Morozowa A. M. Vladimir State University Vladimir, Russia Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov House
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Vladimir State University
Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov
In the middle of the XVIII century possession No. 105 (where there is now a
house 17 on Tchaikovsky St.) made a whole with the next possession No. 103 and
was on the earth of the Semenovsky monastery, after the section of these
possession the ground at No. 105 had the area of 999 quarter саж. In 1793 this
possession could be found to such address: "arrival of nine martyrs on Bolshaya
Street on the Earth shaft, the XII part of Moscow, 1 quarter, No. 1", then it
belonged to a prokurorsha Anna Alekseevna Volynskaya, nee Griboyedova. After
A.A.Volynskaya's death the estate with the house passed to her nephew Alexey
Fedorovich Griboyedov, and is later to his sister Nastasia Fiodorovna
Griboyedova, Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov's mother. In 1802 Griboyedov
lived already in the wooden house which got to them by inheritance from
In 1806 N. F. Griboyedova submitted the application to the Justice of
Deanery from which follows that it was going to increase a house a small
extension from a domestic facade: "to a wooden mansion to attach a wooden
inhabited extension length and two sazhens wide and on one arshin".
"Griboyedov' yard was the typical small city noble estate which is fenced off
by a board fence. In it there was a wooden one-storey house with numerous
services. Behind the yard the garden settled down". Images of facades of the house
of that time didn't remain, it is only possible to guess its appearance according to
the remained plan of 1806 and for memoirs of contemporaries and A.S.
Griboyedov's friends visiting his house. V. I. Lykoshin speaks about "big open
gallery and the area" with which it was fashionable to admire festivities "near
Novinsky"; under A. M. Skabichevsky's certificate, the entrance to the house
settled down in the yard where there was a front stairs.
During the fire of Moscow of 1812 the wooden house of Griboyedov, as
well as services in the yard, burned down completely. Between 1813 and 1816 N.
F. Griboyedova sold to Kropotov the garden (it occupied about a third of its
possession), which was cut down, and on this place the house was built. The plan
of its yard made in 1816 is stored in GINTA, 143 of Presnensky part. Images of
facades of this house didn't remain, but on the plan of 1816 there is its short
description: it was two-storeyed with an attic, its top part (the second floor and an
attic) was wooden, lower - stone.
Before the fire of 1812 the house was removed deep into the lane and put
"on the red line" only from the street; the house built in 1814 - 1816 was located at
the corner of the street and the lane, and had, thus, two street facades; the entrance
to the house still settled down from the yard and was issued by a front stairs.
Windows of an attic were turned towards the lane; the semi-circular garret window
came to the boulevard. The water color of the first half of the XIX century with an
inscription "Podnovinskoye - a view from a balcony of the being at home Gagarin
is stored in the Pushkin house; in the extreme house A.S. Griboyedov was born at
the left. On this water color the balcony and stucco mouldings of the facade
coming to the boulevard are clearly visible.
Chulkov claims that in August, 1820 the house "was again absolutely
reconstructed and and occupied 8,5 rooms though references to the source aren't
given. M. V. Fekhner considers that from 1816 for 1836 the house "wasn't exposed
to any essential alterations" and refers thus to plans 1816, 1820 and 1836.
In 1826 N. F. Griboyedova still owns the house which is estimated at 20
thousand rubles. N. F. Griboyedova dies in 1833-34, and in April, 1834 the
merchant Ivan Fedorovich Sidelnikov becomes the owner of the house. In 1836 in
connection with reorganizations in the house the new plan on which there is an
image of the facade coming to the lane (possibly, the first image of the
griboyedovsky house known to us as the water color of PD is dated the 40th years
of the XIX century) is formed. From the lane, it is visible in 1835, the entrance was
arranged (the central window opening of the first floor is turned into a door). In
1836 "Sidelnikov increased the house two-storeyed stone below and an extension
wooden above to a house end face from the yard, than distorted symmetry of a
facade on the lane".
In the second half of the 50th years of the XIX century the house took over
merchants Uzkov (M. V. Fekhner considers that it happened in 1855, Chulkov
specifies that the house belonged to Sidelnikov in 1858). In 1872 to the house the
front staircase with an entrance from the street was attached (it wooden "in stone
In 1873 the extension built by Sidelnikov was destroyed and on its place "the
two-storeyed residential building", with a stone bottom and wooden top is built.
"After that the house accepted that shape which it kept up to reorganization of
1911 - 1912." - photos of the 80th years of the XIX century remained.
In 1874 in the Russian Old Times magazine there was interesting note about
Griboyedov' house: "According to inhabitants, this house is in the previous form
when in it there lived A.S. Griboyedov namely, the house has two floors and
mezzanines, the first floor stone, top - wooden, plastered... To this house to
mother... there came the grandson of the Persian khan Hosron-Mirz.
Perhaps, this note is the certificate of that street facades of the house weren't
exposed to considerable changes in the second half of the XIX century, and the
house represented an interesting monument of architecture of postfire Moscow.
In 1911 Uskova divided the former possession of Griboyedov into three
parts, one of them (with the house) departed to S. V. Uskov who at once after the
section undertook capital reorganization of the house on the project of the architect
Tolstykh (it was supposed to arrange two apartments below and one above).
In 1911 - 1912 the following reorganization was carried out:" The house was
broadened with the stone two-storeyed inhabited extension which adjoined a
domestic end face of an extension of 1873 which wooden second floor thus was
replaced by the stone. Two stone staircases were built in old part of the house.
Instead of the attic accenting the central projection of the Griboyedovsky house
there was a penthouse. The staircase built in 1872 was turned into premises. The
main entrance with an iron umbrella over it was postponed for a facade on B.
Devyatinsky Lane. The threefold window on the second floor of the same facade
was turned into almost square window opening. On a place of the entrance to the
first floor established in 1836 in the center of a facade the window was restored.
The average window of the first floor on Novinsky Boulevard was turned into a
door of the shop which occupied part of the first floor, and window on both sides
of this entrance - in show-windows. The balcony was sorted, the modelled decor of
a facade on the lane is partially destroyed, and some details are postponed for a
facade on Novinsky Boulevard.". During the Great Patriotic War the house
strongly suffered from the fire and later at repair the penthouse wasn't restored,
modelled details on facades were lost.
In the course of measurements of the house M. V. Fekhner established the
following: "All vertical and horizontal partitionings of facades can be restored with
a limit accuracy: after demolition of an extension to the southern facade house
width down the street of Tchaikovsky is restored at heart; facade length on B.
Devyatinsky Lane can be received, considering that the axis of symmetry passes on
the middle of the third window, and that east part of a facade remained invariable.
The ledge of a projection of a face facade is destroyed only in its lower part.
ledge of the central projection of a facade on the lane on the one hand also escaped.
The corbel separating the first floor remained almost throughout. Initial windows
exist in the second floor of a face facade which is going outside and on not
reconstructed part of a facade on the lane. Carrying out of the balcony sorted in
1911 - 1912 is shown on detailed drawings the arkh. P. A. Tolstykh. Its lattice
remained, it costs on a stone one-storey extension of 1913. However, its old metal
racks are replaced with concrete columns. Details of a modelled decor should be
recreated according to photos (the photo representing a modelled wreath with tapes
- characteristic ornamental motive in architecture of the Moscow lodges
constructed after the fire of 1812 remained. Other modelled details can be restored
according to a picture of the end of the XIX century (GIM photograph collection)
and by analogy with details of other Moscow houses of that time. Liras and the
gippokampakh on Griboyedov's house is mentioned in the book "Pushkin
Moscow". Bas-reliefs under a balcony door are similar to house bas-reliefs at the
corner of Smolenskaya Square and Reshchikov Lane.
According to M. V. Fekhner, "at Griboyedov the front staircase of the house
could be located only near an entrance through a front stairs because in all two-
storeyed houses of the first third of the XIX century of a ladder in smart suites of
the second floors always order directly from the main outer entrance hall... The
house was with a suite of smart rooms and a wooden internal ladder in the center;
such planning is typical for houses of postfire Moscow." "Internal finishing of
rooms, of course, didn't reach our time. From doors only one escaped in the first
floor, it is typical for the first third of last century; on other door of the latest time
the ancient handle postponed from older door remained".
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