Methanol ch3oh ethanol C2H5OH


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  • Methanol CH3OH

  • Ethanol C2H5OH

  • Propan-1-ol C3H7OH

  • Propan-2-ol C3H7OH

  • Butan-1-ol C4H9OH

  • Butan-2-ol C4H9OH















Primary alcohol: contains one carbon atom directly attached to the carbon that contains the hydroxyl group, e.g. propan-1-ol

  • Primary alcohol: contains one carbon atom directly attached to the carbon that contains the hydroxyl group, e.g. propan-1-ol



2. Secondary alcohol: contains two carbon atoms directly attached to the carbon that contains the hydroxyl group, e.g. propan-2-ol

  • 2. Secondary alcohol: contains two carbon atoms directly attached to the carbon that contains the hydroxyl group, e.g. propan-2-ol



Physical state: Liquid



Solubility of methanol in

  • Solubility of methanol in

  • (i) cyclohexane – not very soluble methanol is polar cyclohexane is not

  • (ii) water - completely soluble because it is polar.

  • As alcohol molecule gets bigger the polar part becomes less significant so the alcohol becomes less soluble in water and more soluble in cyclohexane



Butan-1-ol is

  • Butan-1-ol is

        • (i) soluble in cyclohexane
        • (ii) not very soluble in water
  • The polar OH group is becoming less significant as the molecule gets bigger



Both have polar OH groups

  • Both have polar OH groups

  • Alcohols have a non-polar part

  • Both form hydrogen bonds between their molecules

  • Water is more polar and has a greater capacity to form hydrogen bonds and so has a higher boiling point than methanol or ethanol



Methanol: is toxic (can cause blindness, insanity and death)

  • Methanol: is toxic (can cause blindness, insanity and death)

  • It is added to industrial alcohol to prevent people drinking it. This mixture is called methylated spirits.

  • The methanol acts as a denaturing agent – it renders a substance unfit for purpose without destroying the usefulness or applications of the substance. A purple dye is often added as a warning.



Ethanol: is produced by fermentation. Fruits provide the sugar and yeast may need to be added.

  • Ethanol: is produced by fermentation. Fruits provide the sugar and yeast may need to be added.

  • The enzyme zymase in yeast catalyses the reaction.

  • C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2





To produce drinks of higher alcohol concentration the fermented liquids must be distilled.

  • To produce drinks of higher alcohol concentration the fermented liquids must be distilled.

  • Spirits (whiskey, brandy, gin, vodka) contain 40% alcohol.



Ethanol obtained from sugar cane is used for making gasohol in Brazil. This is then used as a fuel.

  • Ethanol obtained from sugar cane is used for making gasohol in Brazil. This is then used as a fuel.



Alcoholic drinks

  • Alcoholic drinks

  • Fuel

  • Solvent (can dissolve both polar and non-polar solutes)




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