Notes Acknowledgments

  “Cosmonaut 13”: Vladimir Shatalov

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9  “Cosmonaut 13”: Vladimir Shatalov

1.  See Vladimir A. Shatalov, Trudnyye dorogi kosmosa (Moscow: Molodaya 

gvardiya, 1978) and Kosmicheskiye budni (Moscow: Mashinostroeniye, 

2008); Vladimir A. Shatalov et al., Primeneniye EVM v sisteme uprav-

leniya kosmicheskimi apparatami (Moscow: Mashinostroeniye, 1974), 

Shatalov and Mikhail F. Rebrov, Lyudi i kosmos (Moscow: Molodaya 

gvardiya, 1975), and Shatalov and Rebrov, Kosmonavty SSSR, 3rd ed. 

(Moscow: Prosveshcheniye, 1980). For a bibliography of 43 items, see 

Vasiliy V. Tsibliyev, ed., Nauchnyye trudy sovetskikh i rossiyskikh kosmo-

navtov: Materialy k bibliografii (Zvezdnyy gorodok: RGNIITsPK, 

2009), pp. 49–52.

2.  MiG-15bis was a 1950 modification of MiG-15 with the VK-1 engine 

and updated weaponry. The MiG-15bis model was adopted by the Soviet 

aviation industry for mass production.











3.  Yuriy Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934–1968) flew the Vostok mission on 

April 12, 1961.

4.  Pavel Stepanovich Kutakhov (1914–1984).

5.  Anatoliy Vasilyevich Filipchenko (1928–) flew on Soyuz 7 (1969) and 

Soyuz 16 (1974).

6.  Georgiy Timofeyevich Beregovoy (1921–1995) flew the Soyuz 3 mission 


7.  Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (1937–) flew the Vostok 6 mission 

(June 1963). Valeriy Fedorovich Bykovskiy (1934–) flew on Vostok 5 

(June 1963), on Soyuz 22 (1976), and on Soyuz 31 to the Salyut 6 space 

station (1978). Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (1929–2004) flew on 

Vostok 3 (1962) and Soyuz 9 (1970). Pavel Romanovich Popovich (1930–

2009) flew on Vostok 4 (1962) and on Soyuz 14 to the Salyut 3 space 

 station (1974).

8.  Boris Valentinovich Volynov (1934–) flew on Soyuz 5 (1969) and on 

Soyuz 21 to the Salyut 5 space station (1976). Yevgeniy Vasilyevich 

Khrunov (1933–2000) flew on the Soyuz 4/5 mission (1969).

9.  Georgiy Mikhaylovich Grechko (1931–) flew on Soyuz 17 to the Salyut 

4 space station (1975), on Soyuz 26 to the Salyut 6 space station (1978), 

and on Soyuz T-14 to the Salyut 7 space station (1985).

10.  The Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine-Building ( formerly 

Sergey Korolev’s OKB-1).

11.  Gemini VIII docked with the Agena target vehicle in March 1966.

12.  For details of the Soyuz 4/5 mission, see Asif Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo: 

The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945–1974, NASA SP-2000–4408 

(Washington, DC: NASA, 2000), pp. 668–674.

13.  In October 1968, Beregovoy, who piloted Soyuz 3, failed to dock 

with the unmanned Soyuz 2. See Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo

pp. 657–662.

14.  Vasiliy Pavlovich Mishin (1917–2001), the head of Central Design 

Bureau of Experimental Machine Building; Mstislav Vsevolodovich 

Keldysh (1911–1978), president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences 

(1961–75); Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (1906–1982), general secretary of 

the Party Central Committee (1964–82).

15.  Dmitriy Fedorovich Ustinov (1908–1984), the defense industry chief; 

Sergey Aleksandrovich Afanasyev (1918–2001), the head of the ministry 

of  rocket  industry  (the  Ministry  of  Medium-Size  Machine  Building); 

Nikolay Petrovich Kamanin (1908–1982), assistant chief of the Air 

Force for combat training for spaceflight (1960–1971), responsible 

for cosmonaut selection and training, crew assignments, and mission 


16. Leonid Vasilyevich Smirnov (1916–2001), chairman of the State 

Commission for Piloted Flights, deputy chairman of the USSR Council 

of Ministers, chairman of the Military Industrial Commission. Smirnov 

was a notoriously overcautious bureaucrat. See Yaroslav Golovanov, 

Korolev: Fakty i mify (Moscow: Nauka, 1994), pp. 669–670.

