Madigan Home Tour and Solar Energy Seminar By David W. Madigan, P. E


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Madigan Home Tour and Solar Energy Seminar

  • By David W. Madigan, P.E.


Why Renewable Energy?

  • USA uses an Inordinately High Share of Energy on a Per Capita Basis

    • USA uses 40% of World-wide Energy Flows and Generates 33% of CO2 and Associated Pollutants World-wide
    • Buildings use 1/3 of Total US Energy and 2/3 of Electricity
    • World-wide Fossil Fuel Reserves are Being Depleted at an Alarmingly Increasing Rate




Conservation vs. Generation

  • Conservation preferable over Renewable energy

    • Usually Better Economics
    • Even Renewable Energy has Environmental Consequences
    • Conservation Measures Result in Reduction of Usage and Peak Loads
  • Conservation and Renewable Energy Complement One Another

    • Renewable Energy Capital Intensive
    • Conservation Reduces Capital Investment by Limiting Peak Loads
  • Implement Renewable Energy Systems after Making Maximum use of Conservation Options – Sustainable Design Process



Solar Energy

  • Solar Energy is the Basis for Essentially all Renewable Energy Sources

  • Solar Energy Incident On Earth Annually:

    • 160 Times the World’s Proven Resources of Fossil Fuels
    • 15,000 Times the World’s Annual Use of Energy
  • Solar Energy can be used Directly: (solar thermal, photovoltaics, daylighting) or Indirectly: (wind, geothermal, biomass)





Solar Energy

  • Sun is a High Temperature “Radiator” (6000°C)

  • Earth is a Low Temperature “Receiver”

  • Solar Energy is Received as Short Wavelength Radiation

  • Atmosphere Acts like Glass on a Solar Collector



Solar Energy

  • Incident Solar Energy Varies Based on:

    • Length of Travel Through Atmosphere
      • Latitude, Seasons
    • Atmospheric Clarity
      • Cloud Cover, Pollution
    • Time of Day
    • Angle and Orientation of Collector Surface
  • Sun Angle Highest in Summer (73.5°) and Lowest in Winter (26.6°) (at 12:00 pm, 40° lat.)



Seasonal Solar Angles



Solar Energy

  • Direct & Diffuse Radiation

    • Beam Radiation from Sun Scattered when Penetrating Atmosphere
    • Flat Plate Collectors, Passive Solar & Daylighting Makes Use of Both Direct & Diffuse Radiation
    • Concentrating Collectors use Primarily Beam Radiation
    • Ratio of Beam to Diffuse Varies by Local Climate
      • Cloudier Climates ~ 50% beam / 50% diffuse
      • Clear Climates ~ 80% beam / 20% diffuse


Solar Thermal Energy

  • Active Solar Heating

  • Passive Solar Heating

  • Solar Thermal Engines

  • Daylighting



Solar Thermal Collectors

  • Dark Surface with High Absorptance Gathers Full Spectrum of Solar Radiation

  • Heat is Drawn Away by Working Fluid – Usually Glycol / Water

  • Glass and/or Selective Surface Used to Minimize Conduction and Re-radiation Losses

  • Efficiency Dependant on Collector Design and Working Temperature



Collector Types



Collector Efficiency



Active Solar Thermal Systems

  • Domestic Hot Water Heating

  • Pool Heating

  • Space Heating

  • Make-up Air Preheat

  • Thermal Based Cooling



Domestic Hot Water

  • Low Temperature Operation Allows High Collector Efficiency, Year Round Loads

  • Storage Requirements Dependent on Use Profile

  • Back-up Heating Required – Inexpensive

  • Typical Residential System: 70-100 SF Collector, 80-150 gal. Storage

  • Consider Freeze Protection and Over Collection Issues



Pool Heating

  • Highest Operating Efficiency

  • Applicable for Indoor or Outdoor Pools

  • Consistent Year Round Loads for Indoor Pools

  • Outdoor Pools – Inexpensive Unglazed Collectors

  • Indoor Pools – Need Higher Efficiency Collectors for Winter Operation

  • No Heat Exchanger Required for Outdoor Pools



Space Heating

  • Lowest Solar Resource and Collector Efficiency at Time of Highest Loads – Daily & Annually

