N g L i s h s u p p L e m e n t s


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1
T
ILMAN 
T
UMLER
 
E
N G L I S H  
S
U P P L E M E N T S
 
W
I E N
,
 
2 0 0 2  
 
 
Table of Contents 
 
Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................7 
Note on Didactic Aspects ........................................................................................................7 
A. SUPPLEMENTS 4. KLASSE: MORE ABOUT THE COMMONWEALTH AND THE U.S. OVERSEAS ..8 
I.
 
A
SIA
...........................................................................................................................................8 
1. India (former British (East) India)....................................................................................8 
2. Other countries that were British colonies or protectorates .............................................8 
3a. Malaysia............................................................................................................................9 
3b. Brunei ...............................................................................................................................9 
4a. Singapore ..........................................................................................................................9 
4b. (Hongkong).......................................................................................................................9 
4c. New Industrial Countries. (Thailand), the Philippines ..................................................9 
II.
 
A
FRICA
....................................................................................................................................10 
1. East Africa ........................................................................................................................10 
2a. Central and Southern Africa .........................................................................................10 
2b. Protestant and Catholic European Colonialists............................................................10 
2c. Republic of South Africa................................................................................................10 
2d. Namibia...........................................................................................................................11 
2e. Zimbabwe (Uganda, South Africa) ................................................................................11 
3. West Africa, and the Slave-Trade ....................................................................................11 
III.
 
T
HE 
W
EST 
I
NDIES
..................................................................................................................12 
IV.
 
T
HE 
P
ACIFIC 
I
SLANDS
............................................................................................................13 
V.
 
P
IDGIN AND 
(F
RENCH
)
 
C
REOLE
...............................................................................................14 
B. SUPPLEMENTS 5. KLASSE ............................................................................................................................. 15 
I.
 
T
HE 
C
HANNEL 
I
SLANDS
............................................................................................................15 
II.
 
C
ELTS
,
 
G
ERMANIC 
T
RIBES 
(S
CANDINAVIANS
)
 IN 
B
RITAIN
......................................................15 
Scotland ................................................................................................................................16 
Wales.....................................................................................................................................16 
Scandinavians in Britain .....................................................................................................16 
III.
 
I
RELAND 
(H
ISTORY
,
 
L
ITERATURE
).........................................................................................16 
IV.
 
C
OLOURED 
P
EOPLE IN 
B
RITAIN
.............................................................................................19 
V.
 
"N
EIGHBOURHOOD
"
 IN 
B
RITAIN AND 
A
MERICA
......................................................................19 
1. "Keeping up with the Joneses":.........................................................................................20 
2. The "typical" English house, .............................................................................................20 
3. Meals .................................................................................................................................20 
VI.
 
G
OVERNMENT
.
 
T
HE 
L
AW
,
 
M
ONEY
,
 
W
EIGHTS AND 
M
EASURES
.............................................21 
1. Parliament ........................................................................................................................21 
2. Local Government ............................................................................................................21 
3. Counties in UK (and US). Abbreviations ........................................................................21 

 
2
4. Government in the U.K./U.S. - Titles...............................................................................22 
5. U.S. Government and Electoral System ..........................................................................22 
6. The Legal System in the U.K. and U.S. ...........................................................................23 
7. Money (UK, pre-decimal; US). Weights and Measures (“Imperial”)............................24 
VII.
 
U.S.
 
P
ARTIES 
(-
 
C
IVIL 
W
AR
) ................................................................................................25 
VIII.
 
U.S.
 
(N
EW 
Y
ORK
)
 
P
OPULATION
..........................................................................................26 
IX.
 
T
HE 
A
FRICAN 
A
MERICAN
......................................................................................................26 
X.
 
T
HE 
A
MERICAN 
I
NDIAN
..........................................................................................................28 
XI.
 