17.  Boris Yevseyevich Chertok (1912–2011).

18. Chertok, Rockets and PeopleThe Moon Race, vol. 4, p. 249.



















19.  For details of the Soyuz 6/7/8 mission, see Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo

pp. 705–711.

20.  Aleksey Stanislavovich Yeliseyev (1934–) flew on the Soyuz 5 (1969), 

Soyuz 8 (1969), and Soyuz 10 (1971).

21.  Nikolayev and Vitaliy Ivanovich Sevastyanov (1935–2010) later flew on 

the  Soyuz 9 mission (1970). Sevastyanov also flew on Soyuz 18 to the 

Salyut 4 space station (1975).

22.  Georgiy Stepanovich Shonin (1935–1997) and Valeriy Nikolayevich 

Kubasov (1935–) flew on the Soyuz 6 mission (1969). Kubasov also flew 

on  Soyuz 19 (the Apollo-Soyuz mission) in 1975 and commanded the 

Soyuz 36 mission to the Salyut 6 space station (1980).

23.  Anatoliy Petrovich Kuklin (1932–2005) left the cosmonaut group in 


24.  In October 1967 two unmanned Soyuz spacecraft, publicly named 

Kosmos-186 and Kosmos-188, performed an automatic rendezvous and 

docking in orbit. The two spacecraft were mechanically docked, but 

an electric contact was not achieved. See Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo

pp. 625–626; Boris Chertok, Rockets and PeopleHot Days of the Cold 

War, vol. 3 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2009), pp. 665–680.

25.  For details of the failed docking of Soyuz 10, see Siddiqi, Challenge to 

Apollo, pp. 774–776.

26.  In January 1969, during the reentry of Soyuz 5, piloted by Boris Volynov, 

the spacecraft’s service module initially failed to separate from the 

descent module, causing a potentially disastrous emergency. See Siddiqi, 

Challenge to Apollo, p. 673.


Georgiy Timofeyevich Dobrovolskiy (1928–1971), Vladislav 

Nikolayevich Volkov (1935–1971), and Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev 

(1933–1971) the crew of Soyuz 11, successfully docked with Salyut 

in June 1970, spent 22 days aboard the space station, and tragically 

died on their return on June 30, 1971, when their spacecraft, Soyuz 11 

depressurized during preparations for reentry. See Siddiqi, Challenge to 

Apollo, pp. 777–781.

28. See Golovanov, Korolev, p. 665.

29.  Yuriy Aleksandrovich Garnayev (1917–1967).

30.  Surrendering a Communist Party card meant an expulsion from the 

Party and an effective end to one’s career.

31.  Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (1914–1984).

32.  Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (1927–1967) was killed on April 24, 

1967, during the crash landing of his spacecraft, Soyuz 1, because of a 

parachute malfunction. See Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo, pp. 581–590. 

The crew of Soyuz 11 was killed on June 30, 1971.

33.  See, for example, Nikolay Kamanin, Skrytyy kosmos, vol. 3 (Moscow: 

Infortekst, 1997), p. 284 (diary entry for January 5, 1966), pp. 403–404 

(diary entry for November 23, 1966); vol. 4 (Moscow: Novosti kosmo-

navtiki, 1999), pp. 333–334 (diary entry for December 12, 1968).

34. The Soyuz 11 spacecraft, whose malfunction proved fatal for the crew, 

was produced by the Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine 

Building headed by Mishin.



















35.  According to Kamanin’s diary, Mishin and others tried to place the 

blame on the crew of Soyuz 11 for not being able to prevent the depres-

surization of their spacecraft. See Kamanin, Skrytyy kosmos, vol. 4, p. 338 

(diary entry for July 7, 1919).

