Once the United States decided to commit to wwi, all citizens had to contribute


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Once the United States decided to commit to WWI, ALL citizens had to contribute

  • Once the United States decided to commit to WWI, ALL citizens had to contribute

  • 1. Soldiers: Selective Service Act: Draft

  • Conscientious Objector: Moral beliefs forbids one to fight

  • 2. Money: Bernard Baruch: WIB

  • 3. Supplies: Conserve

  • 4. Public Opinion: George Creel: President

    • Committee on Public Information: “Educate” Public
  • 5. Loyalty: Espionage Act: “Treasonable” Newspaper Articles and Speeches Banned

  • *Schenck v. U.S.: Upheld against speech

  • *Abrams v. U.S.: Upheld against print









Many African Americans Moved north for war industry jobs (Chicago…etc)

  • Many African Americans Moved north for war industry jobs (Chicago…etc)

  • Many Mexican Immigrants enter the U.S. for war jobs (Los Angeles)



By Oct. 1918: The tide of the war had been turned and Germany wanted peace

  • By Oct. 1918: The tide of the war had been turned and Germany wanted peace

  • Wilson offered “14 point” peace plan

  • November 11th, 1918

  • Armistice signed

  • “The 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month” 1918

  • *8,000,000 Soldiers killed



Woodrow Wilson - President, United States

  • Woodrow Wilson - President, United States

  • Georges Clemenseau - Premier of France

  • David Lloyd George - Prime Minister of Britain

  • Vittorio Orlando – Foreign Minister of Italy



Idealist - thought WWI would be “war to end all wars”

  • Idealist - thought WWI would be “war to end all wars”

  • Fourteen Points (plan for lasting peace)

    • self-determination
    • peace without victory
    • disarmament
    • fair treatment of colonial peoples
    • League of Nations


France had been destroyed in WWI

  • France had been destroyed in WWI

    • wanted protection from further Germany attacks
    • get rid of German military
    • make Germany pay for war


Most afraid of German u-boats

  • Most afraid of German u-boats

    • wanted to get rid of German navy
    • wanted German colonies
    • wanted to get paid for losses


Italy entered war because of promise of cities in Austria.

  • Italy entered war because of promise of cities in Austria.

    • Was given Tryrol and Trieste
    • demanded more but when others refused he walked out.
    • The Big Four became the Big Three


1919 Weimar Republic, German democratic government, was forced to sign it.

  • 1919 Weimar Republic, German democratic government, was forced to sign it.



$5 billion within 2 years

  • $5 billion within 2 years

  • $28 billion (after the damages were tallied)



100,000 soldiers

  • 100,000 soldiers

  • 6 warships

  • no planes

  • no submarines





Germany was the blame for starting the war.

  • Germany was the blame for starting the war.

  • The most hated part of the treaty.



Mandates - colonies of former Central Powers to be given to Allied nations

  • Mandates - colonies of former Central Powers to be given to Allied nations

  • To be given their independence sometime in future.

  • From Ottoman Empire:

    • Syria (France)
    • Egypt and Palestine (Britain)


New countries

  • New countries

    • Czechoslovakia
    • Poland (Polish corridor split Germany in two)
    • Yugoslavia
    • Latvia
    • Estonia
    • Finland




1. Ban Secret Treaties

  • 1. Ban Secret Treaties

  • 2. Guarantee Freedom of the Seas

  • 3. Remove International Tariff Barriers

  • 4. Reduce Armaments

  • 5. Adjust Colonial Claims (Respect Colonial Peoples)

  • 6. Territory Changes Based on Self-Determination

  • 7. Formation of a League of Nations

  • *Other Points Dealt with Border Adjustments and the freeing of captured territories

  • Henry Cabot Lodge: Did not support plan



June 28, 1919: Treaty of Versailles

  • June 28, 1919: Treaty of Versailles

  • Germany…

  • 1. Lost Colonies (Alsace and Lorraine)

  • 2. Lost Coal Mines

  • 3. Forced to reduce army

  • 4. Navy crippled

  • 5. Germany had to pay $33 Billion in reparations

    • *Very Strict Terms*
    • “Irreconcilables”: Isolationists (did not like treaty)
    • Reservationists: Did not like wording in League of Nations Plan


In the Treaty of Versailles

  • In the Treaty of Versailles

  • Intent to prevent future wars

  • Opponents – would drag the country into unnecessary military commitments

  • Henry Cabot Lodge against League of Nations

  • Senate refuses to ratify Treaty of Versailles

  • Treaty NEVER ratified by United States






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