(O
THER
)
 
E
THNIC 
(R
ELIGIOUS
)
 
G
ROUPS AND 
D
IALECTS
.........................................................30 
1. Immigration to North America (U.S.A.)..........................................................................30 
2. Dialects in North America; Commonwealth countries...................................................31 
3. Dialects and Immigration in the  British Isles ................................................................32 
XII.
 
T
HE 
C
OMMONWEALTH
.........................................................................................................32 
1. Canada ..............................................................................................................................32 
2. Australia ...........................................................................................................................33 
3. New Zealand .....................................................................................................................33 
4. (Former British) India .....................................................................................................33 
5. South Africa......................................................................................................................34 
XIII.
 
E
DUCATION
.........................................................................................................................34 
1. United Kingdom ................................................................................................................34 
2. Ireland ...............................................................................................................................35 
3. U.S. ....................................................................................................................................35 
4. Canada ..............................................................................................................................36 
5. New Zealand......................................................................................................................36 
6. University of the South Pacific..........................................................................................36 
7. Australia ............................................................................................................................36 
8. South Africa.......................................................................................................................36 
9. India ..................................................................................................................................36 
10. The West Indies ...............................................................................................................36 
XIV.
 
T
HE 
(M
ASS
)
 
M
EDIA
.
 
M
ANIPULATION
.................................................................................37 
1. The Press ..........................................................................................................................37 
2. Other Mass Media ............................................................................................................38 
XV.
 
T
HE 
R
IGHT TO 
V
OTE 
(
FOR 
W
OMEN
).....................................................................................38 
XVI.
 
T
HE 
U
NITED 
N
ATIONS
........................................................................................................38 
C. SUPPLEMENTS 6. KLASSE, PART 1: FROM THE SAXONS TO THE STUARTS ................................... 39 
I.
 
M
EDIAEVAL AND 
T
UDOR 
E
NGLAND
.
 
T
HE 
D
EVELOPMENT OF 
E
NGLISH 
P
OLITICAL 
I
NSTITUTIONS
..............................................................................................................................39 
1a. Old English Text.............................................................................................................39 
1b. The Norman Conquest ...................................................................................................39 
2a. English After The Norman Conquest............................................................................39 
2b. American English...........................................................................................................40 
3a. Henry I............................................................................................................................40 
3b. Henry II ..........................................................................................................................40 
3c. "Poor Law" ....................................................................................................................40 
3d. John I..............................................................................................................................40 
3e. Henry III .........................................................................................................................41 
3f. Edward I ..........................................................................................................................41 
3g. Persecution of Jews ........................................................................................................41 
3h. Edward II........................................................................................................................41 
3i. Justices of the Peace, Edward III...................................................................................41 
3j. John Wyclif(fe) and the Lollards....................................................................................41 
3k. Peasant revolts................................................................................................................41 

 
3
3l. Richard II ........................................................................................................................42 
4. Philosophy ........................................................................................................................42 
5a. History and Shakespeare ...............................................................................................42 
5b. The Tudors and the Establishment of the Anglican Church under Henry VIII.........43 
II.
 
T
HE 
S
TUARTS
..........................................................................................................................44 
III.
 
E
NGLAND 
O
VERSEAS
.
 
(D
E
)
COLONIZATION
............................................................................44 
1a. Fighting (Spain, then) the Dutch; the West Indies (Africa, America).........................44 
1b. British North America....................................................................................................45 
2. (De)colonization ...............................................................................................................45 
IV.
 
P
URITANISM
:
 
E
NGLISH 
P
ROTESTANTISM  
(
 
-
 AND 
(R
OMAN
)
 
C
ATHOLICISM
)...........................47 
1a. Puritanism and the English Character .........................................................................47 
1b. Puritan (Calvinist) Churches and Anglicans ................................................................47 
1c. Quakers ...........................................................................................................................47 
1d. Baptists............................................................................................................................48 
1e. "Georgian Salzburgers" ................................................................................................48 
1f. More on Protestants in America.....................................................................................48 
2. Roman Catholics ..............................................................................................................48 
3. Importance of Stoicism ....................................................................................................49 
V.
 
