National Marine Sanctuary: National Marine Sanctuary


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National Marine Sanctuary:

  • National Marine Sanctuary:

  • Marine Protected Area:

    • Areas where natural and/or cultural resources are given greater protection than the surrounding waters


Why do we make it a sanctuary?

  • Why do we make it a sanctuary?

    • Conservation
    • Recreation
    • Ecology
    • History
    • Culture
    • Archeology
    • Science
    • Education
    • Aesthetics


So what’s the difference between a Marine Sanctuary and a Marine Protected Area?

  • So what’s the difference between a Marine Sanctuary and a Marine Protected Area?

    • Marine Sanctuaries are multiple-use marine protected areas, protected under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act
  • What?? Multiple-use???

    • Multiple-use mean the use of land for more than one purpose


Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (Ocean Dumping Act)

  • Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (Ocean Dumping Act)

    • 1972
    • Secretary of Commerce gets to choose a National marine Sanctuary after talking to the heads of involved agencies
    • Governor can declare it unacceptable


Who runs National Marine Sanctuaries?

  • Who runs National Marine Sanctuaries?

    • NMSP
    • National Marine Sanctuaries Program
    • This program is a division of NOAA (Yay NOAA!)
  • There are “14” U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries





Feb 30, 1975

  • Feb 30, 1975

  • North Carolina

  • Designated by NOAA to protect the ironclad shipwreck of the USS Monitor

  • First National Marine Sanctuary

  • Only sanctuary created to protect a cultural resource rather than a natural one

  • Size: 1 sq. mile



Jan 1976

  • Jan 1976

  • Florida

  • Designated by NOAA to protect the portion of barrier reef beyond state waters of John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park

  • Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary subsumed this sanctuary in 1990

  • Size: 100 sq. miles



Oct 1980

  • Oct 1980

  • California

  • Designated by NOAA to protect a confluence of cold and warm water currents with a great abundance of marine life

  • Expanded in 2007

  • Size: 1,658 sq. miles



Jan 1981

  • Jan 1981

  • California

  • Designated by NOAA to protect an extensive marine habitat and bird colonies

  • In the waters off San Francisco

  • Size: 1,255 sq. miles



Jan 1981

  • Jan 1981

  • Florida

  • Designated by NOAA to protect the unusual and highly important spur and grove reef system

  • Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary subsumed this sanctuary in 1990

  • Size: 5.32 sq. miles



Jan 1981

  • Jan 1981

  • Georgia

  • Designated by NOAA to protect a prime example of South Atlantic hard/live bottom coral habitat

  • One of the largest near shore live-bottom reefs in the southeastern U.S.

  • Size: 23 sq. miles



April 1986

  • April 1986

  • American Samoa

  • Designated by NOAA to protect an example of a South Pacific, tropical, fringing reef coral system

  • Smallest and most remote

  • Only true tropical reef in the program

  • Size: 0.25 sq. miles



May 1989

  • May 1989

  • California

  • Designated by NOAA to protect an area where upwelling nutrient-rich deep water supports a flourishing ecosystem

  • Seamount, discovered by Edward Cordell in 1853

  • Size: 526 sq. miles



Nov 1990

  • Nov 1990

  • Florida (duh)

  • Designated by Congress in response to a series of large vessel groundings

  • Protects the largest coral barrier reef system in the U.S. (3rd largest in the world)

  • Expanded in 2001

  • Size: 3,674 sq. miles



Jan 1992

  • Jan 1992

  • Texas/Louisiana

  • Designated by NOAA to protect important coral reefs in the Gulf of Mexico

  • East Flower Garden Banks and West Flower Garden Banks

  • Expanded in 1996; Stetson Bank

  • Size: 56 sq. miles



Sep 1992

  • Sep 1992

  • California

  • Designated by NOAA to protect a variety of habitats, including kelp forests, shores, and an underwater canyon

  • Supports one of the world’s most diverse marine ecosystems

  • Expanded in 2009

  • Size: 5,328 sq. miles



Nov 1992

  • Nov 1992

  • Massachusetts

  • Designated by congress to protect the primary feeding grounds of the endangered North Atlantic Right Whale

  • Size: 842 sq. miles



Nov 1992

  • Nov 1992

  • Hawaii (duh!)

  • Designated by Congress to protect calving and breeding grounds of the endangered North Pacific Humpback Whale

  • One of the world’s most important whale habitat

  • Size: 1,300 sq. miles



May 1994

  • May 1994

  • Washington

  • Designated by NOAA as a representative marine and near-shore habitat of the Pacific Northwest

  • Size: 3,310



Jun 2000

  • Jun 2000

  • Michigan

  • Designated by NOAA to protect the collection of nationally significant historic shipwrecks (Shipwreck Alley, Lake Huron)

  • Only sanctuary in the Great Lakes

  • About 116 ships

  • Size: 448 sq. miles



June 15, 2006

  • June 15, 2006

  • Hawaii

  • Marine National Monument

  • Largest MPA in the world

  • Named after the goddess who ‘gave birth’ to the islands in Hawaiian mythology

  • Size: 140,000 sq. miles







First?

  • First?

    • Monitor, 1975
  • Most recent?

    • Thunder Bay, 2000
  • Closest to Texas?

    • Flower Garden Banks
  • In the Great Lakes?

    • Thunder Bay



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