  • Need High Efficiency Collectors

  • Good Application with Low Temp Radiant Heating

  • Couple with Passive Solar

  • Storage Required to Offset Nighttime Loads

  • High Efficiency Envelope Design Minimizes Heat Loads / System Sizing

  • Can be Coupled with Summer Thermal Air Conditioning



Thermal Based Cooling

  • Peak Loads Coincide with Maximum Solar Resource – Annually and Daily

  • Provides Fairly Consistent Year Round Load when Coupled with Space Heating

  • Requires High Temperature Solar System Operation

  • Thermal Based Cooling Equipment – Expensive and Inefficient (COP ~ .6 – 1.0)

  • PV / GSHP may be Preferable



Daylighting

  • Solar Resource Used to Offset Highest Cost Electricity

  • Technology Well Developed

  • Allows Reduced Cooling Loads Also

  • Can Help to Downsize HVAC Systems

  • Glazing Optimization by Exposure

  • Need to Control Excess Solar Heat Gain

  • Best Implemented as Part of an Integrated Design Process

  • Can Be Highly Cost Effective

  • Improves Indoor Environment

  • Can Combine with PV Technology & Passive Solar Design



Photovoltaic (Solar Energy) Systems

    • Electricity Production Directly From Sunlight
    • Utilizes Photon Energy in Sunlight to Promote Electrical Current Flow
    • Relies on Semi-Conductor Effects in Specialized Materials
    • DC Power Output from Panels
    • Extensive Development of New Technologies & Products Underway


Types of PV Modules



Crystalline vs. Thin Films

  • Crystalline PV Modules

  • Output: 10-15 watts/SF

  • Efficiency: 12% - 18%

  • Color: blue / black

  • Module sizes: 5 watts – 300 watts

  • Reduced efficiency under hot conditions

  • Longer track record in field



Solar: Big Company Players

  • Shell Oil – Solar subsidiary

  • Kyocera

  • Sharp

  • Sanyo Electric

  • BP Oil – Solar subsidiary

  • AstroPower (Division of GE Power)

  • Sunpower

  • Lots of New Players & Development Underway



PV System Elements

    • PV Panels
    • Mounting System
    • Electrical Interconnection
    • Voltage Regulation Device for Direct DC Load Application
    • DC-to-AC Inverter for Traditional AC Applications
    • Energy Storage System for Off-Grid and/or Emergency Back-up Applications
    • Additional Grid Interface | Components if Required by Local Utility


PV Components





Roof Mounted PV Systems

  • 2 kW Array

  • (16)120-watt Modules

  • Low-profile Mounting

  • Mounts Over Existing Roof

  • “Raised” to Allow Air Movement



BIPV Roofing Products

  • Installs Over Wood Batten System

  • Replaces Conventional Roofing

  • 12 Watt Modules

  • Venting Required for Air Movement



BIPV Roofing Products

  • Laminates on Standard Standing

  • 120 Watts per Panel (19’ length)

  • 6-8 Watts per SF



BIPV Roofing Products

  • ECD Thin Film Laminate

  • 2 kW Output

  • Grid Connect U-I System with Net Metering



Ground Mounted – Fixed Array



PV Energy Concepts

  • Performance Factor Considerations

    • Perpendicular Solar Incidence will Yield Highest Output
    • Solar Array Tilt Selection can Optimize Seasonal Performance
    • Tilt 20º - 50º may Optimize Year Round Performance
    • Colder Ambient Temperatures will Increase Efficiency
    • Shading Effects of Collector Arrangements and Adjacent Buildings will Reduce Output
    • Tree Shading Effects may not be Excessive if Deciduous Trees are Involved, Analysis Required.


