Notes Acknowledgments

  Scientist Cosmonaut Ordinard Kolomiytsev

Download 0.59 Mb.
Pdf ko'rish
Hajmi0.59 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7

11  Scientist Cosmonaut Ordinard Kolomiytsev

1.  See Ordinard P. Kolomiytsev, Antarktika—kosmonavtika: Ekstremalnaya 

tonalnost zhizni (Moscow and Troitsk: IZMIR AN, 2011). Kolomiytsev’s 

published bibliography comprises 96 items; see Vasiliy V. Tsibliyev, 

ed.,  Nauchnyye trudy sovetskikh i rossiyskikh kosmonavtov. Materialy k 

bibliografii (Zvezdnyy gorodok: RGNIITsPK, 2009), pp. 294–304. 

He has coauthored a number of articles in English, including “The 

Upper Atmosphere Response to the Solar-Geographical Variations on 

a Final Stage of Flight of MOF ‘Mir,’” Acta Astronautica 53 (2003): 

75–84; “Modeling of the Properties of Decameric Wave Propagation 

in the Equatorial Ionosphere during the Sunrise,” Geomagnetism and 

Astronomy 43 (2003): 772–777; and “Response of the Midlatitude 

Ionoshpere to Extreme Solar Events in October-November 2003,” 

Geomagnetism and Astronomy 45 (2005): 84–91.

2. On Soviet Antarctic expeditions, see Valeriy V. Lukin et al., eds., 

Sovetskiye i rossiyskie antarkticheskie ekspeditsii v tsifrakh i faktakh (1955–

2005 gg.)  (St.  Petersburg:  AANII,  2006);  Yukhan  Smuul,  Ledovaya 

kniga (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1968).

3.  Aleksandr Yakovlevich Marchenko (1916–1991) was a bomber pilot dur-

ing World War II. Once asked by a journalist about the most difficult day 

in his life, Marchenko replied, “It was August 26, 1943. I was bombing 

my home town of Yenakiyevo. German tanks grouped there. I saw my 

own street. It had more tanks than others. I saw my own house. I saw 

linen drying on lines. I knew that my mother, my sister, and my sick 

father were in the house. I dived [for bombing]. Everything darkened 

before my eyes. Next to me my friends dived, dropping bombs . . . For 

three days I walked like intoxicated. Then the town was liberated. The 

squadron commander immediately told me, “Go there!” I approached 

my house; it had no windows, no door. Burnt tanks were everywhere. 

Then I saw a grey-haired woman coming out of the garden . . . I walked 

toward her; it was my mother! All three were alive; they stayed in a trench 

in the garden during the bombing”; Vasiliy Peskov, Belyye sny (Moscow: 

Mysl, 1991).

4.  Nikolay Ivanovich Tyabin.

5.  See Ordinard P. Kolomiytsev, Issledovaniye povedeniya sloya F2 ionosfery 

v magnitospokoynyye periody v okolopolyusnoy oblasti yuzhnogo polushariya 

(Moscow: IZMIR AN, 1969).

6. Nikolay Vasilyevich Pushkov (1903–1981), director of IZMIR AN 

between 1940 and 1969.

7.  Georgiy Vasilyevich Bukin, Mars Nugaliyevich Fatkullin (1939–2003), 

Rudolf Alekseyevich Gulyayev (1934–), Ordinard Panteleymonovich 

Kolomiytsev, Anatoliy Ivanovich Kudrevskiy, Vsevolod Lvovich Rozin, 

Anatoliy Dmitriyevich Shevnin, and Vladimir Vasilyevich Viskov.