36. Gennadiy Vasilyevich Sarafanov (1942–2005) and Lev Stepanovich 

Demin (1926–1998) on Soyuz 15  failed  to  dock  with  the  Salyut 3 

(Almaz) space station in August 1974. Vyacheslav Dmitriyevich Zudov 

(1942–) and Valeriy Ilyich Rozhdestvenskiy (1939–2011) on Soyuz 23 

failed to dock with the Salyut 5 (Almaz) space station in October 1976. 

See Dennis Newkirk, Almanac of Soviet Manned Space Flight (Houston, 

TX: Gulf, 1990), pp. 128–130, 149–150.

37. Chertok, 

Rockets and PeopleThe Moon Race, vol. 4, p. 497.

38.  At that time Valentin Petrovich Glushko (1908–1989) headed the 

Energiya Association, which designed and built the Soyuz spacecraft.

39.  Shatalov was indeed the thirteenth Soviet cosmonaut. The Russians 

believe the number 13 brings bad luck.

40.  Armen Sergeyevich Mnatsakanyan (1918–1991) was director of the 

Scientific-Research Institute of Precision Instruments (NII-648) in 

Moscow in 1961–1976.

41.  After Glushko’s death in 1989, Yuriy Pavlovich Semenov (1935–) became 

the general designer and head of the Energiya Association (later the 

Energiya Corporation).

42.  Lev Vasilyevich Vorobyev (1931–2010) left the cosmonaut group in 

1974. Valeriy Aleksandrovich Yazdovskiy (1930–) left the cosmonaut 

group in 1982. Petr Ilyich Klimuk (1942–) flew on Soyuz 13 (1973), 

on Soyuz 18 to the Salyut 4 space station (1975), and on Soyuz 30 to the 

Salyut 6 space station (1978). Valentin Vitalyevich Lebedev (1942–) flew 

on Soyuz T-5 to the Salyut 7 space station (1982).

43.  Aleksey Arkhipovich Leonov (1934–) flew on Voskhod 2 (1965) and on 

Soyuz 19 (the Apollo-Soyuz mission) in 1975. Petr Ivanovich Kolodin 

(1930–) left the cosmonaut group in 1983.

44. Vasiliy Mishin.

45.  For Leonov’s recollections, see David R. Scott and Alexei A. Leonov, 

Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race (London/

New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), p. 188.

46.  Konstantin Davydovich Bushuyev (1914–1978).

47.  Sergey Pavlovich Korolev (1907–1966), the chief designer of Soviet 

rockets and spacecraft, the head of the Special Design Bureau No. 1 

(OKB-1), currently the Rocket-Space Corporation Energiya.

48.  Viktor Vasilyevich Gorbatko (1934–) flew on Soyuz 7 (1969), on Soyuz 

24 to the Salyut 5 space station (1977), and on Soyuz 37 to the Salyut 6 

space station (1980). Yuriy Nikolayevich Glazkov (1939–2008) flew on 

Soyuz 24 to the Salyut 5 space station (1977). Vitaliy Zholobov (1937–) 

flew on Soyuz 21 to the Salyut 5 space station (1977).

49. The Energiya Scientific-Production Association (formerly Sergey 

Korolev’s OKB-1) designed and built the Soyuz spacecraft. Energiya had 

its own cosmonaut group and was reluctant to admit cosmonauts from a 

rival firm, led by Chelomey, to train at the Energiya facilities.


















50.  General Designer Valentin Glushko replaced Vasily Mishin to become 

the head of the Energiya Association in 1974–1989.

51.  Gleb Yevgenyevich Lozino-Lozinskiy (1909–2001).

52.  Shatalov refers to Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika and the collapse of 

the Soviet Union, which resulted in drastic cuts in state support for the 

space program. The Buran program was suspended in 1990 and termi-

nated in 1993. See Bart Hendrickx and Bert Vis, Energiya-Buran: The 

Soviet Space Shuttle (Chichester: Springer/Praxis, 2007).

53.  Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (1926–).

54.  Konstantin Andreyevich Vershinin (1900–1973), the chief of the Air 

Force (1946–1949, 1957–1969).

