Methodological typology of grammar content Introduction

The concept of grammatical structure and grammatical meaning

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1.2 The concept of grammatical structure and grammatical meaning
It is known that Penny Ur [18], reveals grammatical structure as a specific example of grammar. An example of a grammatical structure would be: Past tense , the comparison of adjectives , nouns plugins (past tense, degrees of comparison of adjectives, plural nouns) and so on. Not all languages, of course, have the same structures: the English verb has aspects such as being used in the progressive : ( she is going ) that many other languages don't have; in German, for example, there are masculine, feminine, and neuter genders that are not found in English. All these discrepancies cause a lot of problems for students, although how severe these problems will be is quite difficult to predict, even if you are familiar with the native language of the students. Sometimes structures that seem strange at first glance are surprisingly easy to master, and vice versa. According to Penny Ur [18], grammar affects not only how units of a language fit together to be correct, but also their grammatical meaning. The teaching of grammatical meaning is neglected in many textbooks on a foreign language, attention is paid only to the correctness of the grammatical structure. It is necessary not only to know and understand, for example, the tenses of verbs, but also to know what difference in meaning is formed when using the same tense in different situations. Students of a foreign language very often have difficulties in learning the grammatical meaning of certain grammatical structures.
The meaning of grammatical structures is very difficult to learn.
1.3 The place of grammar in teaching a foreign language
Rennu Ur [18] writes: “The place of grammar in the study of a foreign language is debatable. Most people agree that knowledge of a language is, first of all, knowledge of grammar, but this knowledge can be intuitive (if it is our native language) and it is not at all necessary to learn its structures and forms.Pennu Ur [18] believes that "... the student may find with more pleasure the desired formulations in textbooks than in class discussions ..." (see Appendix 1) Here the author says that it is best to learn grammar individually and independently than in a class. Interestingly, the author does not give reasons why grammar learning happens better outside of the classroom. Penny Ur [18]: “Obviously, a new language is imprinted in the minds of students as a pattern over long communicative use, which foreign language teachers see as a dual process of acquisition and learning. Grammar, seen as a journey through discoveries in language patterns, has shed the label of a strange word. Penny Ur [18] says: “Here the author tries to convince of the usefulness of grammar for effective language learning. He also talks about how grammar can be interesting on its own, as opposed to the traditional understanding of grammar, which is described as something weird. Penny Ur agrees with this point of view, although not all students will be able to find grammar as such an interesting aspect in learning a language. In 1622 Joseph Webb , [17] an educator and author of many books, wrote: "No man can learn a language that is constrained by ... grammatical constructions." He argued that grammar can be learned through simple communication - "Exercises in reading, writing and speaking, that is, all grammatical rules and constructions will be involuntarily remembered by us" (see Appendix 2). Joseph Webb was one of the first teachers to address the value of grammar instruction, but certainly not the last. In fact, no other topic has attracted as many theorists and practitioners as the grammatical question. The history of language teaching is, in essence, the history of the struggle "For" and "Against" the teaching of grammar. Differences in attitudes towards the role of grammar are reinforced by differences in teaching methods, teachers and students. There are a huge number of opinions, and these opinions often do not compromise. Here are some of them (see Appendix 3):
"There is no doubt that the knowledge of grammar rules is necessary for mastering the language" ( Penny Ur );
"The effect of teaching grammar is secondary and weak" ( Stephen Krashen );
“A deep knowledge of grammar is essential for children who are going to use English creatively” ( Tom Hutchinson );
“Grammar is not very important. Most languages have very complex grammar. English, on the other hand, contains little grammar and therefore it is not very important to understand it ”(From the publications of the London Language School). Scott's monograph Thornbury How _ to teach grammar " ( Longman , 1999), examines the arguments for putting grammar at the forefront of foreign language learning. Here are five of them:
Argument for the construction of a sentence.
The study of language units, such as words and phrases, should be part of the language learning process. But there is a limit to the units that a person can store in memory and reproduce. Even the traveller's phrase book is limited in its usefulness for a three week holiday, and the question arises that we need to learn certain models and rules in order to produce new proposals. Thus, grammar provides, satisfies the student's need for the production of new sentences. The number of sentences is limited only by the vocabulary . Grammar is a way of creating sentences.
Semantic argument
The purpose of grammar is to more accurately understand the meaning of a particular
a different phrase.
Argument of independent language learning.
It is possible that a highly motivated student, especially one gifted in language, can achieve the required level, i.e. skill, without any formal education. But most often the skill is developed only when the student is accompanied. Research shows that students who are not accompanied in language acquisition often get lost. This does not mean at all that it is necessary to use formal lessons - the student, in principle, can learn the language himself. Here is an example from the autobiographical novel Christopher Isherwood " Christopher " and his Kind ": Humphrey suddenly said, “Your German is excellent . Tell me. Why don't you use the subjunctive?" Christopher had to admit that he didn't know how to construct such a sentence. While he was learning German, he dropped the subjunctive from the syllabus to deal with it later. Then it didn't matter at all. By that time, he could jump over his tongue like a nimble boy on one leg. But now Christopher has made himself a master, in the subjunctive mood. Soon he said this: "I would never ask myself what I would do if they were ...", etc., etc. Humphrey was very surprised "
Argument of grammatical units Scott Thornbury : "Language, when viewed from the side, seems like a giant, shapeless mass, presenting a huge problem for students" [17] (see Appendix 4). Grammar is a huge block of rules. By arranging the language and organizing it into categories (sometimes called units of grammar), grammarians make the language adaptable for learners. A unit of grammar is any part of a grammar system that narrowly enough defines the form, focus of a lesson or exercise, for example : The present Continuous , the definite article , possessive pronouns , verbs or sentences... These units can be broken down into subcategories.
Rule Grammar is a system of learned rules. This gives it the property of transferring knowledge in the form of rules and laws. The transfer of knowledge in the form of rules is essential in universities and in classrooms with difficult children. From the above arguments, we can conclude that the process of learning and learning grammar is a very complex process. For the effective study of grammar, first of all, it is necessary to form a grammatical skill.

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