8.  Out of 24 candidates nominated by the Academy of Sciences, only 4 

passed medical screening: Kolomiytsev, the mathematician Valentin 

Ershov and the astrophysicists Mars Fatkullin and Rudlof Gulyayev. They 

formed the Academy of Sciences cosmonaut group, led by the optical 

electronics specialist Georgiy Katys, who had already been in the cosmo-

naut corps. See Asif Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and 

the Space Race, 1945–1974, NASA SP-2000–4408 (Washington, DC: 

NASA, 2000), pp. 623–624; Igor Marinin, “Rossiyskiye kosmonavty-

uchenyye,”  Novosti kosmonavtiki, no. 3/118 (January-February 1996): 

49–54; Georgiy P. Katys, Moya zhizn v realnom i virtualnom prostran-

stvakh (Moscow: MGOU, 2004). The Air Force apparently agreed to 

train the academy’s cosmonauts at the Cosmonaut Training Center in an 

attempt to forestall the efforts of Korolev’s Special Design Bureau No. 1 

and the Ministry of Health to create a separate center for training civil-

ian cosmonauts; see Nikolay Kamanin, Skrytyy kosmos, vol. 2 (Moscow: 

Infortekst, 1997), p. 378.

9.  For bibliographies of Fatkullin’s and Gulyayev’s research publications, 

see Tsibliyev, ed., Nauchnyye trudy sovetskikh i rossiyskikh kosmonavtov

pp. 271–278, 346–363.

10. Georgiy Petrovich Katys (1926-); Valentin Gavrilovich Yershov 


11.  Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh (1911–1978), president of the Soviet 

Academy of Sciences (1961–1975).

12.  Invented by the Soviet otolaryngologist Konstantin Khilov (1893–

1975), the Khilov swing maintains the horizontal position of the seat 

throughout the swing cycle. The Khilov swing was used for studying 

and training the vestibular system.

13.  After the completion of the eight jumps with forced parachute activa-

tion, the candidates performed two regular jumps with the PD-47–5 

parachute from the 1,000 m altitude.

14.  A small mounted telescope used for surveying and tracking weather 


15.  Zhanna Dmitriyevna Yerkina (1939–); Tatyana Dmitriyevna Kuznetsova 


16.  Yuriy Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934–1968), who flew the Vostok mission 

in April 1961, was killed in a MiG-15 UTI crash during a training flight 

on March 27, 1968. Cosmonaut trainees participated in three parabolic 

flights on MiG-15 UTI. During the first, they experienced zero gravity 

and conducted radio communication with the ground. During the sec-

ond, their movement coordination, sight, and the ability to eat and drink 

were tested. During the third flight, their physiological parameters were 

registered. See Ivan I. Kasyan, Pervyye shagi v kosmos (Moscow: Znaniye, 

1985), p. 36.

17.  The “tip” (konets) in colloquial Russian refers to the male organ.

18.  Sergey Pavlovich Korolev (1907–1966), the chief designer of Soviet 

rockets and spacecraft, was the head of the Special Design Bureau No. 1 

(OKB-1), which in the years 1966–1974 was called the Central Design 

Bureau of Experimental Machine Building. Vladimir Nikolayevich 

Chelomey (1914–1984) was the head of the Joint Design Bureau No. 52 














(OKB-52), which in the years 1965–1983 was called the Central Design 

Bureau of Machine Building.

19.  Vladislav (Vadim) Nikolayevich Volkov (1935–1971) flew on Soyuz 7 

(1969) and on Soyuz 11 to the Salyut space station (1971); Petr Ivanovich 

Kolodin (1930–) left the cosmonaut group in 1983.

20.  Major General Nikolay Fedorovich Kuznetsov (1916–2000), the com-

mander of the Cosmonaut Training Center in the years 1963–1972.

21.  Nikolay Petrovich Kamanin (1908–1982), assistant chief of the Air 

Force for combat training for spaceflight (1960–1971), responsible 

for cosmonaut selection and training, crew assignments, and mission 


22.  Valery Spitkovsky noticed that the cosmonaut group of the Academy 

of Sciences was effectively disbanded in July 1968, around the time of 

the publication of Academician Andrey Dmitriyevich Sakharov’s (1921–

1989)  Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual 

Freedom Abroad (July 6, 1968). Spitkovsky hypothesized that the Soviet 

political leadership might have feared that a scientist cosmonaut would 

become an outspoken political activist like Sakharov, and they did not 

want to give a scientist a high public profile that would come with the 

cosmonaut status. Although such a deliberate action on the part of the 

Soviet authorities would be hard to prove, it might be possible that the 

scandal around Sakharov’s manifesto sufficiently damaged the Academy 

of Sciences politically, so it could not effectively lobby in support of its 

cosmonaut group.