55.  An urn with Komarov’s cremated remains was entombed in the Kremlin 

wall. On rituals associated with funerals of Soviet cosmonauts, see 

Cathleen S. Lewis, “The Red Stuff: A History of the Public and Material 

Culture of Early Human Spaceflight in the U.S.S.R.” PhD dissertation, 

George Washington University, 2008, pp. 289, 301–307.

56.  Frank Frederick Borman, II (1928–), former US astronaut.

57.  Thomas Patten Stafford (1930–), former US astronaut.

58.  Eduard Pavlovich Kugno (1935–1994) was dismissed from the cosmo-

naut group in 1964.

59.  Svetlana Yevgenyevna Savitskaya (1948–) flew on the Soyuz T-7 (1982) 

and Soyuz T-12 (1984) missions, both to the Salyut 7 space station.

60. Anatoliy Nikolayevich Berezovoy (1942–) and Lebedev flew the 

Expedition 1 mission on Salyut 7 from May to December 1982.

61.  Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov (1914–1984).

62.  Valeriy Viktorovich Ryumin (1939–) flew on Soyuz 25 (1977), on Soyuz 

32 (1979) and Soyuz 34 (1980) to the Salyut 6 space station, and on the 

STS-91 Discovery mission to the Mir space station (1998).

63.  In the years between 1981 and 1985, the head of the Defense Industry 

Department was Igor Fedorovich Dmitriyev (1909–1998).

64. Valentin Glushko.

65.  The Energiya Scientific-Production Association, formerly OKB-1.

10  Test Cosmonaut Mikhail Burdayev

1. Mikhail Burdayev, Teoriya i raschet spiraley dlya planerov (Moscow: 

DOSA AF, 1970); Burdayev, Teoriya godografov v mekhanike kos-

micheskogo poleta (Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye, 1975); Burdayev 

et al., Dinamika i printsipy postroeniya orbitalnykh sistem kosmi-

cheskikh apparatov (Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye, 1975); Burdayev, 

Ergonomika i kosmicheskaya informatika (Zvezdnyy: TsPK, 1991); and 

Burdayev et al., Osnovy aerokosmicheskogo ekologicheskogo monitoringa 

(Zvezdnyy: TsPK, 2002). For a bibliography of 113 items, see Vasiliy 

V. Tsibliyev, ed., Nauchnyye trudy sovetskikh i rossiyskikh kosmonavtov: 

Materialy k bibliografii (Zvezdnyy gorodok: RGNIITsPK, 2009), 

pp. 256–269.

2.  Now the Mozhayskiy Military-Space Academy in St. Petersburg.

3.  Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev (1988–1972).






















4.  In 1980 all research on early warning systems and space defense sys-

tems was transferred to the Special Scientific-Research Institute No. 45 

(45 SNII) of the Ministry of Defense in Babushkin near Moscow. See 

Mikhail Pervov, Sistemy raketno-kosmicheskoy oborony Rossii sozdavalis 

tak, 2nd ed. (Moscow: Aviarus-XXI, 2004), pp. 518–519.

5.  Yuriy Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934–1968) flew the Vostok mission in 

April 1961.

6.  For the first cosmonaut group, selected in 1959–60, the maximum height 

was 175 cm, and the maximum weight 75 kg; see Larisa V. Uspenskaya, 

comp.,  Chelovek. Korabl. Kosmos (Moscow: Novyi khronograf, 2011), 

p. 132. For the second group, selected in 1962–63, the height limit was 

raised to 180 cm, and the weight limit to 80 kg; see Vladimir Shatalov’s 

interview in this collection. The limits were later raised again, but until 

June 1999, the maximum height of the cosmonaut was 182 cm, and the 

maximum weight 85 kg—still below Burdayev’s height and weight.

7.  From 1957 to 1966 the institute was headed by Lieutenant General 

Sergey Fedorovich Nilovskiy (1906–1980).

8.  Besides Burdayev, the group included Vladimir Borisovich Alekseyev 

(1933–) and Nikolay Stepanovich Porvatkin (1932–2009).

9.  Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (1927–1967) was killed on April 24, 

1967, during the crash landing of his spacecraft, Soyuz 1, because of a 

parachute malfunction.

