Manufacturing efficiencies


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manufacturing efficiencies

  • manufacturing efficiencies

  • Tight money policies



homemade to factory made

  • homemade to factory made

  • typewriter

  • adding machine

  • telephone

  • telegraph

  • railroads





Expansion, post Civil War

  • Expansion, post Civil War

  • Bessemer process steel

  • Big names: Vanderbilt, Hill, Stanford, Harriman



Build with free enterprise AND gov. assistance such as:

  • Build with free enterprise AND gov. assistance such as:

          • Land grants
          • Financial assistance
  • Biggest Boost: Corporations with limited liability

          • risk only money invested; not liable for debts & problems
          • Provided a great money making opportunity


Standard time zones, track size

  • Standard time zones, track size

  • Standards established for moving goods

  • Tech advances

  • Transportation needs met for both transport of people and goods



1859 Edwin Drake successfully drilled for oil

  • 1859 Edwin Drake successfully drilled for oil

  • PA, IN TX

  • Cleveland- first great refining center





Worked his way up the “ladder”

  • Worked his way up the “ladder”

  • - A Real-Life Ragged Dick

  • Became a model for industry

  • The Theory of Social Darwinism

        • Discuss Gospel of Wealth
        • Discuss Progress & Poverty




  • Vertical Integration

      • Control of production from raw mmaterials to finished product
      • Carnegie (steel); Gustavus Swift (livestock/cattle)
  • Horizontal Integration

      • Control all of one stage of production




Wanted to control the world’s oil market, live to be 100

  • Wanted to control the world’s oil market, live to be 100

  • Established Standard Oil of Ohio – Cleveland’s leading oil company – with an eye on controlling the entire industry

  • By 1880 Standard Oil will control 95% of the oil market

  • Rockefeller believe he was just providing a service that the American people wanted/needed



1) Reap huge profits; re-invest; low pay for workers; undersell competition

  • 1) Reap huge profits; re-invest; low pay for workers; undersell competition

  • 3) Team up with the RR – cut overhead and costs – both benefit. Today highly illegal



A huge increase in immigration after the Civil War

  • A huge increase in immigration after the Civil War

      • Irish
      • Germans
      • Yiddish-Speaking Jews
      • Scandinavians (Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Finns
      • and even a few Icelanders and Faeroese)
      • Hungarians
      • Russians
      • Italians
      • Slavs
      • English


  • Bröder vi har långt att gå

  • Över salta vatten

  • Å så finns Amerika

  • Invid andra stranden

  • Inte är det möjlik

  • Ach jo det är så frödelik

  • Skada att Amerika

  • Skada att Amerika

  • Ligger skall så långt ifrån

  • Träden som på marken stå

  • Söter är som socker

  • Landet är av flickor fullt

  • Däjeliga docker!



Inte är det möjlik

  • Inte är det möjlik

  • Ak jo det är så frödelik

  • Skada att Amerika

  • Skada att Amerika

  • Ligger skall så långt ifrån

  • Solen den går aldrig ned

  • Släkt i var jag människa

  • Här är munterhet och sång

  • Källare full Champangje

  • Inte är det möjlik

  • Ak jo det är så frödelik

  • Skada att Amerika

  • Skada att Amerika

  • Ligger skall så långt ifrån



Workers came to alleviate labor shortage

  • Workers came to alleviate labor shortage

  • Workers slowly became prosperous



Aimed at increasing worker production in a more efficient manner based on the idea of standardization.

  • Aimed at increasing worker production in a more efficient manner based on the idea of standardization.

  • Brings about a reduction in specializations; thus making certain workers less valuable.



Long hours in dangerous conditions

  • Long hours in dangerous conditions

  • 12 hours a day 6 or 7 days a week

  • No workman’s compensation

  • No vacation time

  • No sick leave

  • No minimum wage



Knights of Labor-Terence Powderly

  • Knights of Labor-Terence Powderly

  • AF of L - Samuel Gompers

  • ARU- Eugene V. Debs

  • IWW (Wobblies)- Big Bill Haywood



The Great Railway Strike (1877)

  • The Great Railway Strike (1877)

  • The Haymarket Affair (1886)

  • The Homestead Strike (1892)

  • The Pullman Strike (1892)





Physical Changes to the City Landscape

  • Physical Changes to the City Landscape

  • Mass Transit

  • Paving

  • Sewers

  • Parks

  • City Services

  • Skyscrapers

  • Electricity and gas







Hamm Building (1915)

  • Hamm Building (1915)

  • 408 St. Peter St. St. Paul, MN





Middle class workers

  • Middle class workers

  • Middle class management

  • The move to the suburbs represented an advance in living standards – more light, air, quiet, freedom to move, flush toilets, privacy





Adrian “Cap” Anson

  • Adrian “Cap” Anson



Christopher Von der Ahe

  • Christopher Von der Ahe



Five Presidents between 1877-1893

  • Five Presidents between 1877-1893

      • Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881) - Republican
      • James Garfield (1881) – Republican -assassinated
      • Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885) -Republican
      • Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) -Democrat
      • Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) -Republican
  • Little difference between the parties, or factions within te parties



Patronage & Spoils System Reform

  • Patronage & Spoils System Reform

      • 1883 Pendleton Act
  • Regulation of Railroads

  • The Tariff



Economics of the 1890’s

  • Economics of the 1890’s

  • (Depression of 1893)

        • Farm foreclosures
        • Railroad bankruptcies
        • Stock market drop
        • Unemployment up
        • Farmers suffering in profits
  • Farmers needed organization & representation:

  • The Grange Movement & Farmer’s Alliances:



Labor Unions, which give a voice to workers, be allowed to exist.

  • Labor Unions, which give a voice to workers, be allowed to exist.

  • Transportation & Communication, owned by the government

  • Land, should be cheap

  • Banks owned by the government

  • Australian Ballot

  • 16-1 ratio of Silver to Gold in currency

  • Graduated Income Tax

  • Direct Election of Senators



  • William Jennings Bryan (D)

  • -supported bimetallism

  • -Was supported by Populism

  • Delivered “cross of gold speech”

  • Rep. called him radical, revolutionary, and anarchistic



Dorothy- Everyman – Everyman

  • Dorothy- Everyman – Everyman

  • Uncle Henry & Auntie Em –

  • Lonely independent Homesteaders

  • Hard working, little reward, everything is grey

  • Wicked Witch of the West- the Railroads

  • Wicked Witch of the East-the Banks



Munchkins- Factory “slaves” to the big business- remember the Wicked Witch of the East had cast a spell on them making the Munchkins her subjects. Or the Indians?

  • Munchkins- Factory “slaves” to the big business- remember the Wicked Witch of the East had cast a spell on them making the Munchkins her subjects. Or the Indians?

  • Tin Woodman- Industrial worker who lost economic independence because of factories

  • .

  • Scarecrow-Farmers

  • Lion- Bryan



Wizard of Oz – any POTUS from Grant to McKinley - comes in

  • Wizard of Oz – any POTUS from Grant to McKinley - comes in

  • various forms but essentially does the same thing- nothing but smoke.

  • Yellow Brick Road- the Gold standard

  • Silver slippers (in the book they were silver) bimetallism

  • Flying Monkeys – Pinkertons

  • Emerald City- Big Cities specifically Washington D.C.




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