23. Tsibliyev, 


Nauchnyye trudy sovetskikh i rossiyskikh kosmonavtov, p. 12. 

Yuriy Mikhailovich Baturin (1949–) flew on Soyuz TM-28 to the Mir 

space station (1998) and on Soyuz TM-32 to the International Space 

Station (2001).

12  “Second Backup”: Valentina Ponomareva

1.  Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (1937–) flew the Vostok-6 mission 

on June 16–19, 1963.

2. Valentina  Ponomareva,  Zhenskoye litso kosmosa (Moscow: Gelios, 

2002); Ponomareva, “Nachalo vtorogo etapa razvitiya pilotiruemoy 

kosmonavtiki  (1965–1970  gg.),”  in  Issledovaniya po istorii i teorii 

razvitiya aviatsionnoy i raketno-kosmicheskoy tekhniki, vyp. 8–10, 

edited by Boris Raushenbakh (Moscow: Nauka, 2001), pp. 150–174; 

Ponomareva, “Osobennosti razvitiya pilotiruyemoy kosmonavtiki 

na nachalnom etape,” in Iz istorii raketno-kosmicheskoy nauki i tekh-

niki, vyp. 3, edited by Vsevolod S. Avduyevskiy et al. (Moscow: IIET 

R AN, 1999), pp. 132–167. For a bibliography of 27 items, see Vasiliy 

V. Tsibliyev, ed., Nauchnyye trudy sovetskikh i rossiyskikh kosmonavtov. 

Materialy k bibliografii (Zvezdnyy gorodok: RGNIITsPK, 2009), 

pp. 332–334.

3.  Sergey Pavlovich Korolev (1907–1966), the chief designer of Soviet 

rockets and spacecraft, the head of the Special Design Bureau No. 1 












4.  Nikolay Petrovich Kamanin (1908–1982), assistant chief of the Air Force 

for combat training for spaceflight (1960–1971), responsible for cosmo-

naut selection and training, crew assignments, and mission program-

ming. On October 23, 1961, Kamanin received a letter from Korolev 

requesting the selection of a group of cosmonauts, composed of 28 pilots 

and 22 cosmonauts of other professions (engineers, scientists, and com-

munications specialists), including five women, to perform space flights 

in 1962–1964. See Nikolay Kamanin, Skrytyy kosmos, vol. 1 (Moscow: 

Infortekst, 1995), p. 62 (diary entry for October 24, 1961).

5. Kamanin wrote in his diary, “After Gagarin’s flight, I persuaded 

Vershinin, Korolev, and Keldysh to agree to the selection of a small group 

of women”; ibid. Konstantin Andreyevich Vershinin (1900–1973), the 

chief of the Air Force (1946–1949, 1957–1969); Mstislav Vsevolodovich 

Keldysh (1911–1978), president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences 


6.  Kamanin wrote in his diary, “In my view, it is necessary to prepare women 

for space flights mainly for the following reasons: 1. Without doubt 

women will fly into space, and it is therefore necessary to start prepara-

tions for women’s flights now. 2. Under no circumstances can one allow 

that the first woman in space becomes an American. This would hurt the 

patriotic feelings of Soviet women. 3. The first Soviet woman-cosmonaut 

will become an agitator for communism as great as Gagarin and Titov”; 

ibid. Yuriy Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934–1968) flew the Vostok mission in  

April 1961; Gherman Stepanovich Titov (1935–2000) flew the Vostok 2 

mission in August 1961.

7.  In 1959 a privately funded Women In Space Earliest program was 

founded. Thirteen women pilots passed the same physical tests as the male 

astronauts selected for the Mercury program; the top four women scored 

as highly as the men. Yet NASA refused to select any women astronauts, 

citing the formal requirement that astronauts must be graduates of mili-

tary jet test piloting programs. Thus none of the women could qualify, 

since women were barred from the Air Force training schools at the 

time. In July 1962, a special Subcommittee of the House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics held public hearings on the case. See Margaret 

A. Weitekamp, Right Stuff, Wrong Sex: America’s First Women in Space 

Program (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).

