Lesson 4 Principle Wine Regions of the World a unique gift from nature and the earth’s geology


Soils: Very mixed for separate regions, some special soils include the Terra Rossa of Connawarra


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Soils: Very mixed for separate regions, some special soils include the Terra Rossa of Connawarra.

  • Grape Varieties: Although there are about 90 different grape varieties planted commercially in Australia the main grape varieties grown are White: Semillion, Riesling, Chardonnay, Muscat Gordo Blanco, Sauvignon Blanc, Colombard, Verdelho. Black: Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Ruby Cabernet, Grenache, Mataro (Mourvedre), Cabernet Franc.

  • Geographical Indications (GI): created in 1993 ‘to determine geographical indications for wine in relation to regions and localities in Australia’. The GI is part of Label Integrity Program to ensure the validity of the information on the bottle label.

  • Local labelling and legal requirements: If regions, varieties or vintages are stated, then 85 per cent of the wine in the bottle must come from those regions, varieties or vintages.

  • Major Australian Regions

  • New South Wales (Hunter Valley, Central Ranges Zone, Big Rivers Zone)

  • Victoria (Western Victoria Zone, North-West Victoria Zone, North-East Victoria, Port Phillip Zone)

  • South Australia (Limestone Coast Zone, Mount Lofty Ranges Zone, Lower Murray Zone, Barossa Zone, Eden Valley region, Fleurieu Peninsular Zone,

  • Western Australia (Greater Perth Zone, South-West Australia Zone), Tasmania.

  • Major Wines

  • Hunter Valley Semillon, Barossa Shiraz, Connawarra Cabernet Sauvignon, Clare and Eden Valley Rieslings,

  • Adelaide Hills Chardonnay, Yarra Valley Pinot Noir, Margaret River Cabernet Sauvignon, Margaret River Chardonnay,

  • Rutherglen Liqueur Muscat.



  • Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.3 Austria

    • Much of the Austrian wine is consumed locally while Germany is it’s biggest export market. Nno country in Europe has

    • changed its attitudes and upgraded its standards so much in the past decade as Austria.

    • Austrian Wine Laws

    • Completely revamped and introduced in 1993, the classification system for the Austrian wine is similar to that of Germany,

    • for example chaptalisation is forbidden for quality wines and the wine label information is also similar for both countries.

    • Classification system for Austrian quality wines.

    • Trockenbeernaulese (top level)

    • Eiswein

    • Ausbruch

    • Beerauslese

    • Auslese

    • Strohwein or Shilfwein.

    • Austrian Vineyards and Grape Varieties

    • The vineyards are mainly concentrated to the east of Austria, 85% of the wines are white and dry made from the

    • indigenous ‘Gruner Veltliner’ (broad variety of flavours) and other varieties, including the noble Riesling (grown for the

    • quality wines giving dry full bodied wines with ripe peachy fruits), Welschriesling (susceptible to noble rot, produces

    • excellent sweet wines in southern Austria),

    • Major Austrian Regions and Wines

    • Austria is split into four regions, these regions are the most important for the international markets (listed below), which are called Weinbauregion, which in turn are split into Weinbaugebiete and districts Grosslage.

    • Niederosterreich Lower Austria: Key wines: Wachau, Kamptal, Kremstal using Gruner Veltliner or Riesling and Weinvieretel DAC using Gruner Vertliner.

    • Burgenland: Key wines: BA, TBA, Eisewein using various GV and Burgenland reds using Blaufrankisch, cuvees. Burgenland lies to the east of Austria on the Hungarian border and produces outstanding sweet wines.



    Lesson 4: Principle Wine Regions of the World 4.4 Bulgaria

    • Bulgaria

    • Large amount of money invested in recent years Bulgaria’s winemakers are now producing quality wines. Wine Act of 1978 classified its wines as follows;

    • Standard wines: bottom level, light wines drank locally, Special wines: covers sparkling, liqueur and fruit wines.

    • High quality wines geographical origin: wines from unspecified region sold under a brand name, the lowest export standard.

    • High quality wines with declared geographical origin (DGO): states the grape variety and region for example ‘Russe Welschriesling’ Russe being the producing region. Two varieties are blended to make an original taste.

    • Controliran: similar to AC in France, limited mainly to single varieties, the word Controliran will appear on the label, label will state the specified region and specified grape variety, this wine will be tasted by a professional panel.

    • Reserve: this word which only appears on the label on a DGO or Controliran wine and indicates that these wines have been aged in oak for 3-4 years. Special Reserve: limited lots, these wines are the countries best.

    • Bulgarian major wines / grape varieties and wine regions

    • For administrative reasons the country is split into five regions; Black Sea Region, Danube Plain Region, Thracian

    • Valley Region (East and West) and the Struma Valley Region. Of the international red varieties Cabernet Sauvignon wines

    • from Bulgaria was always the major export favourite Merlot and local varieties Mavrud, Melnik, Pamid and Gamza. The



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