10.  On the “five ministers’ order,” see Nikolay Kamanin, Skrytyi kosmos

vol. 3 (Moscow: Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1999), p. 96 (diary entry 

for July 31, 1967). In May 1966, a cosmonaut group was created at 

the Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine Building (later 

the Energiya Corporation) under the Ministry of General Machine 

Building. In May 1967, a cosmonaut group was organized at the 

USSR Academy of Sciences. In March 1972, a cosmonaut group was 

set up at the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Ministry of 

Health. Also in March 1972, a cosmonaut group was created at the 

Central Design Bureau of Machine Building under the Ministry of 

General Machine Building (until 1965, under the Ministry of Aviation 

Industry). The Cosmonaut Training Center was subordinated to the 

Ministry of Defense. On cosmonaut selection groups in 1960–1974, 

see Asif Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space 

Race, 1945–1974, NASA SP-2000–4408 (Washington, DC: NASA, 

2000), pp. 881–888.

11.  Pavel Romanovich Popovich (1930–2009) flew on Vostok 4 (1962) and 

on Soyuz 14 to the Salyut 3 space station (1974).

12.  Sergey Pavlovich Korolev (1907–1966), the chief designer of Soviet 

rockets and spacecraft, the head of the Special Design Bureau No. 1 

(OKB-1), currently the Rocket-Space Corporation Energiya.

13.  Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (1914–1984).

14. Viktor Vasilyevich Gorbatko (1934–); Yuriy Nikolayevich Glazkov 


15.  Burdayev trained for the 7K-VI program from August 1969 to August 
















16.  Korolev’s former OKB-1 was then called the Central Design Bureau of 

Experimental Machine Building and led by Vasiliy Pavlovich Mishin 

(1917–2001); in 1974–1994, it was part of the Scientific-Production 

Association Energiya. Dmitriy Ilyich Kozlov (1919–2009) headed the 

Central Specialized Design Bureau, which until 1974 had been a branch 

of Korolev’s organization in Kuybyshev. In 1966–67, while still subordi-

nated to Mishin, Kozlov started the development of a military spaceship 

Zvezda, code named 7K-VI, for reconnaissance and space combat tasks. 

Perhaps fearing that Zvezda might become a rival to Soyuz, Mishin pres-

sured Kozlov to terminate the project. Instead, Mishin started the devel-

opment of a new Soyuz VI space complex, which would include a military 

orbital station and a delivery spacecraft Soyuz 7K-S. Mishin’s Soyuz VI 

project was apparently intended as a rival to Vladimir Chelomey’s Almaz 

military space station program. In 1970 the Soyuz VI project was termi-

nated. See Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo, pp. 633–636, 722.

17.  Burdayev trained for the Almaz program from August 1970 to 1972.

18.  The Central Design Bureau of Machine Building, led by Vladimir 


19.  Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov (1927–). See Shatalov’s interview in 

this collection.

20.  Petr Ivanovich Kolodin (1930–).

21.  Burdayev trained for the Salyut program from 1972 to 1973.

22.  Salyut stations were developed at the Central Design Bureau of 

Experimental Machine Building (Korolev’s former bureau).

23.  Aleksey Stanislavovich Yeliseyev (1934–).

24.  “Mikhail Burdayev o podgotovke gruppy ‘7K-S,’” Novosti kosmonavtiki

no. 11 (2002): 26–27, accessed May 21, 2014,


25.  Aleksey Arkhipovich Leonov (1934–).

26.  Boris Valentinovich Volynov (1934–).

27.  Capcom, or Capsule Communicator, is a ground operator who directly 

communicates with the space crew.

28.  Petr Ilyich Klimuk (1942–) flew on Soyuz 13 (1973), on Soyuz 18 to the 

Salyut 4 space station (1975), and on Soyuz 30 to the Salyut 6 space sta-

tion (1976).

29.  Valeriy Victorovich Ryumin (1939–) and Vladimir Afanasyevich Lyakhov 

flew on Soyuz 32 to the Salyut 6 space station in February 1979. They 

returned in June 1979 on Soyuz 34, which was sent to the station in the 

unmanned mode to pick up the crew. The engine on Soyuz 34 was rede-

signed to fix malfunctions that caused the failure of the Soyuz 33 mission 

in April 1979. See Dennis Newkirk, Almanac of Soviet Manned Space 

Flight (Houston, TX: Gulf, 1990), pp. 200–203.