8. Kamanin, Skrytyy kosmos, vol. 1, p. 89 (diary entry for January 19, 


9.  On the selection and training of the women’s cosmonaut group, see 

Asif Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 

1945–1974, NASA SP-2000–4408 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2000), 

pp. 361–362.

10.  Irina Bayanovna Solovyeva (1937–), a candidate cosmonaut, the first 

backup on the Vostok 6 mission in 1963. From 1960 to 1962 Solovyeva 

was a member of the USSR national skydiving team.

11.  Kamanin wrote in his diary, “Out of 58, we have selected 23 women 

whom we’ll send to the medical tests first, and then we’ll send the 

rest. My first impression after looking through their personal files is 











disappointment and dissatisfaction. The Voluntary Association for the 

Advancement of the Army, Aviation, and the Navy has selected too few 

candidates, and most do not meet our requirements”; Kamanin, Skrytyy 

kosmos, vol. 1, pp. 88–89 (diary entry for January 19, 1962).

12.  Besides Ponomareva, Solovyeva, and Tereshkova, the group included 

Zhanna Dmitriyevna Yerkina (1939–) and Tatyana Dmitriyevna 

Kuznetsova (1941–).

13. Star City.

14. OKB-1.

15.  “We were faced with developing a vehicle that would have a ‘man on 

board’ rather than a pilot flying! Would he need a manual control sys-

tem?”; Boris Chertok, Rockets and People:  Hot Days of the Cold War, 

vol. 3 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2009), p. 61.

16.  Valentina Ponomareva, “Chelovecheskiy faktor v osvoenii kosmosa: 

sovetskiy i amerikanskiy podkhody k probleme,” in Institut istorii estest-

voznaniya i tekhinki: Godichnaya nauchnaya konferentsiya, 1998, edited 

by Vladimir Orel (Moscow: IIET, 1999), pp. 614–618.

17. Ponomareva, 

Zhenskoye litso kosmosa, p. 207.

18.  The manual attitude control system was used during the Voskhod 2 mis-

sion in March 1965. See Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo, pp. 457–458.

19.  Vladimir A. Shatalov, Trudnyye dorogi kosmosa, 2nd ed. (Moscow: 

Molodaya gvardiya, 1981), p. 129. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov 

(1927–) performed the first manual docking of two piloted spacecraft, 

Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 (January 1969) and flew Soyuz 8 (October 1969) and 

Soyuz 10 (April 1971). See Shatalov’s interview in this collection.

20.  Konstantin Petrovich Feoktistov (1926–2009), a spacecraft designer at 

OKB-1, flew on the Voskhod mission in October 1964. In one interview, 

he said, “A man assigned to cope only with control functions is an unjus-

tifiable luxury. No craft is designed to carry dead weight. It must have a 

payload that performs a kind of useful work. This can be, for example, 

research. Therefore, steps must be taken to render spacecraft control 

simple and executable without high skills and during a minimum time”; 

Viktor D. Pekelis, Cybernetic Medley, trans. Oleg Sapunov (Moscow: 

Mir, 1986), p. 287.

21. Ponomareva, 

Zhenskoye litso kosmosa, p. 113.

22. Ibid.

23.  Valeriy Fedorovich Bykovskiy (1934–) flew the Vostok 5 mission simulta-

neously with Tereshkova’s Vostok 6 mission in June 1963.

24. Ponomareva, Zhenskoye litso kosmosa, p. 195. The two dogs were 

launched aboard Voskhod 3KV spacecraft (publicly named Kosmos-110) in 

February-March 1966.

25.  Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (1929–2004) and Vitaliy Ivanovich 

Sevastyanov (1935–2010) flew the Soyuz 9 mission in June 1970. For 

details, see Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo, pp. 724–729.

26.  Korolev died on January 14, 1966.

27.  Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (1927–1967) was killed on April 24, 

1967, during the crash landing of his spacecraft, Soyuz 1, because of a 

parachute malfunction. See Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo, pp. 581–590.



















28.  Pavel Romanovich Popovich (1930–2009). The incident occurred dur-

ing Popovich’s Vostok 4 mission in August 1962. See Siddiqi, Challenge 

to Apollo, p. 360.