PV Energy Concepts

  • Site Performance Estimates



PV Energy Concepts

  • System Cost Breakdown

    • PV Panels ~ 55 - 60%
    • Inverter & Electrical Components ~ 20 - 30%
    • Labor ~ 15 - 20%
  • Typical System Cost $ / w 4 kW

    • Total Installed Cost $8-10/w $36,000
    • CCEF Rebate $5.50/w $20,000
    • Tax Refund $.50/w $2,000
    • Net Cost to Homeowner $3-4/w $14,000


Solar Thermal / PV Comparison



Solar Power Information

  • American Solar Energy Society, ases.org

  • Interstate Renewable Energy Council, irecusa.org

  • Million Solar Roofs, millionsolarroofs.com

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, nrel.gov

  • Solar Electric Power Association, solarelectricpower.org

  • Solar Energy Industry Association, seia.org

  • Institute for Sustainable Power, ispq.org

  • US Dept. of Energy Office of Renewable Energy, eren.doe.gov



Madigan Home

  • Passive Solar

  • Thermal Mass

  • Super Insulation

  • Natural / Mechanical Ventilation

  • Solar Thermal Domestic Hot Water / Hot Tub

  • Photovoltaic System

  • Wood Heating System

  • Bio-diesel Fuel Storage



Madigan Home

  • Orientation: 20º East of South

  • Dimensions: 60’x24’, Long E/W Axis

  • Extensive South Glazing

  • Limited N, E, W Glazing

  • Garage on North

  • Vertical Glazing Optimizes Winter / Summer Performance

  • Sunroom Direct Charging of Mass

  • Arbor for Summer Shading



Stress Skin Walls

  • Stress Skin Walls

  • 4” Polyurethane - R30

  • Roof and Attic

    • Attic: 18” Fiberglass – R60
    • Roof: 12” Fiberglass + 1 ½” ISO – R45
  • Foundation / Basement

    • Floor: 1” Polystyrene – R6
    • Foundation below grade: 2” Polystyrene – R12
    • Foundation above grade: 3” Polystyrene – R18
  • Windows

    • South Side: Double Glazed, Low-e, Argon – R3.5
    • Other Sides: Triple Glazed, Low-e, Argon – R5


Madigan Home

  • No Air Conditioning

  • Extensive Operable Window Area

  • Chimney Effect through Third Floor

  • Arbor & Overhangs for Shading

  • Thermal Mass Fly Wheel Effect

  • Nighttime Cooling via Whole House Fan

  • Ceiling Fans in Kitchen and Bedrooms



Madigan Home

  • Exterior Insulation of Basement Walls

  • Brick Walls Around Sunspace

  • Concrete / Slate Floor in Sunspace

  • Gravel Below Sunroom Floor

  • Massive Interior Fireplace



Madigan Home

  • 100 MBH Oil Fired Boiler (B-20 used)

  • Boiler Feeds Fan Coil Units, DHW Tank and Hot Tub

  • Vermont Castings Wood Stove

  • Recirculation from Woodstove or Solar Greenhouse

  • Air to Air Heat Exchanger

  • Dryer Recirculation into 2nd Floor Area

  • Oil use – About 300 gal/yr for Heating and DHW

  • 2 to 3 Cords of Wood



Madigan Home

  • 2/3 4’x10’ AET Collectors

  • 120 Gallon Insulated Storage Tank

  • Glycol / Drainback System

  • Drainback Tank in Attic

  • 95% DHW Load in Spring / Summer / Fall

  • Preheats DHW in Winter

  • Heats Hot Tub Also







Madigan Home

  • 330 Gallon Tank w/ Electric Pump

  • B-100 Used April through November

  • B-20 Used in Winter

  • Supplies a 4 person “Co-op”



Madigan Home

  • Install Third Solar Thermal Collector

  • Moveable Insulation on Larger Windows

  • Solar Air Heater on Living Room Wall

  • Reduce Infiltration

  • LED Lighting

  • Condensing Oil Boiler

  • Replace Refrigerator




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