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The procedure generally employed for the purposes of segmenting words into the constituent morphemes is the method of Immediate and Ultimate Constituents. This method is based on a binary principle, i.e. each stage of the procedure involves two components the word immediately breaks into. At each stage these two components are referred to as the Immediate Constituents (ICs). Each IC at the next stage of analysis is in turn broken into two smaller meaningful elements. The analysis is completed when we arrive at constituents incapable of further division, i.e. morphemes. In terms of the method employed these are referred to as the Ultimate Constituents (UCs). For example the noun friendliness is first segmented into the IC friendly recurring in the adjectives friendly-looking and friendly and the -ness found in a countless number of nouns, such as happiness, darkness, unselfishness, etc
Teaching your students vocabulary words that come from the books they're reading for class is a great way to combine literature and vocabulary study. This can be as simple as collecting a list of words from each chapter and asking your students to define them. However, your students may not retain the words for any length of time unless they practice them and demonstrate that they understand their meanings. Try this:List the words you want your students to learn and include the page numbers on which these words can be found. Ask your students to read the passages that surround the words and write their own definitions of each word based on how it's used in the passage Have them consult a dictionary when they're finished to determine how close their definitions are to the accepted meaning.Doing this forces students to think about the words as they're reading, and writing their own definitions forces them to think even more about how the words are used and what they mean. If there are words that can have multiple meanings, make sure to point these alternate meanings out.
Extensive Reading Activities for Language Learners Teaching Themselves 1. Prime your knowledge This is a very basic activity that will make your extensive reading easier and more effective. First, skim through roughly the amount of text you plan on reading. Maybe a chapter or two at a time. You’re looking for any unknown words, but mostly the ones that appear over and over again. These are the words that are going to make it easy to understand the basic plot elements of the story or the basic argument of the article. Look up a basic definition for each. Then you can add context and feeling to the definition as you read and see the word in a sentence.0Next, read over the dust jacket summary and take a good look at the cover illustration if you’re reading a book. If you’re reading an article, read the headline and the subheadings. From this information alone, make a prediction about what the story or article will be about. This requires you to gather all the relevant vocab and background knowledge you have of the subject, making it easier to contextualize and understand what you’re about to read. 2. Write book reports and book reviews This one is probably self explanatory. When you finish a book, just write out a simple piece about it, including a basic summary and some of your own feelings about the text. Writing something like this will help to create a personal understanding of the text by making you reread certain sections of the text to confirm that your understanding of the work is correct. Since this also serves as a test of your ability to recall details of the text, it’ll be much more likely that you’ll remember new vocab and grammar in the long-run. To make sure you really put the effort in to comprehend what’s going on, try publishing your review on a site like Goodreads or Amazon. 3. Do timed readings Extensive reading is already a great way to get your reading speed up, but if you’re still not as fast as you want to be, here’s how to get better.
Be a Student Informant There are three things to remember when teaching: know your stuff; know whom you are stuffing; and then stuff them elegantly. — Lola May An “informant” is a native speaker of a language who provides linguistic information to a person who is studying the language. The student isn’t necessarily doing so in order to master the language; more likely, the student is creating some type of analytical evaluation of the language to increase understanding.Put language in context In the classic English teaching environment, the role of the informant has been relegated to the teacher. Although some schools employ native English speakers as informants, giving them a title like “auxiliary teachers,” being a true informant sometimes takes a back seat in English teaching. Combining the classic linguistic term with the active need for information in language teaching means that you not only provide utterances for your students to copy and learn but also additional information that puts language in context. Balance the role of informant with that of teacher Fortunately, being both a teacher and an informant is a pretty easy combination. You probably already inform a great deal in your classroom as you plow through the curriculum.
The history of American literature stretches across more than 400 years. It can be divided into five major periods, each of which has unique characteristics, notable authors, and representative works. The Colonial and Early National Period (17th century to 1830) The first European settlers of North America wrote about their experiences starting in the 1600s. This was the earliest American literature: practical, straightforward, often derivative of literature in Great Britain, and focused on the future.In its earliest days, during the 1600s, American literature consisted mostly of practical nonfiction written by British settlers who populated the colonies that would become the United States. John Smith wrote histories of Virginia based on his experiences as an English explorer and a president of the Jamestown Colony. These histories, published in 1608 and 1624, are among the earliest works of American literature.Nathaniel Ward and John Winthrop wrote books on religion, a topic of central concern in colonial America. Anne Bradstreet’s The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America (1650) may be the earliest collection of poetry written in and about America, although it was published in England. A new era began when the United States declared its independence in 1776, and much new writing addressed the country’s future. American poetry and fiction were largely modeled on what was being published overseas in Great Britain, and much of what American readers consumed also came from Great Britain.
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