29.  Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev (1925–1970) commanded the Voskhod 2 mis-

sion in March 1965.

30.  For details of the Voskhod 2 mission, when manual attitude control was 

for the first time used in an emergency, see Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo

pp. 454–460. Belyaev evidently did not explicitly ask for a permission to 

switch to manual control, but merely reported a failure of the automatic 

attitude control system.

31.  Gennadiy Vasilyevich Sarafanov (1942–2005) and Lev Stepanovich 

Demin (1926–1998) on Soyuz 15 failed to dock with the Salyut 3 

(Almaz) space station in August 1974. See Dennis Newkirk, Almanac 

of Soviet Manned Space Flight (Houston, TX: Gulf, 1990), pp. 128–130. 

See also a description of this incident in Vladimir Shatalov’s interview in 

this collection.

32. Ponomareva, Zhenskoye litso kosmosa, p. 104. A new version of Soyuz

Soyuz T—was equipped with the Argon-16 computer complex for the 

control of rendezvous and reentry. In June 1980, during its very first 

piloted mission, Soyuz T-2, when the ship was approaching the Salyut 

6 station, the Argon-16 computer noted a discrepancy between the 

predicted and actual velocities, concluded that the automatic ren-

dezvous system was malfunctioning, and shut it off. The Soyuz T-2 

commander Yuriy Malyshev successfully performed manual approach 

and docking. See Boris Chertok, Rockets and PeopleThe Moon Race

vol. 4, pp. 507–508. In her account of this event, Ponomareva claims 

that the automatic docking system actually failed, and only the pres-

ence of an onboard computer allowed the crew to perform manual 

control; see Valentina Ponomareva, “Zachem na bortu kosmonavt,” 

in  Kosmonavtika,  edited  by  by  Yelena  Ananyeva  (Moscow:  Avanta+, 

2004), p. 365. According to another version of events, traceable to 

Aleksey Yeliseyev, the computer was functioning correctly, but the 

crew turned it off because they did not trust its recommendations; 

see Rex Hall and David J. Shayler, Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft 

(Chichester, UK: Springer/Praxis, 2003), p. 293; Newkirk, Almanac 

of Soviet Manned Space Flight, p. 213. Mikhail Burdayev and Viktor 

Przhiyalkovskiy also mention this episode in their interviews in this 


33. The Gemini computer, built by IBM, performed calculations dur-

ing  several critical mission phases: prelaunch, ascent backup, orbital 

insertion, catch-up, rendezvous, and reentry. See James E. Tomayko, 

Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA Experience, NASA History Office, 

Contractor Report 182505, March 1988, p. 10.

34.  The method of parallel navigation is less economical but requires sim-

pler calculations than the method of free trajectories. See Konstantin 

Feoktistov, Traektoriya zhizni (Moscow: Vagrius, 2000), p. 197.

35.  The Division of Applied Mathematics of the Mathematical Institute of 

the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow, led by Mstislav Keldysh. In 











1966 the division was reorganized into a separate Institute of Applied 

Mathematics. The Division/Institute of Applied Mathematics performed 

calculations for the Soviet space program.

36. Arkadiy Aleksandrovich Kosmodemyanskiy (1909–1988), a leading 

specialist in rocket dynamics, who also authored biographies of Russian 

rocketry pioneers.

37.  Zhukovskiy Air Force Engineering Academy in Moscow.

38.  Viktor Nikolayevich Sokolskiy (1924–2002) was the head of the History 

of Aviation and Cosmonautics Section of the Institute of the History of 

Natural Science and Technology.

39.  For details of Gagarin’s landing, see Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo

pp. 279–281.

40.  The Russian State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documentation in 

Moscow holds documents related to the Soviet space program.

13  Stress Psychiatrist Ada Ordyanskaya

1.  Abram Moiseyevich Genin (1922–1999) participated in the medical part 

of the Soviet space program from the very first test flights with dogs. In 

the years 1955–1975 he worked at the Institute of Aviation Medicine 

(later the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine) of the Ministry of 

Defense, heading the department of life support systems. From 1975 to 

1999, he worked at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IMBP) of the 

Academy of Sciences in Moscow.