30.  Vladimir Vasilyevich Kovalyonok (1942–). The episode occurred during 

the Expedition 2 on Salyut 6 (June-November 1978).

31.  A popular quotation from the movie The White Sun of the Desert.

32.  The fire occurred on September 4, 1978, during the Expedition 2 on 

Salyut 6. See Yuriy Baturin, ed., Mirovaya pilotiruyemaya kosmonavtika. 

Istoriya. Tekhnika. Lyudi (Moscow: RTSoft, 2005), p. 281.




















33.  On his first flight, Yuriy Vasilyevich Malyshev (1941–1999) was the 

commander of the Soyuz T-2 mission to the Salyut 7 space station in June 


34.  Valentin Petrovich Glushko (1908–1989) was the head of the Energiya 

Association between 1974 and 1989.

35.  According to Boris Chertok, during the approach, the Argon-16 com-

puter on Soyuz T-2 noted a discrepancy between the predicted and actual 

velocities, concluded that the automatic rendezvous system was malfunc-

tioning, and shut it off. Malyshev then successfully performed manual 

approach and docking. See Chertok, Rockets and PeopleThe Moon Race

vol. 4, pp. 507–508. According to another version of events, traceable to 

Aleksey Yeliseyev, the computer was functioning correctly, but the crew 

turned it off because they did not trust its recommendations; see Rex 

Hall and David J. Shayler, Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft (Chichester: 

Springer/Praxis, 2003), p. 293; Newkirk, Almanac of Soviet Manned 

Space Flight, p. 213. Valentina Ponomareva and Viktor Przhiyalkovskiy 

also discuss this episode in their interviews in this collection.

36.  See Mikhail Burdayev, “Osnovy teorii i geometro-analiticheskiy metod 

operativnogo resheniya zadach kosmicheskoy ballistiki v ASU kosmi-

cheskimi apparatami spetsialnogo naznacheniya,” Doctoral dissertation, 

NII-50, Moscow, 1987.

37.  Leonhard Euler (1707–1783); Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728–1777).

38.  See Mikhail Burdayev, “Application of Hodograph Method to Calculation 

of Time of Transfer in a Central Gravitational Field,” Cosmic Research 

47:2 (2009): 185–190.

39.  Georgiy Mikhaylovich Grechko (1931–) flew on Soyuz 17 to the Salyut 

4 space station (1975), on Soyuz 26 to the Salyut 6 space station (1978), 

and on Soyuz T-14 to the Salyut 7 space station (1985). For his views 

on human spaceflight, see, for example, Georgiy Grechko, “Parovoz, 

chemodan . . . vokzal  dlya  dvoikh?”  Rossiyskiy kosmos, no. 4 (2006): 


40. Space Science Board, Science in Space (Washington, DC: National 

Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, 1961).

41.  Nikolay Petrovich Kamanin (1908–1982), assistant chief of the Air 

Force for combat training for spaceflight (1960–1971), responsible 

for cosmonaut selection and training, crew assignments, and mission 


42.  Aleksandr Emmanuilovich Nudelman (1912–1996), a Soviet weap-

ons designer, the chief designer of the Special Design Bureau No. 16 

(OK B-16, later the Design Bureau of Precise Machine Building) in 


43.  See Mikhail Burdayev et al., “Kompleks programmno-instrumentalnykh 

sredstv dlya sozdaniya intellektualnykh sistem kontrolya i upravleniya 

obyektami aerokosmicheskogo naznacheniya,” Aviakosmicheskoye pri-

borostroeniye, no. 8 (2006): 24–33.

44.  The chief researcher position is significantly higher than that of the 

senior researcher in the administrative hierarchy of Russian research 
















45.  Gherman Stepanovich Titov (1935–2000) flew the Vostok 2 mission in 

August 1961.

46.  Burdayev trained for the Soyuz 7K-S program from late 1973 to 1976; he 

continued training for the Soyuz 7K-T program until 1983.

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