W
HAT 
W
AS 
L
IFE 
L
IKE 
I

T
HOSE 
D
AYS
? ................................................................................49 
1. If you had lived between 1200 and 1600, what would your life have been like?...........49 
2. Social Conditions in the 17
th
 Century..............................................................................50 
3. The Law ............................................................................................................................50 
4. Literature (17
th
 century)...................................................................................................50 
5. Architecture (17
th
 – 19
th
 (20
th
) centuries) ........................................................................50 
D. SUPPLEMENTS 6. KLASSE, PART 2: THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS AND U.S. 
POSSESSIONS........................................................................................................................................................ 51 
I.
 
T
HE 
C
OMMONWEALTH 
O

N
ATIONS
........................................................................................51 
1. Definition ..........................................................................................................................51 
2. Member States ..................................................................................................................51 
3. Notes .................................................................................................................................52 
II.
 
L
INKED TO THE 
U.S.................................................................................................................54 
III.
 
A
DDITIONAL 
I
NFORMATION ON 
I
MPORTANT 
C
OMMONWEALTH 
C
OUNTRIES
..........................55 
1. India ..................................................................................................................................55 
2. Central and Southern Africa ...........................................................................................56 
3. The Republic of South Africa ..........................................................................................57 
4. Australia ...........................................................................................................................58 
5. New Zealand .....................................................................................................................60 
6. Canada ..............................................................................................................................61 
E. SUPPLEMENTS 7. KLASSE, PART 1: GREAT BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN THE 18
TH
 
AND 19
TH
 CENTURIES......................................................................................................................................... 64 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION 
(18
TH
 CENTURY
)...............................................................................................64 
1. Science and Philosophy in the "Age of Reason"............................................................64 
2. Literature ..........................................................................................................................64 
3. Government and Political Events ....................................................................................64 
4. The Arts ............................................................................................................................65 
II.
 
F
URTHER 
I
NFORMATION
:
 
B
RITAIN 
(
AGAINST 
F
RANCE
),
 
O
VERSEAS
........................................66 
1. Political Events .................................................................................................................66 
2. Overseas (18
th
 century).....................................................................................................67 
III.
 
E
VERYDAY 
L
IFE 
(
IN 
18
TH
 CENTURY 
B
RITAIN
) ........................................................................69 
1. London ..............................................................................................................................69 
2. Provincial England ..........................................................................................................69 

 
4
IV.
 
S
OCIETY AND 
L
ITERATURE 
(
IN THE 
18
TH
 CENTURY
)...............................................................70 
1a. Defoe ...............................................................................................................................70 
1b. Swift - and the Sciences (Medicine) ..............................................................................70 
1c. Other Writers (and Artists): Journalists and Reformers ..............................................70 
2. The Mechanical Revolution.............................................................................................71 
3. Change in Tory Party (in the late 18
th
 century) ..............................................................71 
4. The Development of the English Novel - and of the "English Gentleman" .................72 
5. Text: Daniel Defoe's "On the Education of Women"....................................................72 
V.
 
R
OMANTICISM
........................................................................................................................73 
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................73 
2. Politics...............................................................................................................................75 
3. The Romantic Revolution in Literature ..........................................................................75 
VI.
 
D
EMOCRACY 
-
 
S
CIENCE 
-
 
I
MPERIALISM
:
 
T
HE 
V
ICTORIAN 
A
GE
..............................................77 
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................77 
2. Towards more Democracy ...............................................................................................79 
VII.
 
O
VERSEAS 
(19
TH
 CENTURY
) ..................................................................................................81 
1. Abolition ...........................................................................................................................81 
2. British Interest in the Mediterranean..............................................................................81 
3. The Crimean War.............................................................................................................81 
4. India ("The Jewel in the Crown") and the "Far East": Early Imperialism and 
(Conservative) Social Reforms.............................................................................................81 
5. Africa ................................................................................................................................83 
6. 20
th
 Century Decay of British Imperialism .....................................................................83 

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