2.  On the Moscow Scientific-Research Institute of Psychiatry, see “FGBU 

‘Moskovskiy nauchno-issledovatelskiy institut psikhiatrii’ Ministerstva 

zdravookhraneniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii,” accessed May 21, 2014,


3.  On the Institute of Biomedical Problems, see Oleg Gazenko and Dmitriy 

Malashenkov, “Vekhi razvitiya kosmicheskoy meditsiny,” Zemlya i 

Vselennaya, no. 6 (1996), accessed May 21, 2014, 


. The Soviet psychological sup-

port program for cosmonauts was created at the institute in 1975. Its 

activities were threefold: (1) providing non-work-related news: TV and 

radio reports and family news; (2) organizing communication sessions 

with family members, famous actors, singers, etc.; and (3) sending parcels 

with personal gifts up to 11 lbs. Psychologists also occasionally served 

as a “lightning rod” for outpouring of cosmonauts’ negative emotions. 

See Victoria Garshnek, “Soviet Space Flight: The Human Element,” 

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 60 (1989): 695–705; and 

Nick Kanas, “Psychological Support for Cosmonauts,” Aviation, Space, 

and Environmental Medicine 62 (1991): 353–355.

4. Psychologists use counseling and psychotherapy to provide mental 

health care, whereas psychiatrists are medical professionals treating men-

tal disorders.

5.  According to Nick Kanas, “Psychosomatic symptoms have been reported 

during space missions. These symptoms have included headaches, gas-

trointestinal problems, and fears of developing various physical illnesses 













during the mission”; Nick Kanas, “Psychological, Psychiatric, and 

Interpersonal Aspects of Long-Duration Space Missions,” Journal of 

Spacecraft and Rockets 27:5 (1990): 459.

6.  This notion is close to “adjustment disorder,” which reflects “a maladap-

tive reaction to a clear stressor” with “extended and excessive feelings 

of anxiety, depressed mood, or antisocial behaviors”; Ronald J. Comer, 

Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 7th ed. (New York: Worth 

Publishers, 2010), pp. 17, 108.

7.  “Decompensation” refers to the loss of an organism’s ability to “compen-

sate,” or function in spite of stressors and other deficiencies. According 

to Sarah Sifers, “The most seriously disruptive reaction to stress is 

decompensation. When the stressor situation is extremely demanding 

or prolonged . . . any adaptive capacities of the individual may be over-

whelmed. Efficiency is lost, vulnerability to other stressors is increased, 

disorders develop, and complete exhaustion makes any self-sustaining 

effort impossible. Decompensation usually is both biological and psycho-

logical”; Sarah Sifers, Abnormal Psychology (HarperCollins Publishers 

eBook, 2011).

8.  Cognitive therapy was pioneered by the American psychiatrist Aaron T. 

Beck in the early 1960s. Under this approach, “therapists help clients 

recognize the negative thoughts, biased interpretations, and errors in 

logic that dominate their thinking and, according to Beck, cause them 

to feel depressed. Therapists also guide clients to challenge their dys-

functional thoughts, try out new interpretations, and ultimately apply 

the new ways of thinking in their daily lives”; Comer, Fundamentals of 

Abnormal Psychology, p. 67.

9.  Behavior therapy (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, or REBT) was 

developed by the American psychotherapist Albert Ellis in the mid-

1950s. “In Ellis’s view, mental distress is produced not so much by 

upsetting events as it is caused by rigid and maladaptive ways in which 

we interpret those events. . . . Like Beck’s approach, REBT consists of 

helping the client zero in on these irrational beliefs and then challenging 

them.” REBT often involves role playing. “A very shy client, for example, 

may be encouraged to sing loudly in a subway or flirt with men she finds 

attractive, so that she may come to realize that her life does not fall 

apart as a result. Success in challenging false beliefs ultimately eliminates 

them, perhaps eliminating the resultant psychological disorder as well”; 

Luis A. Cordón, Popular Psychology: An Encyclopedia (Westport, CT: 

Greenwood Press, 2005), p. 54.




1   2   3   4   5   6   7

Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan © 2020
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling