In France, the inventor of the coherer (1890), Edouard Branly, has long been considered the inventor of wireless telegraphy. The first inventor of methods for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic waves (which for a long time were called "Hertzian Waves") is their discoverer, the German scientist Heinrich Hertz (1888).

Principle of operation

Transmission occurs as follows: a signal with the required characteristics (frequency and amplitude of the signal) is generated on the transmitting side. The transmitted signal then modulates a higher frequency waveform (carrier). The received modulated signal is emitted by the antenna into space. On the receiving side, radio waves induce a modulated signal in the antenna, after which it is demodulated (detected) and filtered by a low-pass filter (thereby getting rid of the high-frequency component - the carrier). Thus, a useful signal is extracted.

Propagation of radio waves

Radio waves travel through void and atmosphere; earthly solid and water are opaque for them. However, due to the effects of diffraction and reflection, communication is possible between points on the earth's surface that do not have a line of sight (in particular, those located at a great distance).
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